Skip to main content

Full text of "Sacred books of the Buddhists"

See other formats

Sacret)  IBoofts  of  tbc  3Bubbbt9ts  IDoI.  xxi 








Being  a  Translation  and  Edition  of  the  Bdhiraniddna  of 
Buddhaghosa' s  Samantapdsddikd,  the  Vinaya  Commentary 


B.A.,  Ph.D.(Lond.),  Professor  of  Pali  and  Buddhist 
Civilization  in  the  University  of  Ceylon 


46  Great  Russell  Street,  London,  W.C.  i 




All  rights  reserved. 






Preface ix 

Translator's  Introduction xi 

The  Inception  of  Discipline 


1 .  The  Proem 1 

2.  The  Tabulation 2 


3.  Mahakassapa  kindles  the  Enthusiasm  of  the  Monks 

4.  The  Selection  of  Monks  for  the  Convocation 

5.  Ananda    ......... 

6.  Rajagaha,  the  Venue  of  the  Convocation 

7.  The  Monks  journey  to  Rajagaha  .... 

8.  Ananda's  Visit  to  Savatthi  ..... 

9.  The  Repairs  to  the  Eighteen  Great  Monasteries    . 

10.  Ajatasattu  builds  a  Pavilion        ..... 

1 1 .  Ananda  attains  Arahatship  ..... 

12.  Ananda  enters  the  Convocation  Hall   .... 

13.  Upali  elected  to  recite  the  Vinaya        .... 

14.  Upali  recites  the  Vinaya  ..... 

15.  Ananda  recites  the  Dhamma       ..... 

16.  The  Classification  of  the  Teaching  :   the  Tabulation 

17.  The  Uniformity  in  Sentiment      ..... 

18.  The  Division  into  Dhamma  and  Vinaya 

19.  The  Division  into  the  First,  Intermediate  and  Last  Words 

20.  The  Division  into  Pitakas  ...... 

21.  The  Definition  of  Vinaya    ...... 

22.  The  Definition  of  Dhamma  ..... 

23.  The  Definition  of  Abhidhamma  ..... 

24.  The  Significance  of  the  Term  Pitaka    .... 

25.  The  Content  of  the  Three  Pitakas— I  .... 

26.  The  Content  of  the  Three  Pitakas — II  :  Training,  Avoidance 

Profundity    ........ 

27.  The  Fourfold  Profundity 

28.  The  Three  Modes  of  Learning      ..... 

29.  Success  or  Failure  in  the  Learning       .... 

30.  The  Division  into  Nikayas  ..... 

























Inception  of  Discipline 

3 1 .  The  Division  into  Angas    . 

32.  The  Division  into  Units  of  the  Dhamma 

33.  The  Conclusion  of  the  Recital     . 




34.  The  Meaning  of  the  Tabulation  . 

35.  The  Succession  of  Teachers  in  Jambudipa 

36.  Upali,  Dasaka,  Sonaka 

37.  Siggava  to  Moggaliputta 

38.  The  Second  Convocation 

39.  The  Great  Brahma  Tissa 

40.  Siggava  and  Candavajji 


41.  The  Brahmin  Moggali 

42.  The  Buddha-manta  .... 

43.  Moggaliputta  Tissa  learns  the  Dhamma vinaya 

44.  Asoka's  Supernatural  Powers 

45.  The  Offering  of  the  Gaze    . 

46.  The  Feeding  of  the  Mendicants  . 

47.  The  Novice  Nigrodha 

48.  Asoka  wins  Faith  in  the  Dhamma 

49.  Asoka  builds  84,000  Monasteries 

50.  The  Festival  of  Dedication 

51.  An  Heir  of  the  Dispensation 

52.  Mahinda  and  Sanghamitta  ordained    . 

53.  The  Elder  Kontiputta  Tissa 

54.  The  Entry  of  Heretics  into  the  Order  . 

55.  The  Interruption  of  the  Uposatha 

56.  The  Viceroy  Tissa  enters  the  Order 

57.  The  Minister's  misguided  Act 

58.  The  King  seeks  Moggaliputta  Tissa's  Aid 

59.  The  Arrival  of  the  Elder  at  Pataliputta 

60.  Moggaliputta  Tissa's  Miracle. 

61.  The  Elder  clears  the  King's  Doubt 

62.  The  Restoration  of  the  Purity  of  the  Dispensation 


63.  The  Succession  of  Teachers  in  Tambapanni 

64.  The  Despatch  of  the  Missions 

65.  Majjhantika  in  Kasmira-Gandhara 

66.  Mahadeva  in  Mahimsaka  Mandala 

67.  Rakkhita  in  Vanavasi 

68.  Dhammarakkhita  in  Aparanta    . 

69.  Mahadhammarakkhita  in  Maharattah 

70.  Maharakkhita  in  the  Yona  Kingdom 


71.  Majjhima  in  the  Himalayan  Region     . 

72.  Sona  and  Uttara  in  Suvannabhumi 

73.  Mahinda  visits  his  Kinsmen 

74.  Mahinda  awaits  his  Departure  to  Tambapanni 

75.  Mahinda  arrives  at  the  Cetiyapabbata 

76.  The  Succession  of  Rulers    .... 

77.  Devanampiyatissa  meets  Mahinda 

78.  The  Exchange  of  Gifts        .... 

79.  Devanampiyatissa  meets  Mahinda's  Companions 

80.  The  Riddle  of  the  Mango  Tree    . 

81.  Devanampiyatissa  wins  Faith  in  the  Dhamma 

82.  Mahinda  preaches  the  Dhamma  . 

83.  The  Discourse  in  the  King's  Palace 

84.  The  Founding  of  the  Mahavihara 

85.  The  First  Rains-Residence 

86.  Arittha  (1)  enters  the  Order 

87.  The  King  undertakes  to  build  a  Thupa 

88.  Sumana  obtains  Relics 

89.  The  King  receives  the  Relics 

90.  The  Buddha  Kakusandha  . 

91.  The  Buddha  Konagamana 

92.  The  Buddha  Kassapa 

93.  The  Building  of  the  Thupa 

94.  The  Enshrinement  of  the  Relics, 

95.  Arittha  (2)  despatched  as  Envoy  to  Pataliputta 

96.  Sanghamitta  decides  to  go  to  Tambapanni  . 

97.  The  Golden  Vase 

98.  The  Great  Bodhi  plants  itself  in  the  Vase     . 

99.  The  Dedication  of  the  Sovereignty  of  Jambudipa. 

100.  The  Great  Bodhi  reaches  Tamalitti 

101.  The  Departure  of  the  Great  Bodhi 

102.  The  Great  Bodhi  reaches  Anuradhapura 

103.  The  Young  Bodhi  Trees     . 

104.  Sites  of  Future  Monuments 

105.  The  Roots  of  the  Dispensation    . 

106.  The  Vinaya  Recital  .... 

107.  The  Conclusion  of  the  External  Story  of  the  Vinaya 




List  of  Abbreviations  .       .       .       , 
Notes  to  the  Translation 

General  Index       

Index  of  Proper  Names     . 

List  of  Untranslated  Pali  Words 




Inception  of  Discipline 

Samantapasadikaya  Bahiranidanam 

Abbreviations  Used  in  the  Notes   . 

I.    Samvannanaya  Arambho 
II.    Pathamamahasangitivannana 



Index  to  Pali  Text 





I  have  taken  the  hberty  of  contracting  the  phrase  Vinayassa 
Bahiranidanam  (Smp.  107)  to  Vinayanidana  in  using  the  title 
"  Inception  of  DiscipKne  "  in  this  book.  The  text  on  which  the 
translation  is  based  is  printed  as  the  second  part  of  this  book. 
The  text  is  essentially  based  on  the  Sinhalese  edition  of  the 
Samantapasadika  by  Baddegama  Piyaratana  and  Valivitiye 
Sorata  Nayaka  Theras,  Simon  Hewavitarne  Bequest, 
Vol.  XXVII,  and  the  Pali  Text  Society's  edition  by  Takakusu 
and  Nagai.  Other  available  printed  editions  of  the  text  have 
been  compared  in  re-editing  the  text.  It  was  not  considered 
necessary  to  go  to  manuscripts,  as  a  representative  number  of 
them  has  been  consulted  by  the  previous  editors  and  the  variant 
readings  noted.  It  has  been  necessary  to  differ  from  the  P.T.S. 
edition  in  a  number  of  instances.  A  minor  departure  from 
earlier  editions  is  the  division  of  the  text  into  numbered  para- 
graphs. However,  it  has  not  been  possible  to  confine  each 
numbered  paragraph  to  a  single  topic  as  the  topics  themselves 
merge  into  one  another.  Even  if  this  had  been  possible,  it 
would  have  unnecessarily  multiplied  the  paragraphs  into  an 
unwieldy  number  for  a  short  text  of  this  nature.  It  is  hoped 
that  this  division,  as  well  as  the  inclusion,  in  square  brackets, 
both  in  the  translation  and  the  text,  of  the  page  numbers  of 
the  P.T.S.  edition,  will  be  useful  to  the  reader  for  ready 

The  present  translation  of  the  Bahiranidana  was  more  or 
less  completed  as  far  back  as  1956,  but  for  various  reasons  its 
publication  had  to  be  delayed.  I  had  earlier  requested  Dr.  G.  C. 
Mendis  to  write  an  historical  introduction  from  a  historian's 
point  of  view.  His  retirement  from  the  University  of  Ceylon 
and  the  consequent  departure  from  Peradeniya  finally  resulted 
in  the  idea  being  given  up.  He,  however,  made  available  to  me 
a  manuscript  containing  a  translation  to  part  of  the  Bahira- 
nidana. Wherever  possible  it  was  made  use  of.  I  thank  him 
for  suggesting  to  me  to  make  this  translation,  particularly  on 
account  of  its  being  a  useful  source-book  for  the  early  history 
of  Buddhism  in  Ceylon. 

X  Inception  of  Discipline 

My  sincere  thanks  are  due  to  Miss  I.  B.  Horner,  M.A., 
President  of  the  PaU  Text  Society,  for  giving  me  every  en- 
couragement and  assistance  and  for  carefully  reading  through 
the  manuscript  and  making  many  valuable  suggestions  and 
supplying  a  good  deal  of  information  which  has  now  been 
included  in  the  notes  to  the  translation.  I  also  thank  her  for 
kindly  agreeing  to  publish  this  work  in  the  Sacred  Books  of  the 
Buddhists  Series.  My  thanks  are  also  due  to  Dr.  L.  S.  Perera 
of  the  University  of  Ceylon,  and  Mr.  D.  T.  Devendra,  of  the 
Encyclopaedia  of  Buddhism,  Peradeniya,  who  have  helped  me 
with  some  important  topographical  details  of  ancient 


The  Bdhiraniddna 

The  Bahiranidana  is  the  introductory  chapter  to  Buddha- 
ghosa's  Samantapasadika,  the  Commentary  to  the  Vinaya 
Pitaka.  This  introduction  is  primarily  meant  to  explain  the 
Nidana,  the  "  inception  "  or  "  origin  "  of  the  Vinaya.  The 
author  is  anxious  that  no  relevant  detail,  however  insignificant, 
is  left  out  in  his  description  of  the  Nidana.  The  long  analysis 
of  the  classification  of  the  Teachings  (Smp.  i6  ff.),  the  laborious 
details  regarding  Moggaliputta  Tissa  (Smp.  39  ff.),  the  Asoka 
legend  (Smp.  44  ff.),  the  description  of  the  missions  sent  out 
after  the  Third  Convocation  (Smp.  64  ff.),  the  Conversion  of 
Ceylon  (Smp.  73  ff.),  and  all  the  episodes  connected  with  it, 
form  but  important  links  in  the  narrative  dealing  with  the 
Nidana  of  the  Vinaya.  His  aim  is  to  establish  the  authenticity 
of  the  Vinaya  before  proceeding  to  compile  its  commentary. 
Buddhaghosa  first  defines  the  term  Vinaya  as  the  entire  Vinaya 
Pitaka  as  known  to  him.  He  next  introduces  his  matika, 
"  tabulation  "  for  the  exposition  as  a  preliminary  step,  before 
dealing  with  the  actual  text  of  the  Vinaya  :  Vuttam  yena 
yada  yasma  dharitam  yena  cabhatam,  yatthappatitthitarn 
c'etam  ..."  By  whom  it  was  said,  when  and  for  what  reason, 
held  by  whom,  where  it  was  established  ..."  (Smp.  2).  In 
providing  the  answers  to  the  six  items  in  the  tabulation  Buddha- 
ghosa has  furnished  us  with  a  great  deal  of  information  which 
has  hitherto  not  been  presented  in  such  comprehensive  manner, 
though  the  introductory  chapters  to  the  Sumangalavilasni  and 
Atthasalini  cover  more  or  less  the  same  ground  from  the  angle 
of  the  Sutta  and  the  Abhidhamma  respectively,  while  the 
Chronicles  discuss  them  from  altogether  a  different  angle.  He 
has  deemed  it  fit  that  each  of  these  topics  in  the  tabulation 
should  have  a  satisfactory  explanation,  especially  for  the  sake 
of  clarity  and  easy  comprehension.  In  answer  to  the  question, 
"  by  whom  was  the  statement,  tena  kho  pana  samayena  Buddho 
bhagavd  Veranjdyam  viharati  ..."  made,  he  proceeds  to  give 
a  complete  account  of  the  Convocation  itself  "  for  the  sake  of 

xii  Inception  of  Discipline 

familiarity  with  the  source  "  (Smp.  3  ff.).  After  the  account 
of  the  rehearsal  of  the  Dhammavinaya  he  gives  a  disquisition 
on  the  classification  of  the  Word  of  the  Buddha  defining  the 
content  and  character  of  each  of  the  units  in  the  classification 
(Smp.  16  ff.).  This  discussion  is,  with  some  difiiculty,  in- 
corporated in  the  story  of  the  Recital  as  it  does  not  harmonize 
with  the  general  trend  of  the  narrative,  but  is  joined  to 
it  with  the  words,  "  Thus  this  Word  of  the  Buddha  which  is 
uniform  in  sentiment  .  .  .  was  rehearsed  together  .  .  .  and  not 
only  this,  but  other  divers  distinctions  in  compilation  to  be  met 
with  in  the  Three  Pitakas  .  .  .  have  been  determined  when  it 
was  thus  rehearsed  together  in  seven  months  "  (Smp.  33).  It 
hardly  has  any  bearing  on  the  narrative  proper,  but  is  primarily 
designed  to  show  the  relationship  in  which  the  various  com- 
ponent parts  of  the  Canon  stand  to  one  another.  Ultimately 
Buddhaghosa  traces  the  Vinaya,  as  well  as  the  rest  of  the 
sayings  of  the  Buddha  in  their  present  form,  to  the  First  Great 
Convocation  and  explains  the  meaning  of  the  words,  "  by  whom 
was  it  said,  when  and  for  what  reason  ?  "  (Smp.  34).  In  dealing 
with  the  significance  of  the  words,  "  by  whom  this  was  retained 
in  mind,  handed  down  by  whom  and  established  in  whom  "  he 
traces  the  history  of  the  Vinaya  from  the  Tathagata  (Smp.  35), 
in  successive  stages,  to  each  of  the  three  Convocations  and 
finally  to  the  Vinaya  Recital  of  Maha-Arittha  in  Ceylon  under 
the  presidentship  of  Mahinda  (Smp.  106).  His  primary  aim  is 
to  establish  that  it  is  the  Vinaya  in  its  pristine  purity  (amissa) 
that  he  is  commenting  upon.  Therefore  it  is  imperative  that 
the  stages  by  which  it  has  reached  him  should  be  traced.  The 
succession  of  Teachers  from  Upali  brought  it  down  to  the  time 
of  the  Second  Convocation  and  the  Theras  "  again  rehearsed 
the  entire  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  . . .  even  in  the  same  manner 
as  it  was  rehearsed  by  the  Elder  Mahakassapa  "  (Smp.  38). 

The  account  of  the  Third  Great  Convocation  is  given  in  even 
greater  detail  than  the  first  two.  The  Elders  who  held  the 
Second  Recital  foresaw  that  an  even  greater  calamity  than  the 
ten  indulgences  of  the  Vajjiputtakas  would  befall  the  Dispensa- 
tion in  Dhammasoka's  reign  and  were  compelled  to  take  ade- 
quate steps  to  meet  the  situation  when  the  calamity  would  arise 
(Smp.  39  ff.).    Much  space  is  devoted  to  Moggaliputta  Tissa 

Translator's  Introduction  xiii 

before  coming  to  Asoka  (at  Smp.  44  ff.).  The  wealth  of  legendary 
details  has  but  little  bearing  on  the  actual  Nidana  of  the  Vinaya 
except  to  show  the  conditions  that  necessitated  the  Third 
Great  Convocation.  The  King's  conversion,  his  services  to  the 
Dispensation,  his  anxiety  to  become  an  "  heir  "  of  the  Dispensa- 
tion, and  the  lavish  gifts  he  showered  on  the  Sangha  are 
described  at  length  (Smp.  48  ff.).  The  interruption  of  the 
Uposatha  due  to  heretics  who  had  furtively  entered  the  Order 
for  personal  gains  (Smp.  55)  and  the  King's  abortive  attempt 
to  revive  it  through  his  minister  Mahadeva  (Smp.  57)  and  the 
consequent  remorse  and  doubt  that  led  to  his  seeking  Moggali- 
putta  Tissa's  aid  to  remove  his  doubt  and  stabilize  the  Dis- 
pensation as  well  (Smp.  58  ff.)  are  all  significant  episodes  in 
the  story  of  the  Third  Convocation.  The  Elder  clears  the 
King's  doubt  absolving  him  from  all  responsibility  of  his 
minister's  misguided  act  (Smp.  61).  The  purification  of  the 
Dispensation  begins  with  the  King  himself  learning  the  Teaching 
from  the  Elder  and  putting  the  heretics  and  the  monks  to  a 
simple  test  by  asking  them  the  question,  "  What  teaching  did 
the  Perfectly  Enlightened  One  expound  ?  "  The  heretics  all 
to  a  man  answer  making  the  Buddha  responsible  for  each  one 
of  their  theories  leaving  the  King  in  such  a  state  of  mental 
confusion  that  when  the  true  monks  reply  that  the  Buddha  was 
an  exponent  of  the  analytical  doctrine  the  King  has  to  seek 
confirmation  from  Moggaliputta  Tissa  even  in  spite  of  the  earlier 
instruction  he  has  had  from  the  Elder.  At  this  preliminary 
meeting  designed  to  ensure  the  purity  of  the  Dispensation, 
the  King  plays  a  prominent  role  in  uniting  the  Sangha  by 
disrobing  the  heretics  giving  them  white  garments  (in  order 
to  remove  all  outward  emblems  of  their  monkhood — cp. 
Dpv.  vii,  53),  and  expelling  them  for  good  from  the  Sangha 
(uppabbajesi),  so  that  in  later  years  in  reminiscent  mood  he 
could  allude  to  this  incident  in  his  Minor  Pillar  Edicts  of 
Sarnath,  Kosambi,  and  Safici  (Smp.  62,  n.  4).  The  Sangha 
is  cleansed  of  the  undesirable  elements  and  the  King  requests 
the  monks  to  hold  the  Uposatha.  The  Uposatha  that  was 
interrupted  for  seven  years  is  held  again.  Moggaliputta  Tissa 
not  being  content  with  the  mere  physical  expulsion  of  the 
heretics  from   the   Sangha  through  the  intervention  of  the 

xiv  Inception  of  Discipline 

temporal  authority,  refutes  all  heretical  theories  by  reciting,  in 
the  assembly,  the  Kathavatthu  so  that  the  defeat  of  the  heretics 
is  doubly  assured  even  at  an  intellectual  level.  Next,  i,ooo 
monks  recite  together  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  in  the  self- 
same manner  as  it  was  done  at  the  two  previous  Convocations 
(Smp.  62). 

The  rest  of  the  narrative  though  entitled  "  The  Succession 
of  Teachers  ",  covers  a  much  wider  range  of  subjects  than  does 
each  of  the  four  previous  sections  in  the  Bahiranidana.  It 
starts  with  the  succession  of  Teachers  from  Upali  in  India  to 
Siva  in  Ceylon  to  a  date  reckoned  as  "  the  present  day  "  by 
the  Porana  tradition  on  which  Buddhaghosa  has  based  his 
account  (Smp.  63).  It  is  in  dealing  with  the  story  connected 
with  the  succession  of  Teachers  that  the  nine  missions  sent  out 
by  Moggaliputta  Tissa  to  the  "  Border  Districts  "  are  described 
(Smp.  64  ff.).  The  validity  of  all  formal  acts  of  the  Sangha 
in  the  respective  regions  is  assured  by  sending  groups  of  five 
monks  each,  the  minimum  required  for  conferring  the  higher 
ordination  in  a  border  district.  The  mission  to  Ceylon  is  dis- 
cussed in  great  detail  (Smp.  73  ff.)  and  covers  about  a  third 
of  the  story  in  the  Bahiranidana.  The  important  episodes  in 
it  are  :  the  arrival  of  Mahinda  (Smp.  75),  the  Conversion  of 
Devanampiyatissa  (Smp.  81),  his  envoys  to  the  court  of 
Pataliputta  (Smp.  78,  95  f.),  the  founding  of  the  Mahavihara 
(Smp.  84),  the  building  of  the  Thuparama  (Smp.  93),  the  coming 
of  Sanghamitta  and  the  Great  Bodhi  (Smp.  96-103),  and  the 
Vinaya  Recital  of  Maha-Arittha  (Smp.  106).  In  giving  the 
date  of  Mahinda's  arrival  in  Ceylon  as  236  years  after  the 
Parinibbana  of  the  Buddha  a  chronological  list  of  kings  of 
Magadha  and  Ceylon  is  recorded  dating  events  that  took  place 
in  Ceylon  from  the  regnal  years  of  the  contemporary  Indian 
kings  (Smp.  76).  Mahinda  entrusts  the  burden  of  the  preserva- 
tion and  continuity  of  the  Dispensation  by  "  making  its  roots 
descend  deep  "  into  the  soil  of  Lanka  when  he  has  found  in 
Maha-Arittha  a  competent  person  to  learn  the  Vinaya  and 
teach  it  in  the  Island  (Smp.  105).  It  is  Arittha's  successors 
who  handed  down  the  Vinaya  to  the  so-called  "  present  day  ". 
The  authenticity  of  the  Vinaya  is  thus  established  and  the 
matika  is  fully  explained  once  the  External  Story  connected 

Translator' s  Introduction  xv 

with  the  Vinaya  is  narrated.    After  this  Buddhaghosa  is  free 
to  proceed  to  his  exposition  of  the  Vinaya. 

The  Mahdvihdra  Tradition 

This,  very  briefly,  is  what  the  Bahiranidana  deals  with. 
Leaving  aside  the  many  interesting  problems  that  arise  from  its 
contents,  which  have  already  been  dealt  with  by  others  in  some 
form  or  another  with  reference  to  the  Samantapasadika  or  the 
Pali  Chronicles,  a  few  words  about  the  Samantapasadika  itself  are 
necessary  at  this  stage,  while  some  of  the  problems  connected 
with  the  Bahiranidana  can  be  taken  up  for  discussion  later  on. 

The  prologue  and  the  colophon  of  the  Samantapasadika 
furnish  us  with  a  good  deal  of  information.  Buddhaghosa's 
own  words  in  the  opening  stanzas  eloquently  speak  of  the  com- 
mentary he  is  about  to  compile.  As  is  usually  the  case  with  all 
his  commentaries,  it  is  by  no  means  an  original  exegesis,  but 
a  restatement  of  the  material  available  to  him  in  the  Sihala 
Atthakatha,  for,  in  his  own  words  it  is  a  navasangahitavannana, 
"  a  re-compiled  commentary "  (Smp.  P.T.S.,  1414).  His 
implicit  faith  in  the  pubbacariya  ,"  the  teachers  of  yore,"  and 
his  reliance  on  their  authority  in  his  exposition  of  the  Vinaya 
are  clearly  expressed  in  his  opening  words  (see  Smp.  i,  n.  i). 
Both  in  the  prologue  and  in  the  colophon  he  acknowledges  his 
indebtedness  to  the  three  main  versions  of  the  Sihala  Attha- 
katha, the  Maha  (or  Mula) -Atthakatha,  the  Mahapaccariya, 
and  the  Kurundi  which  he  studied  under  the  "  wise  Elder 
Buddhamitta  who  was  proficient  in  the  Vinaya  "  (Smp.  P.T.S., 
1415).  This  indebtedness  to  the  Sihala  Atthakatha  is  true  of 
all  his  commentaries,  for  Buddhaghosa  constantly  refers  to  his 
commentaries  being  based  on  the  earlier  commentaries  available 
in  the  language  of  the  Island  ;  e.g.  in  the  colophons  to  the 
commentaries  on  the  four  prose  Nikayas  the  following  hemi- 
stisches  occur,  among  other  parallel  stanzas :  sa  hi  Maha- 
Atthakathaya  saram  adaya  nitthita  maya,  "  for,  it  was  com- 
piled by  me  drawing  the  essence  of  the  Maha- Atthakatha," 
and,  Mul  'atthakathaya  saram  adaya  maya  imam  karontena, 
"  while  I  was  compiling  this  drawing  the  essence  of  the  Mula- 
Atthakatha,"  both  of  which  refer  to  the  Mahavihara  version 
of  the  Sihala  Atthakatha. 

xvi  Inception  of  Discipline 

There  has  been  a  great  tradition  of  Vinaya  learning  in  Ceylon 
from  the  time  of  its  first  recital  under  Mahinda  (Smp.  io6). 
It  is  the  aim  of  the  Bahiranidana  to  show  the  continuity  of 
this  tradition  right  up  to  the  time  of  the  finalization  of  the 
original  documents  on  which  the  Samantapasadika  is  based. 
On  account  of  the  position  of  importance  assigned  to  the 
Vinaya  in  the  Theravada  in  its  development  in  Ceylon  (see 
Smp.  I,  n.  2),  the  views  of  its  custodians  are  of  utmost  value 
as  regards  its  correct  interpretation.  This  is  equally  true  as 
regards  the  interpretation  of  the  Dhamma,  for  the  learning 
in  the  Dhammavinaya,  taken  as  a  whole,  is  looked  upon  as 
a  system  that  has  evolved  in  the  Mahavihara.  The  frequent 
statements  in  the  colophons  to  the  commentaries  on  the  Four 
Agamas,  samayam  pakasayanti  Mahaviharavasmarti  (with 
minor  variations,  and  also  in  other  commentaries  attributed  to 
Buddhaghosa),  "  advancing  the  corpus  of  traditional  views  of 
the  Mahavihara  Fraternity,''  or  other  frequent  statements  in 
the  prologues  to  the  Agama  Commentaries,  such  as, 

Samayam  avilomento  theranarn  theravarnsappadipanam 

sunipunavinicchayanam  Mahaviharadhivasinarn, 

hitva  punnappunagatam  attharn  attham  pakasayissami ; 

"  I  shall  expound  the  meaning  (thereof)  avoiding  repetitions 
of  exegeses,  not  contradicting  the  corpus  of  traditional  views 
of  the  dwellers  of  the  Mahavihara,  of  profoundly  mature 
judgments,  the  shining  lamps  of  the  lineage  of  Elders  "  can 
equally  apply  in  the  case  of  the  Vinaya  Commentary.  The 
Jatakatthakatha  (also  attributed  to  Buddhaghosa),  in  its 
prologue  states,  "  I  will  declare  the  exposition  of  the  meaning 
of  the  Jataka  basing  it  on  the  method  of  discourse  of  the 
dwellers  of  the  Mahavihara"  (JA.  i,  i,  stt.  10  f.).  A  similar 
statement  is  made  in  the  Kankhavitarani,  the  Commentary  on 
the  Patimokkha  (p.  i,  st.  6).  In  the  AtthasalinT,  Buddhaghosa 
stresses  the  purity  of  the  views  of  the  Mahavihara  :  "  (I  shall 
make  my  exposition)  illustrating  the  unconfused  judgments  of 
the  dwellers  of  the  Mahavihara  which  are  uncontaminated  by 
the  views  of  other  Sects  "  (DhsA.,  2,  st.  16).  It  is  apparent  that 
the  system  evolved  in  the  Mahavihara  through  the  centuries 
was  so  comprehensive  and  thorough  that  it  was  jealously 

Translator's  Introduction  xvii 

guarded  by  its  custodians  and  won  the  admiration  of  men  of 
the  calibre  of  Buddhaghosa.  That  aspect  of  the  Mahavihara 
tradition  pertaining  to  the  Vinaya  concerns  us  here,  and 
further,  the  Mahavihara  being  a  centre  of  Vinaya  learning, 
the  authoritative  statements  of  the  vinayadhara  monks  were 
faithfully  handed  down  from  generation  to  generation  and 
formed  an  integral  part  of  the  "  samaya  "  of  the  Mahavihara. 
These  monks  were  the  scholiasts  or  the  schoolmen  of  the 
Theravada  in  Ceylon  and  were  responsible  for  the  tradition 
that  was  crystallized  in  the  Sihala  Atthakatha  and  played 
the  most  significant  role  in  the  evolution  of  these  commentaries 
until  they  were  recast  and  remoulded  by  Buddhaghosa. 
Further  "  growth  "  was  arrested  as  a  result  of  Buddhaghosa's 
rewriting  them  in  Pali.  Evidence  is  not  lacking  for  the  survival 
of  the  Sihala  Atthakatha  even  after  Buddhaghosa  and  the 
other  Commentators  that  followed,  though  they  finally  went 
into  oblivion  in  due  course.  The  statement  that  they  were 
burned  in  a  huge  bonfire  (Buddhaghosuppatti,  7)  is  merely 
a  figurative  way  of  stating  that  they  no  longer  served  any 
purpose.  The  disappearance  of  the  Sihala  Atthakatha  is 
looked  upon  by  writers  as  a  great  blow  to  the  development  of 
Sinhalese  literature.  However  that  may  be,  it  is  decidedly 
the  fruits  of  the  endeavours  of  the  "  teachers  of  yore  "  in  some 
finalized  form  that  were  available  to  Buddhaghosa  when  he 
started  compiling  his  Commentaries  and  paved  the  way  for 
the  perfect  commentarial  literature  in  Pali  available  to-day, 
perhaps  unrivalled  by  that  of  any  other  School  of  Buddhism. 

The  terms  Atthakathika  and  Atthakathacariya  mentioned  in 
a  large  number  of  Commentaries  (see  EHBC,  14,  nn.  9-1 1) 
directly  refer  to  these  teachers  (the  banners  of  the  Maha- 
vihara— Smp.  I,  St.  7),  who  contributed  to  the  growth  of  the 
Sihala  Atthakatha.  The  judgments  of  these  "  Sons  of  the 
Enlightened  One  "  were  taken  into  consideration  when  com- 
mentaries were  written  in  the  past  (Smp.  i,  st.  13)  while  in- 
correct statements  such  as  those  found  in  the  Andhaka  (in 
great  abundance  !)  and  genuine  scribes*  errors  (pamadalekha, 
Smp.  I,  St.  14)  in  the  Maha-Atthakatha  (e.g.  at  Smp.  P.T.S., 
311)  are  dispensed  with.  A  good  example  of  this  can  be  seen 
(at  Smp.  P.T.S.,  495  f.)  in  the  comments  on  the  conditions 

xviii  Inception  of  Discipline 

under  which  a  monk  suffers  "  Defeat  "  when  he  lays  claims  to 
transcendental  attainments.  The  opinion  of  the  Elder  Phussa- 
deva  is  cited  but  is  immediately  dismissed  as  "  even  his  pupils 
rejected  his  view  ".  He  adds  in  his  comments  that  a  monk 
does  not  suffer  Defeat  when  he  acknowledges  the  attainment 
of  analytic  insight  excluding  that  pertaining  to  the  trans- 
cendental sphere.  Next  he  quotes  the  Sankhepa  as  stating  that 
even  if  one  lays  claims  to  atthapatisambhida,  the  first  item 
among  the  fourfold  analytic  insight,  one  suffers  Defeat,  whereas 
this  is  contradicted  by  the  Maha-Atthakatha.  It  goes  to  the 
extent  of  saying  that  one  does  not  suffer  Defeat  even  if  one 
declares  one's  attainment  of  cessation.  The  statement  made 
in  the  Mahapaccariya  and  its  abridged  version  Sankhepa,  that 
when  a  monk  discloses  his  attainment  of  cessation  in  order  to 
lead  another  to  infer  that  he  is  an  Arahant  or  an  Anagami, 
and  if  the  latter  infers  so,  then  he  is  guilty  of  the  parajika 
offence  (Defeat),  should,  according  to  Buddhaghosa,  be  care- 
fully examined  before  it  is  accepted.  He  further  adds  that  the 
Sankhepa  states  that  a  monk  does  not  suffer  Defeat  if  he  refers 
to  his  attainments  reached  in  previous  existences,  but  jestingly 
adds  that  its  statement  regarding  the  present  existence  too  is 
rejected  (why  talk  about  past  existences  !).  The  views  of 
eminent  Theras  who  differed  from  the  interpretations  of  the 
recognized  Commentaries  such  as  the  Maha-Atthakatha,  e.g. 
Mahapaduma  (Smp.  P.T.S.,  283,  454,  etc.  in  all  twenty-seven 
references)  and  views  expressed  by  other  eminent  Theras 
recorded  as  being  accepted  by  commentaries,  e.g.  the  Ceylon 
monk  (first  century  A.c),  Mahasumma's  interpretation  of  a 
Vinaya  rule  accepted  by  the  Andhakatthakatha  (Smp.  P.T.S., 
646,  etc.,  twenty-four  references),  are  also  taken  into  con- 
sideration. Adikaram  (EHBC,  81)  observes  that  Buddhaghosa, 
in  the  Samantapasadika  pays  great  tribute  to  the  views  of 
both  Mahapaduma  and  Mahasumma  :  "  There  are  instances 
where  Mahapaduma's  expositions  are  considered  to  be  as 
authoritative  as  those  given  in  the  Mahapaccari,  KurundT, 
and  Maha-Atthakatha.  .  .  .  Different  views  and  interpretations 
of  the  Vinaya  as  put  forward  by  these  two  theras  occur  very 
frequently  in  the  Samantapasadika."  The  views  of  Teachers 
often  referred  to  in  Buddhaghosa's  Commentaries  invariably 

Translator's  Introduction  xix 

include  many  others  beside  these  two,^  and  the  acariyaparam- 
para,  "  the  Succession  of  Teachers  "  (Smp.  63)  contains  the 
most  comprehensive  Hst  of  Vinaya  teachers  among  them.  In 
addition  to  these,  the  statements  of  the  Porana,  quoted  even 
in  the  Bahiranidana  (Smp.  63,  74,  75)  are  taken  into  account. ^ 
This  name,  as  well  as  the  parallels  Poranakatthera,  Porana- 
cariya,  etc.,  refers  to  the  Pubbacariya  already  mentioned,  while 
Poranatthakatha  can  refer  only  to  the  exegetical  works  by 
them  which  represented  the  whole  field  of  written  source- 
material  at  Buddhaghosa's  disposal. 

The  Translation  of  the  Sihala  Atthakathd 

Buddhaghosa  arrived  in  Ceylon  at  a  time  when  the  Maha- 
vihara  tradition  was  at  its  best,  with  a  period  of  over  six 
centuries  of  gradual  progress  only  occasionally  interrupted  for 
short  periods  by  a  few  setbacks  due  to  circumstances  totally 
beyond  the  control  of  the  Sangha,  such  as  political  upheavals, 
famines,  pestilences,  etc.,  and  the  appearance  of  rival  sects 
resulting  in  royal  patronage  being  extended  in  that  direction, 
sometimes  with  open  hostility  to  the  Mahavihara  Fraternity 
as  in  the  reign  of  Mahasena  (a.c.  334-361),  all  of  which,  up  to 
now,  it  had  withstood  successfully.  Its  commentarial  tradition 
has  deep  roots.  According  to  the  prologues  of  many  of  Buddha- 
ghosa's Commentaries,  the  origin  of  this  tradition  goes  back 
to  the  time  of  the  First  Council.  The  stanzas  Nos.  6,  7  of  the 
prologues  (DA.,  MA.,  SA.,  AA.,  DhsA.,  etc.)  state  :  "  Whatever 
Commentaries  were  rehearsed  at  the  very  outset,  for  the  purpose 
of  elucidating  the  meaning,  by  the  five  hundred  (who  were) 
endowed  with  self-mastery,  and  were  likewise  rehearsed  even 
afterwards  were  subsequently  brought  to  the  Island  of  the 
Sihajas  by  Maha-Mahinda  (who  was)  endowed  with  self- 
mastery,  and  were  made  to  remain  in  the  Sihaja  language  for 
the  benefit  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  Island."  It  is  difficult  to 
say  what  these  commentaries  were,  but  the  extensive  exegetical 
literature  incorporated  in  the  extant  Canon  {vide  PLC,  88  ff.) 
perhaps  sheds  some  light  on  this  statement.  Hence,  there  is 
some  basis  to  accept,  of  course,  with  certain  reservations,  the 

^  Mahasiva  Smp.  Sinh.  ed.  36,  816  ;    Mahasumana,  ibid.,  51,  etc. 

2  See  the  excellent  data  on  Porana  in  EHBC,  16-23,  and  Appendix  II  A. 

XX  Inception  of  Discipline 

tradition  attributing  the  earliest  exegetical  activity  in  Ceylon 
to  Mahinda  when  he  furnished  explanations  to  the  Teachings 
in  the  language  of  the  Island.  He  naturally  interpreted  the 
Word  of  the  Buddha  in  a  spoken  idiom  intelhgible  to  the 
people.  The  Sinhalese  Prakrit  of  the  third  century  B.C.  could 
have  been  quite  akin  to  some  of  the  Prakrit  dialects  current  in 
Aryan  India  at  the  time,  especially  to  those  of  the  Western 
group  of  Prakrits,  and  to  Sauraseni  and  Mahinda's  own  AvantT. 
This  similarity,  to  some  extent,  can  be  established  by  comparing 
the  language  of  the  earliest  known  inscriptions  of  Ceylon  ^  with 
Asokan  Pali  and  the  early  dramatic  and  literary  Prakrits. 
By  the  fifth  century  A.c,  after  a  lapse  of  nearly  six  and  a  half 
centuries,  when  Buddhaghosa  arrived  in  Ceylon,  the  extant 
exegetical  tradition,  both  recorded  and  oral,  was  in  a  language 
that  was  no  longer  intelligible  to  "  monks  from  overseas  ", 
and  differed  considerably  from  the  idiom  of  the  Pali  Canon,  as 
may  be  seen  from  recorded  specimens  of  the  Sinhalese  Prakrit 
of  this  period.  Hence,  in  Buddhaghosa's  opinion  it  was  neces- 
sary to  translate  the  then  available  commentaries  into  Pali. 
In  doing  so  he  pays  tribute  to  the  Sinhalese  language  calling  it 
a  manorama  bhasa,  "  a  delightful  language."  He  says  in  the 
prologues  to  the  commentaries  on  the  Four  Agamas,  in  the 
Atthasalini  (and  in  the  Dhammpadatthakatha)  that  he  will 
expound  the  meaning  "  having  divested  it  of  the  Sihala 
language,  a  delightful  language  as  it  is,  and  translate  it  into 
the  flawless  idiom  compatible  with  the  mode  of  expression  in 
the  Texts  ".  Thus  Buddhaghosa's  reason  for  translating  the 
Sinhalese  Commentaries  was  to  make  their  contents  available 
to  monks  outside  Ceylon  as  well. 

Another  important  reason  for  not  only  translating  but  for 
recording  in  a  fixed  form,  the  commentarial  tradition  of  the 
Mahavihara  was  prompted  by  historical  circumstances.  As 
pointed  out  by  Adikaram  (EHBC,  94),  with  the  first  signal  of 
danger  arising  from  the  Abhayagiri  Fraternity  the  Mahavihara 
monks  hastened  to  record  in  writing  the  Pali  Texts  even 
without  the  reigning  monarch  Vattagamani  Abhaya's  (43  and 

^  The  dialect  peculiarities  can  be  seen  for  purposes  of  comparison  even  in 
later  inscriptional  Sinhalese  and  the  earliest  literary  Sinhalese  which  repre- 
sents the  Apabhramsa  stage  of  development  in  Indo- Aryan. 

Translator's  Introduction  xxi 

29-17  B.C.)  support,  in  far  away  Alokavihara  in  the  Matula 
District  in  the  central  hills,  away  from  the  capital  where  it 
would  have  attracted  the  King's  direct  attention. ^  The  rift 
with  the  Abhayagiri  Fraternity  widened  as  time  went  on  and 
more  and  more  new  sects  appeared  in  course  of  time,  the 
majority  of  them  having  afhhations  with  the  Abhayagiri.  A  few 
subsequent  kings  were  definitely  hostile  to  the  Mahavihara, 
the  worst  among  them  being  Mahasena  (a.c.  334-361)  who 
persecuted  the  Mahavihara  monks.  While  the  bitter  memories 
of  scarcely  half  a  century  earlier  were  fresh  in  the  minds  of  the 
Mahavihara  monks,  Mahanama  the  reigning  king  too  was 
lukewarm  towards  the  Mahavihara  and  supported  the  Abhaya- 
giri Fraternity  (Mhv.  xxxvii,  212)  while  he  was  persuaded 
by  his  Queen  to  help  the  Mahavihara  as  well.  It  was  necessary 
for  the  Mahavihara  Fraternity  to  consolidate  their  position 
and  preserve  their  "  samaya  "  against  the  constant  onslaughts 
of  their  opponents,  who  more  often  than  not  had  support  from 
their  fellow  monks  from  India.  The  half-century  that  followed 
Mahasena's  reign  would  have  given  the  Mahavihara  Fraternity 
time  to  reinforce  themselves  and  close  their  ranks  for  self- 
preservation.  It  was  as  a  result  of  the  fulfilment  of  the  wishes 
of  the  monks,  who  scarcely  half  a  century  earlier  underwent 
such  indignities  at  the  hands  of  their  opponents  who  were 
actively  supported  by  the  reigning  monarch  in  their  sinister 
task  of  harassing  the  Mahavihara  monks,  that  the  body  of 
knowledge  held  sacred  by  them  should  at  last  be  put  down  in 
some  fixed  form,  translated  into  the  language  of  the  Canon 
itself  to  impart  to  it  a  greater  dignity,  sanctity,  and  authority 
so  that  it  should  be  handed  down  to  posterity.  The  presence 
of  Buddhaghosa  in  Ceylon  was  an  opportunity  too  good  to  be 
missed,  and  furthermore,  there  was  every  indication  that  the 
dark  events  in  Mahasena's  day  could  recur,  if  there  was  an 
equally  sinister  figure  as  Sanghamitra,  among  their  opponents, 
to  spark  off  such  a  conflagration.  The  pictures  painted  by 
Buddhaghosa  in  his  colophons  when  referring  to  the  King  and 
country  are  rather  dismal.  He  is  glad  that  he  has  completed 
the  Samantapasadika  within  one  year,  unhindered,  in  a  world 

^  Vide  ibid.,  79,  for  a  summary  of  the  causes  that  led  to  the  writing  down 
of  the  Canon. 

xxii  Inception  of  Discipline 

troubled  by  many  dangers  (Smp.  P.T.S.,  1416)  and  repeats  in 
his  Commentaries  to  the  works  of  the  Abhidhamma,  the 
exhortation,  "  Even  as  the  good  kings  in  days  gone  by  cherished 
their  subjects  may  the  King  too  cherish  them  righteously  even 
as  his  own  offspring."  The  last  few  years  of  Mahanama's 
reign  ^  may  have  given  him  some  indication  of  the  difficult 
days  that  were  to  follow  two  years  after  his  death,  though  at 
the  time  everything  looked  peaceful.^  The  repeated  exhortation 
may  be  taken  either  as  a  mere  formal  statement  or  as  an  indirect 
indication  that  all  was  not  well  with  Ceylon  and  that  the 
country  was  not  governed  well.  All  these  factors  taken  together 
show  that  the  time  was  ripe  for  recording  the  commentaries 
in  a  more  precise  form  than  the  Sihala  Atthakatha. 

Another  reason  given  by  Buddhaghosa  for  rewriting  the 
commentaries  in  Pali  is  his  desire  to  secure  the  stability  of 
the  Good  Teaching  (saddhammatthitikama).  This  should  be 
considered  as  the  chief  reason  why  the  Pali  Commentaries  were 
written.  In  fact,  Buddhaghosa  came  to  Ceylon  at  a  very 
opportune  time  in  the  history  of  the  Mahavihara.  His  work 
actually  symbolizes  a  process  in  the  codification,  as  it  were,  of 
the  Mahavihara  tradition  and  what  matters  more  is  the  actual 
writing  of  the  Commentaries  rather  than  the  Commentator 

From  the  foregoing  remarks,  Buddhaghosa's  role  as  editor 
and  translator  is  quite  clear.  He  was  convinced  of  the  purity 
of  the  Mahavihara  tradition,  and  it  was  all  that  mattered  to 
him  so  that  he  strove  to  maintain  it  at  all  costs.  His  editorial 
activity  was  centred  on  the  correct  interpretation  of  the 
Word  of  the  Buddha  from  the  Theravada  point  of  view.  The 
conflicting  traditions  before  him  did  not  deter  him  from  his 
task.  He,  in  fact,  seems  to  have  revelled  in  them  as  he  separated 
the  various  strands  in  order  to  discover  the  correct  interpreta- 
tion of  the  Theriya  tradition. ^  His  aim  was  to  give  explana- 
tions and  interpretations  maintaining  a  consistent  point  of 
view.     The  serious  restrictions  under  which  he  had  to  work 

1  According  to  the  colophon  Smp.  was  completed  in  the  twenty-first  year 
of  his  reign  which  was  to  end  in  just  over  a  year — Mhv.  xxxvii,  247. 

2  cp.  jayasamvacchare,  Smp.  P.T.S.,  1416. 

2  The  limitations  imposed  upon  him  are  analysed  in  PLC  93  f. 

Translator's  Introduction  xxiii 

(as  pointed  out  elsewhere)  ^  are  best  indicated  in  his  own  words 
in  the  Visuddhimagga  (Vism.  522),  when  he  says  that  in 
explaining  the  proposition  avijjapaccaya  sankhara,  he  had  to 
abide  by  the  universe  of  discourse  of  the  Vibhajjavadins,  not 
cast  aspersions  on  the  views  of  the  "  Teachers  ",  not  be  incon- 
sistent with  his  own  thesis,  not  trespass  on  the  views  of  dis- 
sentient Schools,  not  reject  the  Sutta,  be  in  conformity  with 
the  Vinaya,  see  to  the  broad  guiding  principles  and  so  on.  This 
is  further  illustrated  by  the  prologue  to  the  Samantapasadika 
itself.  The  results  of  his  labours  are  unrivalled  by  any  single 
writer  on  the  Buddha's  teachings  and  there  is  none  to  equal 
him  where  the  volume  of  output  is  concerned. 

Sources  of  the  Samantapasadika 

There  is  no  further  necessity  to  dilate  on  the  topic  of  Sihala 
Atthakatha  in  view  of  the  lucid  details  given  by  Malalasekera 
(PLC,  91  f.)  and  Adikaram  (EHBC,  10  ff.).  The  Maha-  or 
Miila-Atthakatha  is  acknowledged  as  the  chief  source  of  the 
Samantapasadika  (thirty-nine  references),  while  Mahapaccari 
(ninety-four  references),  Kurundi  (sixty-seven  references), 
Andhaka  (thirteen  references),  Sankhepa  (nine  references),  and 
Paccari  (referring  to  either  Mahapaccari  or  Sankhepa — one 
reference)  ^  are  extensively  consulted.  The  sources  Buddha- 
ghosa  refers  to  in  his  prologue  are  actually  those  in  his  order 
of  preference.  He  pays  open  tribute  to  the  Maha- Atthakatha 
while  the  Andhakatthakatha  comes  in  for  a  good  deal  of 
criticism  in  the  Samantapasadika.  Though  it  is  customary 
for  him  to  give  more  weightage  to  the  interpretations  of  the 
Maha-Atthakatha,  instances  of  his  showing  preference  to 
explanations  in  other  Commentaries  over  this  one  are  not  rare 
(see  EHBC,  11  ff.).  In  three  instances  the  Sankhepa  is  referred 
to  in  association  with  the  Mahapaccari  (as  cited  in  EHBC  12, 
n.  9)  which  throws  some  Hght  on  its  identity  as  the  Culla- 
paccari.  It  is  rather  strange  that  the  Vinaya-Atthakatha 
referred  to  by  Buddhaghosa  in  his  commentaries  on  works 
of  the   Sutta   and   Abhidhamma   Pitakas,   e.g.   VibhA.   334, 

1  UCR.  xvii,  1-2,  p.  2. 

*  See  the  index  to  the  Sinhalese  edition  of  Smp.  Simon  Hewavitarne 
Bequest  Series. 

xxiv  Inception  of  Discipline 

Pj.  i,  97,  hardly  plays  any  significant  part  as  a  source  of  the 
Samantapasadika  where  it  is  to  be  most  expected.  This  may 
perhaps  be  due  to  the  fact  that  it  was  not  an  independent 
Sihaja  Atthakatha  by  itself,  but  formed  a  part  of  each  of  the 
recognized  versions  of  the  Sihala  Atthakatha  to  the  whole 
Canon.  When  Buddhaghosa  refers  to  the  Samantapasadika 
in  his  other  Commentaries  he  is  quite  specific,  while  the  term 
Vinaya- Atthakatha  by  itself  does  not  refer  to  his  Commentary 
on  the  Vinaya.  The  reference  at  Pj.  ii,  340  to  a  Khandhakattha- 
katha  is  to  be  placed  in  the  same  category  as  pointing  to  a  part 
of  the  Sihala  Atthakatha,  while  the  reference  at  Pj.  i,  97  to 
the  Vinaya- Atthakatha  leaves  us  in  no  doubt  as  to  its  nature, 
for  it  actually  refers  to  the  story  of  the  First  Convocation  which 
is  nearer  to  the  version  found  at  Vin.  ii,  284  ff.  rather  than  to 
the  versions  found  in  the  introductions  to  the  Commentaries  of 
the  first  work  of  each  of  the  Pitakas.  This,  besides  giving  an 
indication  as  to  how  the  accounts  of  the  first  two  Councils  were 
included  in  the  Vinaya  CuUavagga  as  its  last  two  khandhakas, 
further  lends  support  to  the  inference  that  this  Vinaya-Attha- 
katha  was  not  an  independent  Sihala  Atthakatha  as  Adikaram 
(EHBC,  13)  contends  but  was  a  part  of  each  of  the  recognized 
versions  of  these  commentaries  just  as  Khandhakatthakatha 
formed  a  constituent  of  it.  Further  investigation  is  necessary 
to  arrive  at  a  more  definite  conclusion  as  the  material  on  which 
these  inferences  are  made  is  very  meagre. 

Dates  of  Buddhaghosa  s  Works 

Coming  to  the  question  of  the  date  of  Samantapasadika  in 
relation  to  that  of  his  other  works,  we  are  faced  with  con- 
flicting data.  If  its  colophon  is  to  be  accepted  without  any 
questioning  the  only  work  that  can  be  dated  with  accuracy  is 
the  Samantapasadika  itself,  but  this  leaves  us  in  the  serious 
predicament  of  trying  to  reconcile  with  its  date  the  statement 
at  Mhv.  xxxvii,  246,  which  seems  to  suggest  that  Buddha- 
ghosa returned  to  India,  having  accomplished  his  task  in 
Ceylon,  during  Mahanama's  reign  itself  and  not  after  his  death 
which  is  said  to  have  taken  place  a  little  over  a  year  after  the 
completion  of  the  Samantapasadika.  The  colophon  (Smp. 
P.T.S.  1415)  states  : 

Translator's  Introduction  xxv 

Palayantassa  sakalam  Lankadipam  nirabbudam 
ranfio  Sirinivasassa  siripalayasassino 
samavisatime  kheme  jayasamvacchare  ayam 
araddha,  ekavisamhi  sampatte  parinitthita  ; 

"  This  work,  undertaken  exactly  in  the  twentieth  victorious 
and  peaceful  ^  year  when  the  glorious  and  renowned  King 
Sirinivasa  was  reigning  unhindered  over  the  whole  of  the 
Island  of  Lanka,  was  completed  with  the  arrival  of  the  twenty- 
first  regnal  year."  The  same  king  is  referred  to  as  Sirikudda 
in  the  colophon  to  the  Dhammapadatthakatha  and  is  identified 
as  Mahanama.2  Taking  his  date  of  accession  as  a.c.  409  the 
Samantapasadika  is  to  be  dated,  according  to  the  colophon, 
to  A.c.  429-430.  The  Visuddhimagga  is  to  be  assigned  to  a 
date  prior  to  A.c.  429  as  it  was  the  first  work  of  Buddhaghosa 
in  Ceylon  and  this  is  supported  not  only  by  tradition  but  also 
by  references  to  it  in  practically  all  of  his  Commentaries. 
Further,  unhke  some  of  his  Commentaries  which  mutually 
refer  to  each  other,  the  Visuddhimagga  makes  no  mention 
of  his  Commentaries  in  Ceylon.  The  references  in  the  Visuddhi- 
magga to  Majjhimatthakatha,  Samyuttatthakatha,  and  Angut- 
taratthakatha  are  not  to  his  own  commentaries  but  to  those 
belonging  to  the  Sihala  Atthakatha  which  he  studied  before 
he  wrote  this  work.^ 

The  KankhavitaranT,  the  Commentary  on  the  Patimokkha, 
frequently  refers  to  the  Samantapasadika  *  often  with  the 
statement :  vittharo  pana  Samantapasadikaya  Vinayasam- 
vannaya  vuttanayen'eva  veditabbbo,  "  And  the  explanation 
should  be  understood  as  stated  in  the  exposition  of  the  Vinaya 
in  the  Samantapasadika."  It  is  more  or  less  certain  that  the 
KankhavitaranT  was  posterior  to  the  Samantapasadika  ;  and 
since  it  is  the  Commentary  on  the  Patimokkha  it  is  quite 
probable  that  its  compilation  followed  immediately  after  that 
of  the  Samantapasadika.     We  are  not  at  all  in  this  happy 

^  Contrast  this  with  the  next  stanza  and  also  the  statement  in  Paramat- 
thadipani  (Paiicappakaranatthakatha)  : 

Yatha  rakkhimsu  porana  surajano  tath'ev'imam 
raja  rakkhatu  dhammena  attano  va  paiam  paiam. 

2  See  PLC  96.  xr  j    .  t-  j    . 

'  See  PLC  87. 

«  Pp.  50,  51,  54,  58,  62,  110,  159,  168,  193. 

xxvi  Inception  of  Discipline 

position  when  we  come  to  the  question  of  the  relative  chrono- 
logy between  the  Samantapasadika  and  Buddhaghosa's  Com- 
mentaries to  works  of  the  Sutta  and  Abhidhamma  Pitakas  as 
the  references  are  reciprocal.  The  Commentaries  to  the  four 
Agamas  refer  to  the  Samantapasadika,  while  each  of  the  Com- 
mentaries to  the  succeeding  work  of  the  Pitakas  refers  to  the 
work  or  works  that  preceded  it.  Thus  Sumangalavilasni 
(DA.  iii,  981,  1000,  1043)  refers  to  the  Samantapasadika  ; 
Papancasudani  (MA.  i,  198,  199  ;  iii,  45,  106)  to  Samanta- 
pasadika and  (i,  2  ;  v,  24)  to  Sumangalavilasini ;  Saratthap- 
pakasini  (ii,  37,  145)  to  Samantapasadika,  (i,  3,  348)  to 
Sumangalavilasni,  and  (i,  13 ;  ii,  45)  to  Papancasudani ; 
Manorathapurani  (AA.  iii,  334 ;  iv,  136  f.)  to  Samantapasadika, 
(i,  3 ;  iii,  285)  to  Sumangalavilasini,  and  (AA.  i,  15)  to  Papafi- 
casudani.  The  Samantapasadika  in  turn  refers  to  Sumangala- 
vilasni (p.  115,  Sinh.  ed.),  and  Papancasudani  (pp.  115,  644,  721, 
Sinh.  ed.).  It  is  quite  probable  that  some  of  these  references 
were  inserted  by  Buddhaghosa  later  on  into  works  already 
completed.  This  would  not  have  been  a  difficult  thing  to  do 
as  the  number  of  copies  made  during  his  brief  stay  in  Ceylon 
could  have  been  not  many. 

The  fewer  number  of  references  in  the  Samantapasadika  to 
the  Agama  Commentaries  ^  may  perhaps  be  indicative  of  the 
fact  that  it  was  the  earlier  work  though  there  is  no  definite 
proof  of  their  chronological  relationship,  particularly  when  we 
take  into  account  the  date  given  in  the  colophon  and  the 
Mahavarnsa  reference  to  Buddhaghosa's  departure  to  India. 
The  Papaficasudani  (MA.  ii,  30),  Saratthappakasini  (SA.  ii,  45), 
and  Manorathapiirani  (AA.  v,  16)  refer  to  Sammohavinodani 
while  the  latter  in  turn  (VibhA.  43,  396,  410,  479)  mentions 
Atthasalini  as  the  Commentary  that  should  take  precedence 
over  it.  This  would  normally  indicate  that  the  Vinaya  and 
Abhidhamma  Commentaries  were  anterior  to  the  Agama 
Commentaries  and  that  the  commentaries  to  the  works  of  each 
of  the  Pitakas  were  composed  in  the  order  in  which  those  works 
are  classified  in  the  Canon.  The  mutual  references  in  Samanta- 
pasadika (Smp.  P.T.S.,  150)  and  Atthasalini  (DhsA.  97  f.)  are 

1  See  Sinh.  ed.,  pp.  96,  765. 

Translator's  Introduction  xxvii 

to  be  explained  on  quite  a  different  basis. ^  Though  the  Attha- 
saHni  was  written  by  Buddhaghosa  in  India,  before  he  came  to 
Ceylon,  it  must  have  been  completed  in  Ceylon  after  being 
subjected  to  a  complete  revision  in  the  light  of  the  new  material 
available  at  the  Mahavihara,  for  this  is  the  only  explanation 
that  could  account  for  the  references  to  Visuddhimagga  and 
other  subsequent  works  and  the  Sihala  Atthakatha  in  the  body 
of  the  work.  In  the  light  of  the  foregoing  data,  which  should 
be  treated  with  utmost  caution,  a  tentative  chronological 
scheme  can  be  suggested  though  it  can  by  no  means  be 
considered  as  satisfactory  : — 

1.  Visuddhimagga. 

2.  Abhidhamma  Commentaries  in  their  order. 

3.  Vinaya  Commentaries  in  their  order. 

4.  The  Agama  Commentaries  in  their  order. 

This  scheme,  however,  would  again  lead  us  into  some 
difficulty  as  the  information  given  in  the  colophon  to  the 
Samantapasadika  regarding  the  date  of  the  completion  of  that 
work  and  that  mentioned  at  Mhv.  xxxvii,  246,  regarding 
Buddhaghosa's  departure  to  India  cannot  be  fully  reconciled 
taking  into  account  the  volume  of  work  that  has  to  be  dated 
after  the  Samantapasadika.  Buddhaghosa's  departure  is 
recorded  in  the  stanza  immediately  preceding  that  which 
mentions  the  death  of  Mahanama,  and  there  is  no  reason  to 
doubt  the  chronological  sequence  as  intended  by  the  author 
of  this  part  of  the  Mahavamsa.  This  being  so,  one  or  both  of 
the  above  statements  cannot  be  accepted  considering  the 
number  of  Commentaries  that  have  to  be  dated  after  the 
Samantapasadika.  First  of  all,  the  Kankhavitarani  which  in 
all  probability  followed  its  major  Vinaya  Commentary  would 
have  kept  the  author  occupied  before  he  embarked  on  the 
Agama  Commentaries  which,  considering  their  bulk  would 
have  required  at  least  three  years  of  work  if  the  Samanta- 
pasadika took  him  one  year  (or  more).  The  revision  of 
the  Abhidhamma  Commentaries  too  should  be  assigned  to 
the  period  after  the  Samantapasadika.    Besides,  if  any  of  the 

1   Vide  PLC  98. 

xxviii  Inception  of  Discipline 

other  four  works  ^  that  are  attributed  to  Buddhaghosa  were 
his,  their  compilation  too  would  have  to  be  assigned  to  the 
period  after  the  Samantapasadika.  This  would  leave  us  in  the 
predicament  of  assigning  all  these  works  to  the  brief  period 
between  the  King's  twenty-first  regnal  year  and  his  death 
which  took  place  after  he  had  reigned  for  twenty-two  years. 
If  the  information  in  these  two  sources  is  correct,  there  is  no 
alternative  inference  but  to  say  that  Buddhaghosa  worked  at 
several  commentaries  simultaneously.  This  would  easily  explain 
the  cross-references  in  the  several  works  while  the  absence  of 
references  to  commentaries  on  works  that  follow  in  each  of 
the  Pitakas  in  the  Canonical  arrangement  presupposes  that 
commentaries  to  works  of  each  of  the  Pitakas  were  written 
strictly  in  the  order  in  which  these  works  occur  in  the  Canon. 

Other  Commentaries  attributed  to  Buddhaghosa 

This  scheme  has  not  taken  into  account  the  other  com- 
mentaries attributed  to  Buddhaghosa,  viz.  Paramatthajotika 
(KhA  and  SnA),  Dhammapadatthakatha,  and  Jatakatthakatha. 
The  prologue  to  Paramatthajotika  states  that  the  author  sets 
out  to  comment  on  the  Khuddakas  which  he  differentiates  from 
the  Khuddaka  Nikaya  :  Khuddakani  nama  Khuddakanika- 
yassa  ekadeso,  Khuddakanikayo  nama  paiicanikayanani 
ekadeso,  "  The  Khuddakas  constitute  one  part  of  the  Khud- 
daka Nikaya  and  the  Khuddaka  Nikaya  a  part  of  the  Five 
Nikayas."  He  next  refers  to  the  "  greater  "  Khuddaka  Nikaya 
as  enumerated  in  the  Bahiranidana  (Smp.  31).  It  is  possible 
that  the  term  Khuddakas  is  meant  to  refer  to  Khuddakapatha 
and  Sutta  Nipata  as  the  Commentaries  to  both  these  works 
go  by  the  same  name  Paramatthajotika,  while  the  other  two 
Commentaries  on  works  from  the  Khuddaka  Nikaya  which 
are  attributed  to  Buddhaghosa  have  no  separate  names  of 
their  own,  but  are  merely  called  Dhammapadatthakatha  and 
Jatakatthakatha.  The  colophons  to  the  Commentaries  to 
Khuddakapatha  and  Sutta  Nipata  do  not  provide  any  addi- 
tional information  except  that  the  usual  postscript  is  appended. 
Adikaram  (EHBC  7  f .)  doubts  the  authenticity  of  the  tradition 
which  attributes  the  Paramatthajotika  to  Buddhaghosa  and 

1  KhA.,  SnA.,  DhA.,  JA. 

Translator's  Introduction  xxix 

gives  his  reasons  for  it,  briefly  examining  the  two  works  which 
comprise  the  Paramatthajotika.  He  even  doubts  whether  the 
two  Commentaries  in  it  were  the  work  of  the  same  author 
and  suggests  that  the  commentator  Buddhaghosa  to  whom 
the  works  are  attributed  may  be  the  Elder  by  that  name 
mentioned  in  the  AtthasaUni  (DhsA.  i,  st.  8)  and  Sammo- 
havinodani  (VibhA.  523)  at  whose  request  these  works  were 

The  Dhammapadatthakatha  in  its  prologue  mentions  that 
the  excellent  commentary  found  in  the  language  of  the  Island 
of  Tambapanni,  handed  down  from  generations  does  not  serve 
the  purpose  of  others  (i.e.  foreign  monks),  and  that  Buddha- 
ghosa is  translating  it  into  Pali  at  the  request  of  the  Elder 
Kumarakassapa(DhA.  i,  i,  stt.  5,  7),  while  the  colophon  adds 
that  he  wrote  it  when  living  in  the  storeyed  dwelling  of  King 
Sirikudda  (i.e.  Mahanama)  in  the  monastery  which  was  caused 
to  have  been  erected  by  the  grateful  Emperor  (DhA.  iv,  235, 
St.  2).  The  stanza  does  not  make  it  clear  whether  King 
Sirikudda  and  the  Emperor  are  one  and  the  same.  In  spite 
of  this,  the  authorship  of  this  commentary  remains  doubtful 
(see  PLC  96  ff.  for  a  detailed  discussion),  though  there  is  yet  a 
possibility,  in  spite  of  the  difference  in  language  and  style 
between  this  work  and  Buddhaghosa's  major  commentaries, 
that  it  may  be  by  him. 

The  next  work,  Jatakatthakatha,  too  is  attributed  to  Buddha- 
ghosa, but  it  is  extremely  doubtful  whether  it  was  by  him 
(see  PLC  117  ff.).  The  prologue  seems  to  suggest  that  Buddha- 
ghosa was  its  author  as  it  follows  the  usual  pattern  of  the 
prologues  to  his  works  and  points  out  that  the  commentary 
will  be  based  on  the  tradition  of  the  Mahavihara  :  Jatakassa 
atthavannanarn  Mahaviharavasinam  vacanamagganissitarn 
bhasissam  (JA  i,  i,  st.  10  f.).  But  indirectly  a  greater  antiquity 
is  claimed  for  this  work  than  any  of  the  other  works  of  Buddha- 
ghosa in  Ceylon,  if  Buddhamitta,  who  is  mentioned  in  the 
prologue,  was  the  teacher  under  whom  Buddhaghosa  studied 
the  Sihala  Atthakatha  (Smp.  P.T.S.,  1415),  for  no  other  work 
goes  so  far  back  as  to  mention  Buddhamitta' s  preceptor. 
It  is  very  unlikely  that  the  other  Buddhamitta,  his  fellow- 
resident  at  Mayiirapattana  (MA.  v,  109)  would  have  had  his 

XXX  Inception  of  Discipline 

preceptor  in  Ceylon.  The  two  monks  Atthadassi  and  Buddha- 
mitta  (of  the  Mahavihara)  and  Buddhadeva  "  of  keen  intellect 
belonging  to  the  Mahimsasaka  Sect  "  (st.  7)  jointly  request 
the  author  to  compile  this  work.  This  creates  another  problem 
of  how  a  monk  belonging  to  a  rival  School  to  the  Mahavihara 
could  reconcile  himself  with  the  Mahavihara  tradition.  Thus  the 
prologue,  in  the  face  of  all  these  contradictions,  appears  spurious 
and  looks  like  an  attempt  of  a  later  writer  to  invest  it  with 
more  authenticity  than  was  really  necessary  to  show  that  it 
was  Buddhaghosa's.  The  colophon  too  is  quite  different  from 
what  is  usually  found  in  Buddhaghosa's  works  and  consists 
of  a  long  patthana  which  by  no  stretch  of  imagination  could 
have  come  from  Buddhaghosa's  pen.  The  absence  of  the  usual 
postscript  is  also  very  significant.  The  reference  in  the  Sutta- 
nipata  Atthakatha  (Pj.  ii,  357)  to  the  Nidanakatha  of  the 
Jatakatthakatha  may  or  may  not  refer  to  this  version,  for  it 
might  as  well  refer  to  the  version  in  the  Sihala  Atthakatha 
on  which  the  extant  work  is  based.  ^  The  Manor  at  hapiirani 
closes  the  last  important  chapter  in  Buddhaghosa's  literary 
career,  and  aptly  bears  that  name  to  commemorate  the  fulfil- 
ment of  his  heart's  desire  to  compile  commentaries  to  all  the 
Four  Agamas  (see  the  colophon,  AA.  v,  98  f.).  In  spite  of  the 
doubts  cast  on  these  works  regarding  their  authorship,  if  a 
date  is  to  be  assigned  to  them,  it  has  to  be  after  the  date  of  the 
Manorat hapiirani.  No  chronological  arrangement  is  possible 
except  to  say  that  Khuddakapatha  Atthakatha  preceded  the 
Suttanipata  Atthakatha  and  that  these  two  preceded  Dhamma- 
padatthakatha  and  Jatakatthakatha.  Geiger  {Pali  Language 
and  Literature,  p.  32)  states  that  the  Dhammapadatthakatha 
is  later  than  the  Jatakatthakatha,  but  gives  no  reasons  for 
saying  so. 

In  our  search  for  further  corroborative  evidence  we  have  to 
turn  to  the  colophons  of  the  works  which  are  definitely  known 
to  be  Buddhaghosa's,  even  though  the  information  given  in 
them  cannot  solve  the  question  of  relative  chronology.  The 
stereotyped  postscript  is  of  no  value  at  all  as  it  can  very 
well  belong  to  a  subsequent    scribe.    The    colophon  to  the 

^  Smp.  Sinh.  ed,,  p.  179,  refers  to  a  Jataka  Nikaya  along  with  the  four 
prose  Nikayas. 

Translator's  Introduction  xxxi 

Jatakatthakatha,  which  is  the  only  one  besides  that  to  Samanta- 
pasadika  which  could  have  provided  some  useful  information, 
cannot  be  relied  upon.  The  colophon  of  Visuddhimagga  says 
that  the  work  was  written  on  the  invitation  of  a  monk  named 
Sanghapala,  of  whom  nothing  else  is  known.  The  names  of 
theras  who  figure  in  the  colophons  to  the  other  works  (sum- 
marized in  EHBC,  5  £f.)  are  not  of  much  help  unless  something 
precise  is  known  about  them.  Even  here,  the  formal  request 
to  write  these  books  could  have  been  made  long  before  the 
actual  commencement  of  the  works  concerned.  Thus,  Buddha- 
mitta's  request  to  write  the  commentary  to  the  Majjhima 
Nikaya  was  made  at  Mayiirapattana,  and  Jotipala's  to  write 
the  commentary  to  the  Samyutta  Nikaya  was  made  perhaps 
at  Kaiici.  It  was  probably  the  same  Jotipala,  Buddhaghosa's 
fellow-resident,  who  requested  him  both  at  Kafici  and  in  the 
Mahavihara  to  write  the  commentary  to  the  Anguttara  Nikaya. 
Buddhamitta,  under  whom  he  studied  the  Sihala  Atthakatha, 
was  different  from  his  old  friend  by  that  name  of  his  Kanci 
days.  It  is  the  former  Buddhamitta  who  is  also  referred  to  as 
Buddhasiri  in  the  Bahiranidana  (see  Smp.  i,  n.  5).  The  writer 
of  the  prologue  to  the  Jatakatthakatha  also  refers  to  the  same 
Elder  when  he  mentions  the  name  along  with  that  of  his 
preceptor  Atthadassi. 

Sources  of  the  Bahiranidana 

Coming  back  to  the  Bahiranidana,  a  few  words  regarding  its 
style  and  arrangement  are  necessary  at  this  stage.  As  these  are 
to  some  extent  determined  by  the  nature  of  the  sources  of  which 
it  is  a  somewhat  faithful  translation,  a  brief  reference  should 
be  made  to  them  in  passing,  though  there  seems  to  be  hardly 
anything  to  be  added  to  what  has  already  been  said  by  Olden- 
berg  (the  Dipavamsa,  edition  and  translation,  pp.  2  ff.), 
Geiger  (the  Dipavamsa  and  the  Mahavamsa,  pp.  43  ff.,  the 
Mahavamsa,  English  translation,  pp.  ix  ff.),  and  Malalasekera 
(Vamsatthappakasini-Mahavamsa  Tika,  i,  pp.  Ivi  ff.).  What 
has  been  said  with  reference  to  these  works  applies  to  some 
extent  to  the  Bahiranidana  as  well,  for  all  these  works  are  based 
on  practically  the  same  source-material  with  a  few  modifica- 
tions and  changes  necessitated  by  the  aim  in  view  and  the 

xxxii  Inception  of  Discipline 

individual  taste  of  their  respective  authors.  Opinion  differs 
as  to  what  this  source-material  was  as  regards  details  though 
fundamentally  there  is  a  certain  degree  of  agreement.  Olden- 
berg  identifies  the  Porana,  Poranatthakatha,  and  Atthakatha 
Mahavarnsa  as  referring  to  one  and  the  same  source.  He 
holds  that  this  formed  the  historical  introduction  to  the 
Sinhalese  Commentary  of  the  Mahavihara,  the  Maha  or  Miila 
Atthakatha,  and  that  it  was  an  essential  constituent  part  of 
the  latter  "  composed  in  order  to  give  the  dogmatical  contents 
of  the  latter  the  indispensable  historical  foundation  ".  Geiger's 
view  is  that  there  was  an  ancient  independent  chronicle 
belonging  to  the  Mahavihara  bringing  the  historical  records 
down  to  Mahasena's  reign,  the  rewritten  Pali  version  of  which 
is  the  present  Mahavarnsa.  This  he  compares  to  the  medieval 
monastic  chronicles  of  Europe  (ibid.,  p.  64).  Malalasekera 
agrees  with  him  and  identifies  it  with  the  Sinhalese  Atthakatha 
Mahavarnsa  and  points  out  that  originally  this  chronicle  formed 
an  historical  introduction  to  the  Canonical  commentary  and 
dealt  only  with  the  following  items  : 

Dipagamanam  Buddhassa  dhatu  ca  bodhiyagamarn 
sanghacariyavadaii  ca  dipamhi  sasanagamarn 
narindagamanarn  vamsarn  .  .  . 

"  The  Buddha's  visits  to  the  Island,  the  arrival  of  the  relic (s), 
and  of  the  Bodhi,  the  (doctrinal)  tradition  of  the  leading  Elders 
of  the  Sangha,  the  establishment  of  the  Dispensation  in  the 
Island,  the  coming  of  the  King  and  the  genealogy  .  .  ." 
(Dpv.  i,  i).  Later  it  incorporated  extraneous  matter  and 
developed  into  an  independent  compilation,  whose  custodians 
were  the  Mahavihara  monks  (ibid.,  Iviii).  He  adds  that  the 
historical  tradition  grew  by  various  stages  by  the  inclusion  of 
new  material  as  time  went  on  and  that  it  was  added  on  to  the 
already  existing  Porana-atthakatha  (ibid.,  lix).  The  already 
existing  Porana-atthakatha  were  the  Commentaries  to  the 
Canon.  Perhaps  the  introductions  to  Buddhaghosa's  Com- 
mentaries to  the  first  book  of  each  of  the  Pitakas  (Smp.,  DA, 
DhsA)  may  be  helpful  in  determining  those  portions  of  the 
original  Porana-atthakatha,  as  unnecessary  historical  details 
of  the  Island  have  no  relevance  to  his  purpose  which  was  to 

Translator's  Introduction  xxxiii 

establish  the  genuineness  of  the  Textual  and  Comment  arial 
tradition  in  Ceylon. 

Thus  many  of  the  problems  connected  with  the  Dipavamsa 
and  the  Mahavamsa  regarding  additional  information  not  found 
in  the  Commentarial  introductions  do  not  arise  in  the  case  of 
the  Bahiranidana  which  has  a  limited  aim  in  view.  Further- 
more, its  historical  introduction  is  purely  from  the  point  of 
view  of  the  Vinaya  tradition  and  nothing  else,  while  the  list 
of  kings  and  the  chronological  details  (at  Smp.  76)  are  merely 
incidental.  Here,  too,  it  does  not  proceed  beyond  Devanam- 
piyatissa,  while  the  Vinaya  tradition  is  traced  as  far  as  the 
date  indicated  by  the  phrase  yava  ajjatana  (about  first  century 
A.C.),  through  a  succession  of  Vinaya  teachers.  Whether  there 
was  an  independent  chronicle,  or  whether  the  Sihala  Atthakatha 
were  prefixed  with  an  introduction  which  from  time  to  time 
was  augmented  to  include  events  up  to  Mahasena's  reign,  it 
can  be  said  without  any  degree  of  doubt  that  the  portion 
covered  by  the  Bahiranidana  did  certainly  belong  to  the 
Sihala  Atthakatha  to  the  Canon  as  "  the  indispensable  founda- 
tion "  of  the  Vinaya  is  discussed  in  it.  In  giving  the  historical 
foundation  of  the  Vinaya,  Buddhaghosa  has  skilfully  woven 
together  into  the  narrative  much  relevant  information,  e.g. 
the  classification  of  the  Teachings,  etc.,  which  may  or  may 
not  have  been  found  in  the  sources,  and  most  probably  not  in 
the  context  in  which  it  is  presented  in  the  Bahiranidana  as 
well  as  in  the  introductions  to  Sumangalavilasini  and  Attha- 
salini.  This  historical  background  portrayed  the  continuity 
of  the  Vinaya  as  far  as  the  sources  would  go.  All  the  events 
that  are  found  recorded  in  the  chronicles  coming  after  the  date 
of  the  source  materials  of  the  Bahiranidana,  as  well  as  the 
historical  data  not  relevant  in  establishing  the  genuineness  of 
the  Textual  and  Commentarial  tradition  in  Ceylon,  should  be 
treated  as  "  foreign  "  to  the  Sihala  Atthakatha  on  the  Canon. 
They  are,  however,  quite  appropriate  in  the  Atthakatha 
Mahavamsa  (or  Sihalatthakatha  Mahavamsa)  and  other  Porana 
sources  outside  the  Maha-Atthakatha  and  other  allied 
recensions  of  the  Sinhalese  Commentaries  on  the  Tipitaka. 
This  would  naturally  lead  us  to  the  inference  that  the  sources 
of  the  Pali  Commentaries  and  those  of  the  Chronicles  were 

xxxiv  Inception  of  Discipline 

distinct  though  not  necessarily  independent  and  that  the  latter 
included  all  that  was  necessary  for  their  purpose  from  among 
the  sources  of  the  former. 

Buddhaghosa's  role,  as  well  as  that  of  Mahanama,  the  author 
of  the  Mahavamsa,  was  to  translate  the  available  material  into 
PaH  (see  Mhv.  Tika,  i,  36,  etc.,  loc.  cit.,  pp.  Ivi).  As  the  Tika 
states,  the  Mahavamsa  was  a  faithful  rendering  of  the  original 
Sinhalese  source-material  with  the  only  change  that  it  was  put 
into  Pali  verse.  Compared  with  the  previous  clumsy  attempt 
at  versification  in  the  Dipavarnsa,  Mahavamsa  stands  out  as 
a  work  of  considerable  poetic  achievement  though  it  falls 
short  of  the  elegant  poetry  of  the  Canonical  metrical  literature. 
The  fact  that  it  was  a  metrical  rendering  could  have 
placed  certain  restrictions  and  limitations  on  the  author 
as  regards  presenting  a  faithful  rendering  of  the  original 
material.  In  the  case  of  the  Bahiranidana  there  were  no  such 
restrictions,  and  undoubtedly  one  may  suppose  that  it  is  even 
more  faithful  to  the  original  Sinhalese  source  than  the  more 
elegant  literary  product,  the  Mahavamsa.  It  is  partly  on  this 
basis  that  minor  discrepancies  in  some  proper  names  between 
the  Bahiranidana  and  the  Chronicles  are  to  be  explained, 
e.g.  Issaranimmana,  Kalingakula,  Pakundaka,  Tavakka,  etc. 
(see  notes  to  Translation).  However,  the  word-for-word 
similarity  between  wholesale  passages  of  the  Bahiranidana 
and  the  Chronicles  (see  Geiger,  the  Dipavarnsa  and  Mahavamsa, 
106  ff.)  shows  that  there  were  no  wide  divergences  between 
them.  This  similarity  does  not  presuppose  the  fact  that  the 
chronologically  later  work  was  based  on  the  earlier  work,  but 
that  they  go  back  to  a  common  tradition.  Where  actual 
quotations  are  made  from  the  Dipavarnsa  they  are  duly 
acknowledged  in  the  Bahiranidana  whereas  the  passages  taken 
wholesale  from  the  Porana  ^  are  acknowledged  as  such  and  the 
fact  that  the  Dipavarnsa  too  had  incorporated  them  is  ignored. 

The  Style  and  Arrangement  of  the  Bahiranidana 

As  stated  earlier,  the  style  and  arrangement  of  the  Bahirani- 
dana is  to  a  great  extent  determined  by  the  nature  of  its 

^  Both  the  Atthakatha  Mahavamsa  and  Sihala  Atthakatha  to  the  Tipitaka 
were  interspersed  with  Pali  verse.   See  Malalasekera,  Mhv.  Tika,  I,  Ivi  If. 

Translator's  Introduction  xxxv 

sources.  In  spite  of  Buddhaghosa's  commentaries  being 
translations  of  the  Sihala  Atthakatha  his  works  display  a 
literary  style  of  their  own.  Though  he  worked  under  serious 
limitations  as  regards  the  interpretation  of  the  Texts,  he  appears 
to  have  exercised  the  highest  freedom  when  he  clothed  his 
ideas  in  words.  His  prose  style  which  is  so  vigorous  and  lucid 
is  quite  different  from  the  sober  and  stereotyped  prose  of  the 
Nikayas.  The  old  idiom  is  already  archaic  by  Buddhaghosa's 
time.  Though  the  language  of  the  Vinaya  and  Abhidhamma 
Pitakas  shows  minor  differences  from  that  of  the  prose  Nikayas, 
there  is  essentially  no  fundamental  departure  from  the  older 
idiom.  The  Post-Canonical  works  Uke  the  Milinda  Pafiha, 
Nettippakarana,  and  Petakopadesa  exhibit  a  somewhat  greater 
degree  of  flexibility  not  seen  in  the  standard  prose  of  the 
Nikayas,  yet  betray  their  kinship  to  the  earlier  idiom.  Buddha- 
ghosa  makes  no  effort  to  conform  to  the  old  idiom  as  it  would 
have  hindered  his  free  expression  of  ideas.  The  restrictions 
imposed  by  the  no-longer  living  idiom  of  the  Canon  would 
have  made  his  task  very  difficult.  Yet  it  was  necessary  to 
re-edit  the  old  commentaries  in  the  language  of  the  Texts — 
palinayanurupam.  He  has  done  this  so  skilfully  that  it  met 
with  the  approval  of  the  Theras  not  only  as  regards  contents 
but  also  in  literary  style  :  Theriyacariya  sabbe  palim  viya  tam 
aggahurn — Mhv.  xxxvii,  245.  For  his  purpose  he  has  master- 
fully evolved  a  style  of  his  own  which  is  even  more  vigorous 
and  expressive  than  that  of  the  Milinda  Paiiha,  the  best  of  the 
Post-Canonical  works  as  regards  style  and  diction,  yet  keeping 
within  the  strict  rules  of  the  idiom  of  the  Texts — tantikkamam 
kail  ci  avokkamitva.  This  is  best  stated  in  the  words  of  Mala- 
lasekera  :  "In  place  of  the  archaic,  stilted,  sometimes  halting 
Sutta  speech,  almost  puritanical  in  its  simplicity,  groping 
about  often  for  want  of  words  to  express  ideas  and  concep- 
tions then  fresh  to  the  minds  of  the  users  of  this  or  that  dialect, 
Buddhaghosa  left  behind  him  in  his  many  works  a  language 
rich  in  its  vocabulary,  flexible  in  its  use,  elegant  in  structure, 
often  intricate  in  the  verbiage  of  its  constructions,  and  capable 
of  expressing  all  the  ideas  that  the  human  mind  had  then  con- 
ceived. Sonorous,  long-winded  sentences  took  the  place  of  the 
direct  simple  composition  of  the  Suttas  "  (PLC,  103). 

xxxvi  Inception  of  Discipline 

However,  this  literary  skill  is  not  seen  to  best  advantage  in 
the  actual  commentarial  portions  of  his  Commentaries,  but  in 
his  original  work  Visuddhimagga,  the  introductory  chapters 
to  his  Commentaries,  and  the  long  exegetical  remarks  and 
narrative  portions  of  his  works.  In  the  case  of  the  Bahirani- 
dana,  its  faithfulness  to  the  older  Porana  source,  in  the  bulk 
of  the  narrative,  has  not  given  Buddhaghosa  much  opportunity 
to  show  his  literary  skill  at  its  best.  Yet,  where  he  has  deviated 
from  the  sources,  his  true  genius  as  a  writer  of  elegant  Pali  is 
quite  evident.  The  best  examples  of  Buddhaghosa  occasionally 
exercising  great  freedom  when  he  cuts  himself  away  from  the 
sources  are  seen  in  a  few  scattered  descriptive  passages  in  the 
Bahiranidana,  e.g.  the  description  of  the  pavilion  erected  by 
Ajatasattu  (Smp.  lo),  of  Asoka's  supernatural  powers  (Smp.  44), 
Majjhantika's  conversion  of  Kasmira-Gandhara  (Smp.  65), 
Sona  and  Uttara  in  Suvannabhumi  (Smp.  72),  etc.  Some  of 
these  descriptions  betray  a  remarkable  affinity  to  the  highly 
ornate  descriptive  prose  of  Classical  Sanskrit  of  this  period. 
The  nature  of  the  material  to  be  dealt  with  is  such  that 
Buddhaghosa  had  very  little  opportunity  of  proving  his 
ability  as  a  "  creative  "  writer,  but  the  few  available  examples 
are  a  sufficient  indication  of  his  ability  in  this  direction. 
Furthermore,  some  idea  of  his  analytic  and  synthetic  treat- 
ment of  highly  abstruse  points  of  doctrine,  his  logical  reasoning 
and  pr oneness  to  abstraction,  best  seen  in  the  Visuddhimagga, 
can  be  gained  from  his  remarks  on  the  classification  of  the 
Buddha's  teachings,  especially  those  at  Smp.  25  ff. 

The  narrative  prose  of  the  Bahiranidana  can  be  classed 
among  the  best  of  its  category  in  Pali  literature  and  compares 
very  favourably  with  the  best  in  Indian  literature.  It  can 
claim  for  itself  this  distinction  not  only  for  its  clarity,  simplicity, 
and  vigour,  but  also  due  to  its  effective  presentation,  while 
at  the  same  time  closely  adhering  to  the  main  theme,  the 
Nidana  of  the  Vinaya.  In  spite  of  his  role  as  commentator, 
Buddhaghosa  reveals  himself  as  a  great  writer  of  narrative 
prose.  This  is  amply  illustrated  by  the  manner  in  which  the 
episodes  of  Tissa  (Smp.  39  ff.),  Nigrodha  (Smp.  47  f.),  Tissa, 
Asoka's  brother  (56  ff.),  the  conversion  of  the  Border  Districts 
(Smp.  65  ff.),  the  Great  Bodhi  (Smp.  97  ff.),  etc.,  are  presented. 

Translator' s  Introduction  xxxvii 

All  these  episodes  are  skilfully  woven  into  the  main  narrative 
with  the  greatest  ease  and  at  no  stage  do  they  appear  forced  or 
laboured.  He  makes  subsequent  reference  to  an  earlier  state- 
ment by  giving  details  to  justify  it,  e.g.  end  of  Smp.  i8,  Handa 
mayam  avuso  dhammaii  ca  vinayaii  ca  sangayama  ...  at 
Smp.  4  ;  Smp.  48,  Raja  sihapaiijare  thito  ...  at  the  top  of 
Smp.  47,  etc.  He  carries  this  simple  device  further  by  resorting 
to  the  so-called  "  flash-back  "  style  in  order  to  explain  an 
incident  or  introduce  a  new  figure  in  the  narrative,  e.g.  Smp.  47, 
56,  97  ff.,  etc.  He  does  so  in  order  to  avoid  a  break  in  the 
main  narrative  and  often  connects  up  the  episode  with  an 
introductory  phrase  such  as,  Tatrayarn  anupubbikatha  (Smp.47, 
64),  Ko  panayam  Nigrodho  nama  (Smp.  47),  Tissatthero 
nama  na  yo  va  so  va  (Smp.  56),  etc.  Compared  with  the 
chronological  sequence  in  which  events  are  recorded  in  the 
Chronicles,  this  manner  of  narrating  a  story  appears  to  be 
rather  unusual,  but  it  is  doubtful  whether  it  was  peculiar  to 
Buddhaghosa,  for  this  difference  between  the  Samantapasadika 
and  the  Chronicles  may  reflect  some  significant  fact  as  regards 
their  sources.  As  stated  earlier,  the  Samantapasadika  and  the 
Chronicles  have  drawn  from  two  different  sources  (not  neces- 
sarily independent)  and  the  main  narrative  in  the  Samanta- 
pasadika perhaps  reflects  the  introductory  portion  of  the 
Vinayatthakatha  of  the  Sihala  Atthakatha  while  the  supple- 
mentary material  drawn  from  other  Porana  sources,  including 
those  on  which  the  Chronicles  were  based,  was  included  in  the 
narrative  as  additional  information.  The  difference  in  sources 
is  perhaps  a  plausible  explanation  of  the  unusual  "  flash-back  " 
style  of  the  Bahiranidana.  On  the  other  hand,  it  may  equally 
be  said  that  there  is  nothing  new  in  this  technique  and  that 
it  goes  back  even  to  the  Canon,  e.g.  bhutapubbam  bhikkhave 
imissa  yeva  Savatthiya  .  .  .  etc.,  and  is  the  rule  in  the  Jataka 
literature  in  narrating  the  past  story,  e.g.  atitarn  ahari.  What- 
ever its  origin,  the  narration  of  a  story  in  historical  sequence 
is  not  considered  as  an  essential  element  in  the  Bahiranidana, 
whereas  the  Chronicles  try  to  maintain  it  as  far  as  possible. 
The  scant  attention  paid  to  it  in  the  Bahiranidana  even  tends 
to  confuse  the  reader.  For  example,  the  legend  of  the  Naga 
King  Kala  appears  earlier  in  the  narrative   (Smp.  45)   and 

xxxviii  Inception  of  Discipline 

mention  is  made  of  King  Asoka  paying  homage  to  the  image 
of  the  Buddha  created  by  him,  while  his  conversion  is  mentioned 
later  on  (Smp.  48).  Asoka's  reference  to  the  Dhamma  as 
"  ovada  "  in  his  conversation  with  Nigrodha  before  his  con- 
version, on  the  other  hand,  is  meant  to  impress  on  the  reader 
Asoka's  unfamiliarity  with  Buddhism.  (See  Smp.  81,  n.  2  for 
parallel  instances.)  Yet,  as  regards  chronology  the  Bahiranidana 
is  consistent  within  itself,  e.g.  see  the  chronological  details  of 
Asoka's  reign  given  at  Smp.  52,  53,  56,  74,  etc. 

The  Bahiranidana  is  seen  to  follow  the  usual  style  of  Pali 
Canonical  writings  when  it  intersperses  a  large  number  of 
stanzas  along  with  the  prose.  Many  of  these  stanzas  resemble 
stanzas  occurring  in  the  Dipavamsa  and  the  Mahavamsa,  but 
are  identical  in  a  few  instances  only.  Except  where  actual 
quotations  are  made  from  the  Dipavamsa,  the  rest  is  to  be 
traced  to  the  Pali  stanzas  of  the  Poranas,  already  referred  to, 
which  these  works  incorporated,  either  in  the  form  in  which 
they  occurred  in  the  different  versions  of  the  old  Atthakatha, 
or  with  a  few  modifications  to  suit  their  literary  style. 

Another  feature  the  Bahiranidana  shares  with  all  the  works 
of  Buddhaghosa  is  the  frequent  allusion  to  Canonical  Texts 
and  quotations  from  them  to  substantiate  his  statements, 
especially  in  his  exegetical  remarks,  e.g.  Smp.  28. 

Among  the  contents  of  the  Bahiranidana  there  are  several 
topics  of  great  interest,  the  most  important  of  which  are  the 
accounts  of  the  Three  Councils  and  the  traditions  pertaining 
to  them.  As  this  subject  has  been  exhaustively  dealt  with  from 
various  angles,  expressing  conflicting  views,  it  is  not  proposed 
to  take  it  up  here,  nor  have  any  observations  of  a  controversial 
nature  been  made  in  the  notes  to  the  Inception  of  Discipline. 
The  incidental  information  given  in  these  accounts  requires 
more  careful  examination  than  making  generalizations  on  the 
Councils  themselves,  which  are  too  vast  a  topic  to  be  taken 
up  here.  A  few  observations  have  been  made  in  the  notes  about 
the  traditional  classifications  of  the  Teachings  (Smp.  16  ff.). 
The  Succession  of  Teachers  in  India  (Smp.  35)  and  in  Ceylon 

Translator's  Introduction  xxxix 

(Smp.  63)  is  a  very  fruitful  field  for  investigation,  and  the 
work  already  done  so  far  by  scholars  in  this  field  requires  to 
be  carried  on  with  patient  toil  in  order  that  the  acariya- 
parampara  should  have  some  meaning  instead  of  its  remaining 
a  mere  list.  The  observations  made  on  Asoka's  associations  with 
Buddhism  in  the  light  of  the  data  available  in  the  Pali  sources 
should  help  the  reader  to  reassess  the  so-called  "  Buddhist  " 
edicts  of  Asoka  which  have  hitherto  been  neglected  ;  the 
tendency  so  far  has  been  to  treat  the  edicts  and  the  Pali 
sources  as  things  apart  shedding  no  mutual  light  on  one 
another.  A  fresh  examination  of  the  historicity  of  the  missions 
sent  out  after  the  Third  Council  and  Asoka's  relations  with  the 
kingdoms  over  which  his  "  dhammavijaya  "  extended  is  also 
necessary.  His  connexions  with  Ceylon,  too,  require  more 
careful  examination,  particularly  in  view  of  the  two  envoys 
sent  by  Tissa,  his  second  consecration,  and  the  adoption  of  the 
Mauryan  title  Devanampiya  which  was  later  adopted  by  several 
Sinhalese  Kings  (see  Epigraphia  Zeylanica,  i,  142).  It  is  not 
within  the  scope  of  a  book  of  this  nature  to  treat  adequately 
any  one  of  these  problems. 

N.  A.  Jayawickrama. 

Department  of  Pali  and  Buddhist  Civilization, 

University  of  Ceylon, 


January,  1962. 




Homage  to  the  Exalted  One,  the  worthy  and  fully  awakened. 

I — The  Preamble 

I.  I  pay  homage  to  that  Lord  of  great  compassion  who 
underwent  severe  hardships  for  a  long  period  which  cannot 
be  reckoned  even  in  terms  of  crores  of  aeons  and  brought 
pain  upon  himself  for  the  sake  of  the  welfare  of  the  world,     i. 

I  pay  homage  to  the  exalted  Dhamma,  the  resort  of  the 
awakened,  which  tears  asunder  the  tangle  of  defilements  such 
as  that  of  ignorance,  not  understanding  which,  the  world  of 
beings  goes  from  existence  to  existence.  2. 

I  prostrate  myself  before  the  worthy  Sangha,  the  field  for 
those  in  quest  of  merit,  which  is  endowed  with  the  virtues  of 
morality,  concentration,  wisdom,  and  insight  into  emancipa- 
tion. 3- 

I  have  won  an  incessant  flow  of  merit  by  my  adoration  of 
the  Triad  of  Gems  which  in  this  manner  is  most  worthy  of 
reverence ;  and  by  its  power  I  have  surmounted  all 
obstacles.  4. 

Placing  rehance  in  the  greatness  of  the  teachers  of  yore  ^ 
I  shall  expound  the  uncontaminated  Code  of  Discipline  by 
the  survival  of  which  is  assured  the  mainstay  of  the  Dispensa- 
tion of  the  Sage  of  great  stability  though  He  exists  no 
more. 2  5- 

Readily  have  the  pre-eminent  teachers  of  yore  who  have 
washed  away  the  stains  of  defilements  with  the  water  of  their 
wisdom,  [2]  being  endowed  with  analytical  knowledge  arising 
from  their  clear  wisdom  and  being  adept  in  the  exposition  of 
the  Good  Teaching —  6. 

and  who  are  like  unto  the  banners  of  the  Mahavihara,^ 
expounded  to  us  the  Discipline  of  the  higher  life  with  clear 
examples  and  divers  methods  as  adopted  by  the  noble 
Sambuddha,  the  Enlightened  One.  7. 


Inception  of  Discipline 

But  on  account  of  the  fact  that  this  exposition  had  been 
done  in  the  language  of  the  Island  of  Sihala,*  and  since  the 
monks  overseas  cannot  understand  the  meaning  thereof      8. 

I  shall  now  begin  this  exposition  in  conformity  with  the 
method  of  treatment  found  in  the  Sacred  Texts,  recollecting 
well  the  request  made  by  the  Elder  named  Buddhasiri.  ^       9. 

And  in  commencing  the  exposition  I  shall  practically  base 
it  on  the  Maha-atthakatha  ^  as  well  as  the  Mahapaccariya  ^ 
without  discarding  the  relevant  statements  and  the  rulings 
given  in  the  recognized  commentaries  such  as  the  Kurundi  ® ; 
and  thenceforth  I  shall  proceed  with  the  correct  exposition  of 
the  Tradition  of  the  Elders  ^  embodied  therein.  lo-ii. 

May  the  Elders  and  monks  both  young  and  middling  with 
devotion  at  heart  and  holding  in  high  esteem  the  Teaching 
of  the  Tathagata  who  is  the  guiding  lamp  of  the  Dhamma, 
hearken  unto  me.  12. 

The  Buddha  has  declared  both  the  Dhamma  and  the 
Vinaya  which  his  Sons  ^^  came  to  know  likewise.  Since,  in 
the  past,  11  commentaries  were  written  without  ignoring  their 
judgments,  13. 

[3]  I  shall  therefore  avoid  the  incorrect  statements  (scribes' 
errors)  handed  down  in  those  commentaries,  for  the  final 
authority  here  are  the  men  of  learning  who  have  the  highest 
esteem  for  the  methods  of  training.^^  14. 

Thence  giving  up  recourse  to  a  different  tongue, ^^  con- 
densing protracted  exegesis,  without  excluding  any  formal 
decision  nor  deviating  from  the  method  of  exposition  found 
in  the  textual  tradition  even  in  a  small  measure —  15. 

this  exposition  should  be  studied  with  care  as  it  will  offer 
explanations  in  harmony  with  the  Suttas  (discourses)  taking 
into  account  the  statements  of  those  who  are  well  versed 
in  the  Suttantas.^*  16. 

2.  Since  it  is  said  here  that  I  would  expound  the  Vinaya,  the 
term  Vinaya  itself  should  be  first  defined  ;  and  hence  it  is  said 
that  the  entire  Vinaya  Pitaka  is  meant  by  the  term  Vinaya 
here.    Here  is  its  tabulation  for  purposes  of  exposition  : 

By  whom  it  was  said,  when,  for  what  reason,  held  by  whom, 

First  Great  Convocation  3 

handed  down  by  whom,  where  it  was  estabUshed  :    having 
thus  explained  the  procedure 

I  shall  proceed  to  show  in  divers  ways  the  significance  of 
the  section  beginning  with  tena  ^  and  compile  a  commentary 
to  the  Vinaya. 

Here  the  phrase,  "  by  whom  it  was  said,  when  and  for  what 
reason  "  has  been  used  with  reference  to  the  statement  begin- 
ning with, 2  "  At  that  time  the  Buddha,  the  Exalted  One  was 
living  at  Veraiija."  This  evidently  is  not  a  statement  made 
personally  by  the  Buddha  himself.  Therefore  it  is  imperative 
that  we  state  [4]  by  whom  this  statement  was  made,  when  and 
for  what  reason.  The  venerable  Elder  Upali  uttered  this  at 
the  time  of  the  First  Great  Convocation,  and  this  First  Great 
Convocation  has  been  dwelt  upon  at  length  in  the  Section 
dealing  with  the  Convocation  of  the  Five  Hundred.^  For  the 
sake  of  familiarity  with  the  source,  here  too,  it  should  be 
understood  in  the  following  manner. 

II — The  Account  of  the  First  Great  Convocation 

3.  When  the  Exalted  One,  the  Lord  of  the  world  had  passed 
away  in  the  element  of  Nibbana  which  is  devoid  of  any  material 
substratum,  at  the  hour  of  day-break  on  the  full  moon  day  of 
the  month  of  Visakha  ^  between  the  twin  sala  trees  in  the 
Upavattana  sala-grove  of  the  Mallas  in  Kusinara,^  having 
discharged  the  functions  of  an  Enlightened  One,  beginning 
with  the  turning  of  the  Wheel  of  the  Dhamma,^  down  to  the 
conversion  of  the  wandering  ascetic  Subhadda,*  the  venerable 
Mahakassapa  the  leading  Elder  ^  among  the  700,000  monks 
who  had  assembled  at  the  passing  away  in  perfect  Nibbana 
of  the  Exalted  One,  recollecting  after  the  lapse  of  seven  days 
from  the  passing  away  in  perfect  Nibbana  of  the  Exalted 
One,  the  words  uttered  by  Subhadda  ^  who  had  taken  to  the 
ascetic  life  in  old  age,  namely,'  "  Away  with  it  friends,  grieve 
not,  lament  not,  we  are  well  rid  of  the  Great  Recluse  who  was 
wont  to  tell  us  what  was  befitting  and  what  was  not  and  hence 
made  our  lives  miserable ;  but  now  we  will  do  whatever  we  please 
and  not  do  what  we  please  not  "  ;     kindled  the  enthusiasm 

4  Inception  of  Discipline 

among  the  Order  of  monks  to  bring  about  a  rehearsal  of 
the  Dhamma  and  Vinaya  and  further  reflected,^  "  It  may  be 
that  the  occasion  would  arise  for  evil-minded  monks  to  think 
that  the  Sacred-word  is  such  that  its  Teacher  is  no  more,  to 
form  factions  and  before  long  make  the  Good  Teaching  dis- 
appear for  ever.  As  long  as  the  Dhamma  and  Vinaya  endure, 
so  long  will  the  Sacred-word  be  such  that  its  Teacher  has  not 
passed  into  oblivion.  And  so  has  the  Exalted  One  said,^ 
'  O  Ananda,  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  that  I  have  declared 
to  you  [5]  and  laid  down  before  you  (respectively)  that  itself 
will  be  your  teacher  after  my  demise.'  It  behoves  me  to  rehearse 
the  Dhamma  and  Vinaya  so  that  the  Dispensation  would  endure 
and  remain  for  long.  Since  I  have  been  honoured  with  equality 
in  the  use  of  robes  by  the  Exalted  One  saying,^^  '  Kassapa,  you 
may  wear  my  patch-work  hempen  robes  which  I  no  longer 
use/  and  also  honoured  by  placing  me  on  an  equal  footing 
with  Himself  with  reference  to  transcendental  attainments  ^^ 
consisting  of  the  categories  such  as  the  sixfold  higher  know- 
ledge 12  and  the  ninefold  successive  modes  of  abiding  ^^  with 
such  statements  as,^*  '  O  monks,  as  long  as  he  wishes,  Kassapa 
can  enter  and  abide  in  the  first  jhana  (spiritual  rapture)  being 
detached  from  sensual  pleasures,  etc.',  what  other  unindebted- 
ness  will  there  be  unto  me  as  such  ?  Has  not  the  Exalted  One 
conferred  upon  me  this  unique  honour  of  considering  me  as 
the  protector  of  the  lineage  of  His  Good  Teaching  even  as  a 
king  would  his  own  son  as  the  perpetuator  of  his  dynasty  by 
conferring  upon  him  his  armour  and  regal  splendour  ?  " 

4.  For  it  has  been  said,^  "  Thereupon  the  venerable  Maha- 
kassapa  addressed  the  monks,  '  On  one  occasion,  friends,  I  had 
set  out  on  the  high  road  from  Pava  to  Kusinara  with  a  large 
company  of  monks,  about  five  hundred  in  number.'  "  In  this 
manner  the  entire  Section  dealing  with  Subhadda  ^  should  be 
understood  in  detail. 

[6]  Subsequently  he  said,^  "  Let  us,  friends,  rehearse  the 
Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  :  in  the  past  what  was  contrary  to 
the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  prevailed,  the  Dhamma  and  the 
Vinaya  were  disregarded  ;  those  who  held  views  contrary  to 
the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  held  sway  while  those  who 

First  Great  Convocation  5 

professed  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  were  powerless."  *  The 
monks  rejoined,  "  If  that  be  so,  Sir,  may  the  Elder  select  the 
monks  (for  the  Convocation)." 

The  Elder  rejected  many  hundreds  and  thousands  of  monks 
in  the  categories  of  worldling,  Stream-Entrant,  Once-Returner, 
Non-Returner,  and  Dry  Visioned  Arahant  ^  and  canker-waned 
Arahant,  all  of  whom  were  versed  in  the  Teachings  consisting 
of  the  entire  ninefold  Dispensation  of  the  Teacher  and  chose 
499  canker-waned  monks  who  alone  were  proficient  with  regard 
to  the  learning  in  all  aspects  of  the  Teachings  in  the  entire 
Three  Baskets,  had  attained  mastery  in  analytical  knowledge, 
were  of  no  mean  achievement,  and  for  the  greater  part  were 
classified  by  the  Exalted  One  as  an  expert  each  in  his  field 
in  the  distinct  spheres  of  the  threefold  knowledge.^  Regarding 
them  it  has  been  said,"^  "  Thereupon  the  venerable  Mahakassapa 
selected  five  hundred  Arahant s  less  one." 

5.  Why  did  the  Elder  make  the  number  fall  short  by  one  ? 
To  make  room  for  the  venerable  Elder  Ananda.  It  was  not 
possible  to  hold  the  Convocation  with  or  without  that  venerable 
one,  for  he  was  yet  a  Learner  ^  with  his  (spiritual)  task  yet 
unaccomplished.  Therefore  it  was  not  permissible  to  have  him 
at  the  Convocation.  Since  there  was  no  section  whatsoever  of 
the  Teachings  of  the  Lord  of  Ten  Powers  commencing  with 
the  discourses  and  mixed  prose  and  verse  utterances  ^  which  he 
himself  had  not  learned  from  the  Exalted  One,  it  was  equally 
not  possible  to  hold  it  without  him.  This  being  so,  even  though 
he  was  yet  a  Learner  he  would  have  to  be  selected  by  the 
Elder  on  account  of  the  great  service  that  might  be  rendered 
by  him  at  the  rehearsal  of  the  Dhamma  ;  but  the  reason  for 
his  not  [7]  being  selected  was  to  absolve  himself  (Kassapa) 
of  the  blame  of  others. 

The  Elder  had  great  confidence  in  the  venerable  Ananda,  so 
much  so,  that  even  after  grey  hair  started  appearing  on  his 
head,  he  used  to  look  upon  him  as  a  lad  and  address  him,  "  And 
Oh  !  this  lad  has  not  understood  even  this  little."  (Had  he 
been  chosen)  the  monks  would  have  subjected  him  to  hostile 
criticism,  saying  that  the  Elder  had  chosen  Ananda  who  was 
endowed  with  the  analytic  insight  of  but  a  Learner  in  preference 

6  Inception  of  Discipline 

to  many  monks  who  had  reached  perfection  and  were  also 
endowed  with  analytic  insight  in  conformity  with  it,  and 
would  think  that  in  this  instance  he  was  prejudiced  in  his  favour 
as  this  venerable  one  was  born  of  the  Sakya  Clan  and  was  the 
Tathagata's  cousin,  being  the  son  of  his  father's  younger 
brother.  While  avoiding  that  censure  by  others  he  (purposely) 
did  not  select  him,  reflecting  (at  the  same  time)  that  it  was  not 
possible  to  hold  the  rehearsal  without  Ananda  (but)  he  would 
accept  him  only  on  the  express  wish  of  the  monks. 

Thereupon  the  monks  themselves  begged  of  the  Elder  on 
Ananda's  behalf  ;  for  it  has  been  said  ^ :  "  The  monks  spoke 
thus  to  Venerable  Mahakassapa,  '  Yonder  Venerable  Ananda, 
Sir,  even  though  he  is  yet  a  Learner,  is  incapable  of  going  on 
a  wrong  course  through  desire,  ill-will,  fear,  or  delusion  *  ; 
he  has  mastered  much  of  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  under 
the  Exalted  One.  Therefore,  Sir,  may  the  Elder  nominate 
Venerable  Ananda  as  well.'  "  Thereupon  Venerable  Maha- 
kassapa selected  Venerable  Ananda  as  well.  There  were  thus 
500  Elders  including  that  venerable  one  who  was  selected  on 
the  express  wish  of  the  monks. 

6.  It  then  occurred  to  the  Elder  monks,^  "  Where  shall  we 
rehearse  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  ?  "  Thereupon  it  again 
occurred  to  them,  [8]  "  Food  is  plentiful  at  Rajagaha,^  and 
lodgings  are  easy  to  obtain  there.  Well  then,  let  us  rehearse 
the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  spending  the  Rains-residence  ^ 
at  Rajagaha,  and  let  not  other  monks  enter  upon  the  Rains- 
residence  there."  Why  did  they  think  in  this  manner  ?  (Their 
idea  was  :)  "  Perhaps  some  undesirable  individual  may  come 
into  the  midst  of  the  monks  and  disturb  this  gigantic  under- 
taking of  ours."  Then  the  venerable  Mahakassapa  made  an 
announcement  followed  by  a  formal  Act  of  the  Order.*  It 
should  be  understood  as  stated  in  the  Section  dealing  with  the 

7.  A  fortnight  had  elapsed  since  the  time  of  the  passing  away 
of  the  Tathagata  in  perfect  Nibbana  when  seven  days  were 
spent  in  sacred  festivities  ^  and  a  further  seven  days  in  paying 
homage  to  the  relics  and  so  on.    And  the  Elder  Mahakassapa, 

First  Great  Convocation  7 

considering  that  one  and  a  half  months  of  the  summer  were  yet 
remaining  and  that  the  day  for  entering  upon  the  Rains- 
residence  2  was  fast  drawing  nigh,  took  with  him  half  the  number 
of  the  Order  of  monks  saying,  "  Friends,  we  shall  repair  to 
Rajagaha,"  and  went  in  one  direction.  The  Elder  Anuruddha 
took  with  him  the  other  half  and  went  by  a  different  route. 

8.  On  the  other  hand,  the  Elder  Ananda,  taking  with  him 
the  bowl  and  the  robe  of  the  Exalted  One  and  being  attended 
by  a  company  of  monks  went  on  a  missionary  tour  in  the 
direction  of  Savatthi  ^  in  his  eagerness  to  repair  to  Rajagaha 
visiting  Savatthi  first. ^  Wherever  the  Elder  Ananda  went, 
there  was  great  lamentation  to  the  effect,  "  O  Sir,  Venerable 
Ananda,  where  have  you  left  the  Teacher  that  you  are  coming 
here  ?  "  In  due  course  the  Elder  arrived  at  Savatthi ;  the 
lamentation  there  was  great,  as  it  had  been  on  the  day  of  the 
passing  away  of  the  Exalted  One  in  perfect  Nibbana.  Thereupon 
the  venerable  Ananda  consoled  the  populace  with  a  discourse  on 
the  Dhamma  dealing  with  transciency  and,  entering  the  Jeta 
Grove  opened  the  door  of  the  Fragrant  Chamber  which  used 
to  be  the  dwelhng  of  the  Lord  of  Ten  Powers,  shifted  the  couch 
and  seats,  dusted  them,  swept  the  Fragrant  Chamber,  [9]  threw 
away  the  rubbish  of  withered  flowers  and  garlands,  brought 
back  the  couch  and  the  seats  and  placed  them  in  their  former 
places  and  did  all  the  ministrations  which  he  would  have  done 
when  the  Exalted  One  had  been  alive.  Then  the  Elder  took  a 
purgative  in  milk  on  the  following  day  in  order  to  allay  the 
humours  of  his  body  which  were  disturbed  on  account  of  the 
excessively  sedentary  life  he  had  led  from  the  time  of  the  passing 
away  of  the  Exalted  One  in  perfect  Nibbana, ^  and  remained 
indoors  in  the  monastery.  He  referred  to  it  when  he  told  the 
young  brahmin  messenger  *  whom  Subha  the  brahmin  had 
sent,  "  Young  man,  it  will  not  suit  me  today.  I  have  taken 
some  medicine.  Perhaps  I  shall  come  to-morrow."  On  the 
following  day,  he  went  accompanied  by  the  Elder  Cetaka  as 
his  attendant  monk  and,  when  questioned  by  Subha  the 
brahmin,  preached  the  tenth  sutta  of  the  Dighanikaya  called 
Subhasutta.^  After  that  the  Elder  supervised  the  repairs  to 
the  broken  and  shattered  portions  of  the  Jetavana  Monastery 

8  Inception  of  Discipline 

and,  when  the  day  for  entering  upon  the  Rains-residence  drew 
near,  went  to  Rajagaha.  Likewise,  the  Elders  Mahakassapa 
and  Anuruddha  took  with  them  the  entire  company  of  monks 
and  went  to  Rajagaha  itself. 

9.  At  that  time  there  were  eighteen  great  monasteries  at 
Rajagaha.  And  all  of  them  were  soiled  with  the  cast-off  and 
accumulated  rubbish.  For,  at  the  time  of  the  passing  away 
of  the  Exalted  One  in  perfect  Nibbana  all  the  monks  took  each 
his  bowl  and  robe  and  went  away  deserting  the  monasteries 
and  cells.  The  Elders  there,  in  order  to  honour  the  request  of 
the  Exalted  One  and  to  escape  the  adverse  criticism  of 
members  of  heretical  schools,  thought  of  repairing  the  dilapida- 
tions during  the  first  month.  For,  should  the  heretics  say, 
"  The  disciples  of  the  Recluse  Gotama  looked  after  their 
monasteries  while  their  Teacher  was  alive  ;  now  that  he  has 
passed  away  in  perfect  Nibbana,  they  have  deserted  them," 
it  is  said  that  they  thought  so  to  escape  the  blame  from  them. 

[10]  And  so  it  has  been  said  ^ :  It  then  occurred  to  the  Elder 
monks,  "  Friends,  the  Exalted  One  has  praised  the  effecting  of 
repairs  to  dilapidations.  So  let  us,  friends,  during  the  first 
month,  repair  the  dilapidations  and  assemble  to  rehearse  the 
Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  during  the  second  month." 

10.  On  the  following  day  they  went  and  stood  at  the  palace 
gates.  King  Ajatasattu  came  forth,  saluted  them  and  inquired 
from  them  why  they  had  come  and  what  they  expected  him 
to  do.  The  Elders  intimated  their  need  of  labour  to  effect 
the  repairs  to  the  dilapidations  in  the  eighteen  great 
monasteries.  "  Very  well.  Sirs,"  said  the  King  and  gave 
artisans.  The  Elders  had  all  the  monasteries  repaired  during 
the  first  month  and  informed  the  King,  "  Great  King,  the 
repairs  to  the  monasteries  are  completed,  we  now  wish  to 
rehearse  the  Dhamma  and  Vinaya." 

"  Very  well.  Sirs,  do  so  with  full  confidence.  Mine  is  the 
wheel  of  command,  let  yours  be  the  Wheel  of  the  Dhamma. 
Command  of  me,  Sirs,  whatever  you  wish  me  to  do." 

"  A  place  for  the  monks  who  make  the  rehearsal  of  the 
Dhamma  to  assemble,  Great  King." 

First  Great  Convocation  9 

"  Where  shall  I  build  it,  Sirs  ?  " 

"  It  is  meet  you  erect  it  at  the  entrance  to  the  Sattapanni 
Cave  on  the  side  of  the  mountain  Vebhara/  Great  King." 

"So  be  it,  Sirs,"  said  King  Ajatasattu  and  had  a  pavilion 
erected,  resembling  the  handiwork  of  Vissakamma,^  with  well 
apportioned  walls,  pillars,  and  stairways,  adorned  with  divers 
decorative  designs  of  garlands  and  creepers,  as  though  sur- 
passing the  splendour  of  the  royal  palace,  or  mocking  with 
derision  the  glory  of  divine  mansions,  like  unto  a  veritable 
abode  of  Siri  ^  or  a  unique  emporium,  or  a  world  of  delight  to 
the  birds — the  eyes  of  devas  and  men — or  like  a  conglomeration 
of  the  choice  essence  of  all  that  the  eye  should  see  ;  [11]  and 
decorated  it  like  the  abode  of  Brahma,*  with  its  floor  well  laid 
out  and  ornamented  with  variegated  decorative  motifs  of  many 
kinds  of  flowers  resembling  a  floor  of  polished  crystal  inlaid 
with  gems  of  many  colours  and  with  a  delightful  overflowing 
canopy  with  manifold  festoons  of  flowers  suspended  from  it. 
In  that  large  pavilion  he  spread  out  500  rugs  which  were 
permissible  for  use  ^  for  the  500  monks,  prepared  a  seat  for  the 
president  at  the  southern  end  facing  the  North  and  a  seat  for 
the  preacher  in  the  centre  of  the  pavilion  facing  the  East, 
a  seat  worthy  even  of  the  Buddha,  the  Exalted  One  ;  and 
placing  there  a  fan  inlaid  with  ivory  he  sent  word  to  the 
Order  of  monks  :   "  My  task.  Sirs,  is  done." 

II.  And  at  that  time  some  monks,  referring  to  the  venerable 
Ananda  said,  "  There  is  a  monk  here  in  this  assembly  who  goes 
about  emanating  the  smell  of  raw  flesh."  The  Elder  heard  it 
and  was  greatly  perturbed  thinking  that  there  was  no  other 
monk  in  that  assembly  of  monks  who  went  about  emanating 
the  smell  of  raw  flesh,  and  that  undoubtedly  they  were  saying 
so  referring  to  him.  Some  other  monks  told  the  venerable 
Ananda  that  the  assembly  was  to  meet  the  following  day  and 
that  he  was  but  a  Learner  with  his  (spiritual)  task  yet  unaccom- 
plished and  that  it  was  not  proper  for  him  to  go  to  the  assembly, 
and  further,  that  he  should  strive  with  diHgence. 

Thereupon, 1  the  venerable  Ananda  having  reflected  that  the 
assembly  was  to  meet  the  following  day  and  that  it  did  not 
become  him  to  enter  the  assembly  whilst  yet  being  a  Learner, 

10  Inception  of  Discipline 

spent  the  greater  part  of  the  night  in  mindfulness  as  to  the 
body,  and  at  day-break,  descended  from  the  cankama-vfdlk, 
entered  the  monastery,  and  inclined  his  body  with  the  idea  of 
lying  down.  Scarcely  had  his  feet  left  contact  with  the  floor  and 
before  his  head  had  reached  the  pillow,  during  that  interval 
his  mind  was  released  from  the  cankers  with  no  further  clinging 
to  the  material  substratum.  For,  this  Venerable  One  [12]  had 
spent  the  time  out  of  doors  pacing  up  and  down  (in  meditation) 
and,  being  unable  to  reach  any  higher  attainment,  he  reflected, 
"  Has  not  the  Exalted  One  told  me,^  '  Ananda,  you  have 
done  merit  in  the  past.  Engage  yourself  in  striving,  you  will 
soon  be  released  from  the  cankers.'  Buddhas  never  err  in  their 
pronouncements.  I  have  over-exerted  myself  in  my  effort,  in 
consequence  of  which  my  mind  was  tending  towards  distrac- 
tion. Let  me  therefore  abate  the  rigour  of  my  exertions."  ^ 
Saying  so  he  came  down  from  the  cankama-^dl\<i,  washed  his  feet 
standing  at  the  place  for  washing  the  feet,  entered  the 
monastery,  sat  down  on  his  couch  and  stretched  himself  on 
it  thinking  of  resting  awhile.  His  two  feet  left  the  floor  and 
his  head  had  not  yet  reached  the  pillow.  During  this  interval 
his  mind  was  released  from  the  cankers  with  no  further  clinging 
to  the  material  substratum  ;  the  Elder  attained  arahatship 
remaining  in  a  position  outside  the  four  postures.  Therefore, 
when  it  is  asked  what  monk  attained  arahatship  in  this  Dis- 
pensation neither  lying  down,  sitting,  standing,  nor  pacing 
up  and  down  one  should  answer  that  it  is  the  Elder  Ananda. 

12.  Thereupon,  on  the  following  day,  the  Elder  monks, 
having  finished  their  meal,  arranged  their  bowls  and  robes 
and  assembled  in  the  convocation  hall.  But  the  Elder  Ananda 
who  was  desirous  of  intimating  his  attainment  of  arahatship 
did  not  go  with  the  monks.  The  monks  seating  themselves  in 
their  respective  seats  in  order  of  seniority,  sat  down  leaving  a 
place  for  the  Elder  Ananda.  And  when  some  asked  for  whom 
that  seat  was  left  they  were  told  that  it  was  for  Ananda.  And 
in  answer  to  the  question,  "  Where  has  Ananda  gone  ?  "  (it 
should  be  said  thus  : — )  At  that  time  the  Elder  thought  that 
it  was  then  the  time  for  him  to  go.  [13]  Then  displaying  his 
supernatural  power  he  dived  into  the  earth  and  showed  himself 

First  Great  Convocation  ii 

in  his  own  seat.  But  some  say  that  he  came  through  the  air  ^ 
and  sat  down. 

13.  When  the  Venerable  One  was  thus  seated  the  Elder 
Mahakassapa  addressed  the  monks,  "  Friends,  what  shall  we 
rehearse  first,  the  Dhamma  or  the  Vinaya  ?  "  The  monks 
replied,  "  Sir,  Mahakassapa,  the  Vinaya  is  the  very  life  of  the 
Dispensation  of  the  Enlightened  One  :  so  long  as  the  Vinaya 
endures,  the  Dispensation  endures,  therefore  let  us  rehearse 
the  Vinaya  first."  ^ 

"  Placing  whom  in  charge  ?  "  ^ 

"  The  venerable  Upali." 

"  Is  not  Ananda  competent  ?  " 

"  It  is  not  that  he  is  not  competent,  but  the  Perfectly  En- 
lightened One,  while  he  was  living,  considered  the  venerable 
Upali  as  the  most  pre-eminent  in  connexion  with  the  learning 
of  the  Vinaya,  saying,^  '  He,  O  monks,  is  the  most  pre-eminent 
among  my  disciples  who  are  monks,  in  the  retention  of  the 
Vinaya,  namely  Upali.'  Therefore  let  us  rehearse  the  Vinaya 
in  consultation  with  the  Elder  Upali."  Thereupon  the  Elder 
(Mahakassapa)  appointed  himself  for  the  purpose  of  questioning 
about  the  Vinaya,  and  the  Elder  Upali  agreed  to  give 

So  say  the  Sacred  Texts  *  :  "  Thereupon  the  venerable 
Mahakassapa  announced  to  the  assembly  of  monks,  '  Friends, 
may  the  fellow  members  ^  of  the  Order  listen  to  me.  If  it  is 
agreeable  to  the  members  of  the  Order,  I  shall  question  Upali 
on  the  Vinaya.'  The  venerable  Upali  too  announced  to  the 
Order,  '  May  it  please  the  venerable  members  ^  of  the  Order 
to  listen  to  me.  If  it  is  agreeable  to  the  Order,  I  shall  expound 
the  Vinaya  when  questioned  by  the  venerable  Mahakassapa.'  " 
Having  ^  thus  obtained  approval  for  himself,  the  venerable 
Upali  rose  from  his  seat,  arranged  his  robe  over  one  shoulder, 
saluted  the  older  monks,  and  sat  in  the  preacher's  seat  taking 
in  his  hand  the  fan  inlaid  with  ivory. 

14.  Then  the  venerable  Mahakassapa  seated  himself  in  the 
president's  seat  and  questioned  the  venerable  Upali  on  the 
Vinaya,^  "  Friend  Upali,  where  did  the  Exalted  One  lay  down 
the  first  Parajika  ?  "  ^ 

12  Inception  of  Discipline 

[14]  "  At  Vesali,3  Sir." 

"  In  connexion  with  whom  ?  " 

"  In  connexion  with  Sudinna,  son  of  Kalandaka." 

"  In  connexion  with  what  subject  ?  " 

"  In  connexion  with  sexual  intercourse."  * 

Then  the  venerable  Mahakassapa  questioned  the  venerable 
Upali  on  the  subject  of  the  first  Parajika,  the  occasion,  the 
person,  the  rule,  the  corollaries,  and  on  what  constitutes  an 
offence  and  what  does  not.  In  the  same  way  as  of  the  first, 
then  of  the  second,  the  third,  and  of  the  fourth  Parajika  he 
asked  about  the  subject  and  so  on  and  what  did  not  constitute 
an  offence.  The  Elder  Upali  explained  whatever  he  was 

Then  having  classified  accordingly  these  four  Parajika 
entitled  the  chapter  on  the  Parajika,  they  established  as 
thirteen  the  thirteen  Sanghadisesa.  They  established  the  two 
rules  called  the  Aniyata,  the  thirty  rules  called  the  Nissag- 
giyapacittiya,  the  ninety-two  rules  called  the  Pacittiya,  the 
four  rules  called  the  Patidesaniya,  the  seventy-five  rules 
called  the  Sekhiya,  and  the  seven  rules  for  the  settlement  of 
questions  that  have  arisen.^ 

Thus  having  classified  accordingly  the  Mahavibhanga,  they 
established  the  eight  rules  in  the  Bhikkhunivibhanga  entitled 
the  chapter  on  the  Parajika.  They  established  as  seventeen 
the  seventeen  (Sanghadisesa)  rules,  the  thirty  rules  as  the 
Nissaggiyapacittiya,  the  i66  rules  as  the  Pacittiya,  the  eight 
rules  as  the  Patidesaniya,  the  seventy-five  rules  as  the  Sekhiya, 
and  the  seven  rules  for  the  settlement  of  questions  that  have 
arisen.  6  [15]  Having  thus  classified  the  Bhikkhunivibhanga 
even  in  the  same  manner  they  established  the  Khandhaka  and 
the  Parivara. 

Thus  was  made  the  compilation  of  the  Vinaya  Pitaka  '  which 
consists  of  the  Vibhanga  of  both  categories,  the  Khandhaka 
and  the  Parivara.  The  Elder  Mahakassapa  questioned  on 
everything  and  the  Elder  Upali  explained.  At  the  conclusion 
of  the  explanation  of  the  questions  the  500  Arahants  rehearsed 
together  in  a  group  according  to  the  exact  way  in  which  the 
compilation  had  been  fixed.  On  the  conclusion  of  the  com- 
pilation of  the  Vinaya  the  Elder  Upali  placed  aside  the  fan 

First  Great  Convocation  13 

inlaid  with  ivory,  descended  from  the  preacher's  seat,  saluted 
the  older  monks,  and  sat  in  the  seat  assigned  to  him. 

15.     Having    rehearsed    the    Vinaya,    the    venerable    Maha- 
kassapa,  wishing  to  rehearse  the  Dhamma,  asked  the  monks, 

Whom  shall  we  place  in  charge  in  rehearsing  the  Dhamma  ? "  The 
monks  replied,  "  Let  us  make  the  Elder  Ananda  to  be  in  charge." 

Thereupon  ^  the  venerable  Mahakassapa  announced  to  the 
Order  of  monks,  "  Friends,  may  the  members  of  the  Order 
listen  to  me.  If  it  is  agreeable  to  the  members  of  the  Order, 
I  shall  question  Ananda  on  the  Dhamma."  The  venerable 
Ananda,  too,  announced  to  the  Order  of  monks,  "  May  it  please 
the  venerable  members  of  the  Order  to  listen  to  me.  If  it  is 
agreeable  to  the  members  of  the  Order,  I  shall  explain  the 
Dhamma  when  questioned  by  the  venerable  Mahakassapa." 
Then  ^  the  venerable  Ananda  rose  from  his  seat,  arranged  his 
robe  over  one  shoulder,  saluted  the  Elder  monks  (i.e.  those  who 
were  his  seniors),  and  sat  in  the  preacher's  seat  taking  in  his 
hand  the  fan  inlaid  with  ivory.  The  Elder  Mahakassapa 
questioned  the  venerable  Ananda  on  the  Dhamma,  "  Friend  ^ 
Ananda,  where  was  the  Brahmajala  *  preached  ?  " 

[16]  "  Sir,  at  the  King's  palace  at  Ambalatthika,  between 
Rajagaha  and  Nalanda."  ^ 

"  In  connexion  with  whom  ?  " 

"  Suppiya  the  wandering  ascetic  and  the  brahmin  youth 

"  On  what  subject  ?  "  ^ 

"  On  praise  and  blame." 

And  in  such  wise  did  the  venerable  Mahakassapa  question 
the  venerable  Ananda  on  the  occasion  and  the  person.  (Again 
he  asked), 

"  Friend  Ananda,  where  was  the  Samafifiaphala  ^  preached  ?  " 

"  Sir,  at  Jivaka's  Mango  Grove  at  Rajagaha." 

"  With  whom  ?  " 

"  With  Ajatasattu,  son  of  the  Videhan  princess." 

Thereupon  the  venerable  Mahakassapa  questioned  the 
venerable  Ananda  on  the  occasion  of  the  Samaiiiiaphala,  and 
the  person.  And  in  the  self -same  manner  he  questioned  him  on 
all  five  Nikayas. 

14  Inception  of  Discipline 

The  five  Nikayas  ®  are,  Dighanikaya,  Majjhimanikaya, 
Samyuttanikaya,  Anguttaranikaya,  and  Khuddakanikaya. 
Here  Khuddakanikaya  means  the  rest  of  the  sayings  of  the 
Buddha  excluding  the  four  Nikayas.  The  venerable  Elder 
Upali  explained  the  Vinaya  therein  ^  and  the  Elder  Ananda 
the  remaining  sections  of  the  Khuddakanikaya  and  the  four 

i6.  All  this  forms  the  word  of  the  Buddha  which  should  be 
known  as  uniform  in  sentiment/  twofold  as  the  Dhamma  and 
the  Vinaya,  threefold  according  to  the  first,  intermediate,  and 
last  words,  and  similarly  as  Pitakas  (Baskets),  fivefold  according 
to  the  Nikayas  (Collections),  ninefold  according  to  the  Angas 
(Factors),  and  forming  84,000  divisions  according  to  the  Units 
of  the  Dhamma. 

17.  How  is  it  uniform  in  sentiment  ?  During  the  interval  of 
forty-five  years  from  the  time  He  realized  the  unique  and 
perfect  Enlightenment  until  he  passed  away  in  the  element  of 
Nibbana  being  free  from  clinging  to  the  material  substratum, 
whatever  the  Exalted  One  has  said  either  as  instruction  to 
devas,  men,  nagas,  yakkhas,  and  other  beings  or  on  reflection, 
has  but  one  sentiment  and  that  is  emancipation.  Thus  it  is 
uniform  as  regards  sentiment. 

18.  [17]  How  is  it  twofold  as  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  ? 
All  this,  in  its  entirety,  is  reckoned  as  the  Dhamma  and  the 
Vinaya.  Herein  the  Basket  of  the  Discipline  is  the  Vinaya, 
the  rest  of  the  word  of  the  Buddha  is  the  Dhamma.^  Hence 
was  it  stated  ^ :  "  Let  us,  friends,  rehearse  the  Dhamma  and 
the  Vinaya,"  and  "  I  shall  question  Upali  on  the  Vinaya 
and  Ananda  on  the  Dhamma."  Thus  it  is  twofold  as  the 
Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya. 

19.  How  is  it  threefold  according  to  the  first,  intermediate, 
and  last  words  ?  All  this,  in  its  entirety,  has  the  three  divisions 
as  the  first  words  of  the  Buddha,  the  intermediate  words  and 
the  last  words.   Herein,  the  stanzas  ^ : 

"  For  many  births  have  I  run  my  course  in  sarnsara 

First  Great  Convocation  15 

seeking  with  no  success  the  builder  of  the  house  ;    painful 
is  birth  again  and  again. 

"  Thou  art  seen  O  builder  of  the  house,  thou  shalt  not  build 
the  house  again.  All  thine  beams  are  broken,  the  ridge-pole 
shattered.  The  mind  that  is  divested  of  all  things  material 
has  attained  the  destruction  of  all  craving  "  : 
form  the  first  words  of  the  Buddha.  Some  say  that  it  was  the 
Stanza  of  Joy  in  the  Khandhaka  beginning  with,^  "  When 
indeed,  phenomena  manifest  themselves  "  (which  formed  the 
first  words).  It  should  be  known  that  this  is  a  Stanza  of  Joy 
which  arose  in  Him  as  he  contemplated  on  the  causal  modes 
with  a  happy  frame  of  mind  after  the  attainment  of  Omniscience 
on  the  first  day  of  the  lunar  fortnight.  The  statement  that  He 
made  on  the  eve  of  His  passing  away  in  perfect  Nibbana,^ 
"  Now  then  monks,  I  address  you,  all  component  elements  have 
decay  inherent  in  them,  apply  yourselves  diligently,"  forms 
the  last  words  of  the  Buddha.  What  has  been  said  during  the 
interval  between  these  two  (statements)  form  the  intermediate 
words  of  the  Buddha.  Thus  it  is  threefold  according  to  the  first, 
intermediate,  and  last  words. 

20.  [18]  How  is  it  threefold  according  to  the  Pitakas  ?  Indeed, 
all  this,  in  its  entirety,  has  the  three  divisions  as  the  Vinaya- 
pitaka,  the  Suttantapitaka,  and  the  Abhidhammapitaka. 
Therein,  having  brought  together  all  that  has  been  both 
rehearsed  and  not  ^  at  the  First  Convocation,  both  Patimok- 
kha,  the  two  Vibhanga,  the  twenty-two  Khandhaka,  and  the 
sixteen  Parivara,  it  is  called  the  Vinayapitaka. 

The  collection  of  the  thirty-four  suttas  beginning  with 
Brahmajala  called  the  Dighanikaya,  that  of  152  suttas  begin- 
ning with  Mulapariyaya  called  the  Majjhimanikaya,  that  of 
7,762  suttas  beginning  with  Oghataranasutta  called  the 
Sarnyuttanikaya,  that  of  9,557  suttas  beginning  with  the 
Cittapariyadanasutta  called  the  Anguttaranikaya,  and  the 
Khuddakanikaya  ^  consisting  of  the  fifteen  works  :  Khuddaka- 
patha,  Dhammapada,  Udana,  Itivuttaka,  Suttanipata,  Vimana- 
vatthu,  Petavatthu,  Thera-  and  Therigatha,  Jataka,  Niddesa, 
Patisambhida,  Apadana,  Buddhavamsa,  and  Cariyapitaka,  are 
called  the  Suttantapitaka. 

i6  Inception  of  Discipline 

Dhammasangani,  Vibhanga,  Dhatukatha,  Puggalapafinatti, 
Kathavatthu,  Yamaka,  and  Patthana  constitute  the  Abhidham- 

21.  Herein, 

Because  it  contains  manifold  distinctive  modes  of  practices 
and  restrains  both  bodily  and  verbal  acts,  the  Vinaya  is 
called  so  by  those  who  are  adept  in  the  purport  of  the 

Here  the  word  "  manifold  "  is  used  with  reference  to  the 
divisions  such  as  the  injunctions  of  the  fivefold  Patimokkha/ 
the  seven  classes  of  offences  beginning  with  the  Parajika,^  the 
Matika,^  and  the  Vibhanga.  They  have  become  distinctive 
on  account  of  the  application  of  corollaries  *  which  serve  the 
purpose  of  relaxing  rigid  rules.  [19]  It  regulates  body  and 
speech  as  it  prohibits  physical  and  verbal  transgressions. 
Therefore  it  is  called  Vinaya  on  account  of  the  diversity  of 
means,  the  distinctive  practices,  and  the  disciplining  of  the  body 
and  speech.  Therefore  this  has  been  said  for  the  sake  of 
expediency  in  bringing  out  the  connotation  of  the  term  : 

Because  it  contains  manifold  distinctive  modes  of  practices 
and  restrains  both  bodily  and  verbal  acts,  the  Vinaya  is 
called  so  by  those  who  are  adept  in  the  purport  of  the 

22.  And  the  next : 

Because  it  points  out  meanings,  expresses  them  clearly, 
fulfils  them,  flows  with  meanings,  affords  perfect  protection, 
and  shares  the  properties  of  a  thread,  Sutta  is  given  the  name 

For  it  conveys  meanings  which  are  diversified  as  subjective, 
objective,  and  the  like.  Here  the  meanings  are  clearly  expressed 
as  they  have  been  declared  in  accordance  with  the  intentions  of 
those  who  are  amenable  to  discipline.  Here  it  fulfils  the 
meanings  in  the  same  manner  as  when  it  is  said  that  corn  yields 
a  harvest.  It  flows  with  meaning  in  the  same  manner  as  when 
it  is  said  that  the  cow  yields  abundant  milk.  It  has  been  said 
that  it  protects  and  guards  them  well.   It  shares  the  properties 

First  Great  Convocation  17 

of  a  thread  even  as  a  plumb-line  serves  as  a  measure  to  the 
carpenters  :  even  so  is  this  to  the  wise,  as  when  flowers  strung 
together  with  a  thread  are  neither  scattered  nor  dispersed. 
Likewise,  by  means  of  this  the  meanings  have  been  grasped. 
Therefore  this  has  been  said  for  the  sake  of  expediency  in 
bringing  out  the  connotation  of  the  term  : 

Because  it  points  out  meanings,  expresses  them  clearly, 
fulfils  them,  flows  with  meanings,  affords  perfect  protection, 
and  shares  the  properties  of  a  thread,  Sutta  is  given  the  name 

23.     [20]  And  the  other  : 

Since  here  are  found  conditions  which  possess  growth  and 
their  own  characteristics,  are  revered  and  differentiated  and 
said  to  be  excellent — on  account  of  these  it  is  called 

And  this  prefix  ahhi  is  seen  to  denote  growth,  possession  of 
own  characteristics,  reverence,  differentiation,  and  excellence. 
Therefore  it  has  come  to  be  used  in  the  sense  of  growth  in 
statements  such  as,i  "  acute  and  painful  sensations  come  upon 
me,  they  do  not  recede."  In  statements  such  as  ^  "  all  those 
memorable  nights  that  had  been  set  apart  ",  it  is  used  in  the 
sense  of  own  characteristics  ;  in  statements  such  as  ^  "  king 
of  kings,  Inda  among  men  ",  in  the  sense  of  reverence  ;  in 
statements  such  as  *  "  capable  of  being  disciplined  in  the  funda- 
mental tenets  of  the  Dhamma  and  the  essential  rules  of  the 
Vinaya  ",  in  the  sense  of  differentiation.  It  means  (that  they 
are  able  to  master)  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  without 
confusing  either  with  the  other.  In  statements  such  as  ^  "in 
surpassing  splendour  " ,  it  is  used  in  the  sense  of  excellence. 
Herein,  as  stated  in  expressions  such  as  ^  "he  develops  the 
path  for  the  arising  of  form  ",  or  ^  "he  lives  suffusing  one 
quarter  with  thoughts  of  love  ",  phenomena  which  have  reached 
a  state  of  development  have  been  referred  to.  On  account  of 
their  being  characterized  by  sense-data  and  so  forth  according 
to  such  attributes  as  ^  "  visual  object  and  auditory  object  ", 
they  possess  their  own  characteristics.  According  to  such 
designations  as  ^  "  conditions  pertaining  to  a  Learner,  to  a 

i8  Inception  of  Discipline 

Man  Perfected  and  those  that  are  transcendental  ",  it  is  im- 
pUed  that  they  are  revered  and  are  worthy  of  reverence.  On 
account  of  their  true  state  being  dehmited  in  such  manner  as  ^^ 
"  there  arises  contact  and  there  arise  sensations  "  and  so  forth, 
they  are  differentiated.  They  are  called  phenomena  of  excel- 
lence in  statements  such  as  ^^  "  states  waxed  great,  states 
immeasurable,  states  incomparable  ",  and  so  forth.  Therefore 
this  has  been  said  for  the  sake  of  expediency  in  bringing  out 
the  connotation  of  the  term  : 

Since  here  are  found  conditions  which  possess  growth 
and  their  own  characteristics,  are  revered  and  differentiated 
and  said  to  be  excellent — on  account  of  these  it  is  called 

24.  Whatever  has  been  not  specifically  implied,  it  is  expressed 

Those  versed  in  the  meaning  of  the  term  Pitaka,  used 

it  with  reference  to  learning  and  a  vessel.     By  combining 

(the  two  meanings)  the  three  (divisions)  commencing  with 

the  Vinaya  should  be  known  so. 

[21]  In  signifying  learning  it  is  called  a  pitaka  in  statements 
such  as  1  "  not  by  including  in  a  pitaka  "  and  so  forth.  In 
statements  such  as  ^  "  Then  a  man  might  come  along  bringing 
with  him  a  hoe  and  a  basket  "  it  signifies  some  kind  of  vessel. 

Those  versed  in  the  meaning  of  the  term  Pitaka,  used 

it  with  reference  to  learning  and  a  vessel.     By  combining 

(the  two  meanings)  the  three  (divisions)  commencing  with 

the  Vinaya  should  be  known  so. 

Hence  having  thus  formed  a  compound  with  the  noun  pitaka 
in  both  meanings,  it  is  called  the  Vinayapitaka  as  the  Pitaka  is 
the  Vinaya  on  account  of  its  being  the  learning  and  as  it  em- 
braces the  differentiated  meanings.  And  so,  in  the  very  same 
manner  as  stated  above,  the  Suttapitaka  is  the  Sutta  which  is 
the  Pitaka  and  the  Abhidhammapitaka  is  the  Abhidhamma 
which  is  the  Pitaka.  In  this  manner  should  these  three,  com- 
mencing with  Vinaya,  be  known.  Having  understood  them 
thus,  again  for  the  sake  of  expediency  in  bringing  out  in  divers 
ways  the  significance  of  these  Pitakas  : 

First  Great  Convocation  19 

One  should  explain  their  divisions  of  sayings  incorporating 
admonitions  and  discourses  that  suit  the  occasions,  as  well 
as  of  moral  training,  avoidance,  and  the  profundity.^ 

One  should  also  elaborate  on  all  topics  such  as  the  division 
of  the  learning  and  how  and  under  what  conditions  a  monk 
attains  whatever  (there  may  be  of)  success  or  failure. 

25.  Here  follows  the  explanation  and  elucidation.  These  three 
Pitakas,  indeed,  according  to  formal  analyses  are  said  to  be  the 
authoritative  injunctions,  the  popular  teachings,  and  the  ulti- 
mate truth  respectively  ;  or  they  are  the  discourses  necessitated 
by  transgressions,  those  adapted  to  circumstances,  and  those 
set  out  in  accordance  with  reality  respectively  ;  or  again, 
discourses  on  the  various  categories  of  restraint,^  on  the 
refutation  of  heresies,  and  on  the  distinction  between  Name 
and  Form,  respectively.  Herein,  the  Vinayapitaka  is  called  the 
exposition  of  injunctions  as  it  has  been  preached  with  a  pre- 
ponderance of  authority  by  the  Exalted  One  in  whom  all 
authority  is  vested  ;  the  Suttapitaka,  the  exposition  of  popular 
teachings  as  it  has  been  preached  with  great  emphasis  on 
popular  ethics  by  the  Exalted  One  who  was  proficient  in  popular 
ethics  ;  and  the  Abhidhammapitaka,  the  exposition  of  ultimate 
truth  as  it  has  been  preached  with  great  leanings  on  absolute 
truth  by*  the  Exalted  One  who  is  adept  in  the  absolute  truths. 

[22]  Likewise,  the  first  is  called  the  teaching  necessitated  by 
transgressions  wherein  those  beings  who  are  given  to  many 
misdeeds  are  admonished  in  accordance  with  the  nature  of 
their  offences  ;  the  second,  that  adapted  to  circumstances 
wherein  beings  who  are  given  to  divers  dispositions,  latent 
tendencies,  and  traits  of  character  are  admonished  in  accord- 
ance with  their  adaptability  ;  and  the  third,  that  set  out  in 
accordance  with  reality  wherein  beings  who  conceive  of  an 
ego  and  what  pertains  to  it,  only  in  the  presence  of  a  pile  of 
conditions,  are  instructed  in  terms  of  the  absolute  truth. 

Similarly,  the  first  is  called  discourse  on  the  various  categories 
of  restraint  as  in  it  are  discussed  all  aspects  of  restraint,  which 
are  diametrically  opposed  to  remissness  in  conduct ;  the  second, 
discourse  on  the  refutation  of  heresies  as  in  it  is  discussed  the 
unravelling  of  perverse  views,  which  is  diametrically  opposed 

20  Inception  of  Discipline 

to  the  sixty-two  heretical  theories  ^ ;  and  the  third,  discourse 
on  the  distinction  between  Name  and  Form  as  in  it  is  discussed 
the  differentiation  of  Name  and  Form  which  is  diametrically 
opposed  to  lust  and  other  evil  tendencies. 

26.  It  should  be  known  that  in  these  three  are  the  threefold 
training,  the  threefold  avoidance,  and  the  fourfold  profundity. 
Hence  the  training  in  the  higher  morality  is  specifically  dis- 
cussed in  the  Vinayapitaka,  the  training  in  higher  thought  in 
the  Suttapitaka,  and  the  training  in  higher  wisdom  in  the 
Abhidhammapitaka.  In  the  Vinayapitaka  is  taught  the 
avoidance  of  transgression,  as  transgression  in  defilements  is 
diametrically  opposed  to  morality  ;  in  the  Suttapitaka  the 
avoidance  of  prepossession,  as  prepossession  is  diametrically 
opposed  to  concentration  ;  in  the  Abhidhammapitaka,  the 
avoidance  of  latent  bias,  as  latent  bias  is  diametrically  opposed 
to  wisdom.  In  the  first  is  the  categorical  avoidance  of  defile- 
ments and  in  the  others  the  avoidance  consisting  of  elimination 
and  eradication.  In  the  first  is  the  avoidance  of  the  defilement 
of  misconduct  :  in  the  others  that  of  the  defilements  of  craving 
and  misbelief.  And  in  each  of  them  the  fourfold  profundity  ^ 
of  the  Dhamma,  of  the  meaning,  of  the  exposition,  and  of  the 
comprehension,  should  be  known.  Herein  the  Dhamma  is 
the  Sacred  Texts,  the  meaning  is  its  precise  meaning,  the 
exposition  is  the  verbal  preaching  of  the  Sacred  Texts  which 
have  been  established  in  the  mind,  and  the  comprehension 
is  the  correct  understanding  of  the  Sacred  Texts  and  the 
meaning  of  the  Sacred  Texts.  And  in  these  three  (Pitakas)  [23] 
the  Dhamma,  the  meaning,  the  exposition,  and  the  comprehen- 
sion are  difficult  of  access  to  men  of  little  wit  and  providing  no 
basis  of  support  even  as  the  great  ocean  is  to  hares  and  such 
animals  ;  and  hence  they  are  profound.  In  this  manner,  herein, 
should  the  fourfold  profundity  too  of  each  one  of  them  be 

27.  Another  explanation  :  Dhamma  signifies  cause  ;  for  it  is 
said,^  "  The  knowledge  of  the  cause  is  the  analytical  knowledge 
of  the  Dhamma."  Attha  signifies  the  result  of  the  cause  ; 
for  it  is  said,2  "  The  knowledge  of  the  result  of  the  cause  is 

First  Great  Convocation  2i 

the  analytical  knowledge  of  the  meaning."  Desand  signifies 
exposition.  It  also  implies  the  verbal  expression  of  the  Dhamma 
according  to  its  true  nature.  Pativedha  signifies  realization  in 
a  worldly  and  in  a  transcedental  sense  :  an  exposition  in  its 
proper  sphere,  without  confusion,  in  conformity  with  the 
essential  significance  of  the  phenomena  and  with  the  nature  of 
the  meanings  and  the  comprehension  of  the  expositions  in 
accordance  with  their  general  trend. 

Now,  on  account  of  whatever  is  characterized  as  Dhamma  or 
Attha  in  these  Pitakas,  of  the  exposition  which  elucidates  the 
meaning  in  accordance  with  that  meaning  which  has  to  be 
announced  to  the  listeners  and  precedes  knowledge,  of  all  that 
which  consists  of  penetrative  knowledge  herein  and  is  considered 
as  unequivocal  reahzation,  and  of  its  being  difiicult  of  access 
providing  no  basis  of  support  to  men  of  feeble  intellect  who  have 
not  accumulated  any  meritorious  deeds,  even  as  the  great 
ocean  is  to  hares  and  such  animals,  the  fourfold  profundity 
herein  should  be  known  in  this  manner. 

[24]  To  this  extent  are  the  reasons  for  stating  the  following 
stanza  : 

One  should  explain  their  divisions  of  sayings  incorporating 
admonitions  and  discourses  that  suit  the  occasions,  as  well 
as  of  moral  training,  avoidance,  and  the  profundity. 

28.     But  in, 

One  should  also  elaborate  on  all  topics  such  as  the  division 
of  the  learning  and  how  and  under  what  conditions  a  monk 
attains  whatever  (there  may  be  of)  success  or  failure, 

the  threefold  division  of  the  learning  in  these  three  Pitakas 
should  be  observed.  The  modes  of  learning  are  three  (in 
number)  :  that  which  may  be  compared  to  the  water-snake, 
that  which  aims  at  release,  and  the  mode  of  learning  of  a 
treasurer.  Here,  what  has  been  wrongly  grasped,  and  learned  by 
heart  for  the  reproach  of  others  is  comparable  to  the  simile  of 
the  water-snake  :  regarding  which  it  is  said,^  "  Even  as, 
O  monks,  a  man  who  is  in  need  of  a  water-snake,  who  seeks  for 
one  and  goes  about  searching  for  one,  were  to  see  a  large  water- 
snake,  he  would  seize  it  by  the  coils  or  tail,  and  that  water-snake 

22  Inception  of  Discipline 

were  to  turn  round  and  bite  him  in  the  hand  or  arm  or  any 
other  part  of  his  body,  he  would,  in  consequence  of  that 
undergo  death  or  pain  amounting  to  death.  What  is  the  reason 
for  it  ?  O  monks,  it  was  due  to  the  improper  handhng  of  the 
water-snake.  Even  in  the  same  way,  O  monks,  some  foohsh 
men  in  this  world  commit  to  memory  the  Dhamma  consisting 
of  sutta,  geyya,  veyyakarana,  gatha,  udana,  itivuttaka,  jataka, 
abbhutadhamma,  and  vedalla.^  Having  committed  to  memory 
the  Dhamma,  they  do  not  examine  with  intelligence  the 
significance  of  those  teachings.  As  they  do  not  examine 
intelligently  their  significance  those  teachings  do  not  arouse 
comprehension.  They  commit  the  teachings  to  memory  for 
the  sake  of  censuring  others  and  freeing  themselves  of  others' 
blame.  They  do  not  experience  that  purpose  for  the  sake  of 
which  (the  virtuous)  master  the  Dhamma.  Those  teachings 
which  have  been  wrongly  grasped  by  them  are  conducive  to 
their  disadvantage  and  misery  for  a  long  time.  What  is  the 
reason  for  it  ?  O  monks,  it  is  due  to  the  wrong  comprehension 
of  the  teachings." 

[25]  Whatever  has  been  well  grasped,  and  perfected,  desiring 
the  fulfilment  of  the  aggregate  of  moral  precepts  themselves, 
not  with  the  purpose  of  censuring  others — it  brings  about 
release.  Regarding  this  it  is  said,^  "  Those  teachings  being  well 
grasped  by  them  are  conducive  to  their  advantage  and  happi- 
ness for  a  long  time.  What  is  the  reason  for  it  ?  O  monks, 
it  is  due  to  their  correct  comprehension  of  the  teachings." 

Again,  whatever  a  canker-waned  sage  who  has  understood 
the  aggregates,  rid  himself  of  the  defilements,  developed  the 
path,  pierced  through  the  state  of  mutability,  and  realized 
cessation,  accomplishes  solely  for  the  purpose  of  guarding  the 
line  of  continuity  and  protecting  the  linage,  this  is  the  mode  of 
learning  of  a  treasurer. 

29.  But  the  monk  who  is  faring  along  well  in  the  Vinaya,  on 
account  of  his  attainment  of  virtue  arrives  at  the  threefold 
knowledge,  which  is  stated  therein  in  accordance  with  their 
analytical  treatment.  He  who  is  faring  along  well  in  the  Sutta, 
on  account  of  his  attainment  of  concentration  arrives  at  the 
sixfold  higher  knowledge,  which  is  stated  therein  in  accordance 

First  Great  Convocation  23 

with  their  analytical  treatment.  He  who  is  faring  along  well 
in  the  Abhidhamma,  on  account  of  his  attainment  of  wisdom 
arrives  at  the  fourfold  analytic  insight,  which  is  stated  therein 
in  accordance  with  their  analytical  treatment.  Thus,  he  who  is 
faring  along  well  in  them,  in  due  course  arrives  at  the  attain- 
ments consisting  of  this  threefold  knowledge,  sixfold  higher 
knowledge,  and  fourfold  analytic  insight. 

On  the  other  hand,  he  who  is  faring  ill  along  in  the  Vinaya 
is  not  aware  of  the  blameworthiness  of  the  physical  contact 
and  the  like  which  arise  in  association  with  those  forbidden 
objects  which  are  excluded  from  the  prescribed  categories  of 
pleasant  contact  with  (specified  types  of)  carpets,  garments 
for  outer  wear  and  the  like.^  For  it  is  said,^  "  I  understand  the 
Dhamma  declared  by  the  Exalted  One  that  certain  practices 
have  been  said  to  be  harmful  by  the  Exalted  One,  and  the 
person  who  indulges  in  them  (considers  them)  as  incapable  of 
bringing  harm  upon  him."  Consequently  he  arrives  at  evil 
conduct.  [26]  He  who  is  faring  ill  along  in  the  Sutta  accepts 
the  wrong  thing,  not  knowing  the  correct  significance,  as  it  is 
stated  in  such  passages  as,^  "  These  four  individuals,  O  monks, 
are  seen  existing,"  and  so  on.  Regarding  this  it  has  been 
said,*  "  On  account  of  his  wrong  grasp,  he  accuses  me,  harms 
himself,  and  enters  on  much  evil."  Consequently  he  arrives  at 
wrong  views.  He  who  is  faring  ill  along  in  the  Abhidhamma 
over-rides  the  thoughts  on  the  nature  of  things  and  thinks 
even  of  what  should  not  be  reflected  on.  Consequently  he  arrives 
at  confusion  of  mind.  For  it  has  been  said  ^ :  "  These  four 
topics  should  not  be  reflected  on,  O  monks,  they  should  not  be 
thought  of,  for  he  who  thinks  of  them  would  be  subjected  to 
madness  and  vexation."  Thus,  he  who  is  faring  ill  along  with 
reference  to  those,  in  due  course,  sustains  great  loss  consisting 
of  evil  conduct,  wrong  views,  and  confusion  of  mind.  To  this 
extent  are  the  reasons  for  also  stating  the  following  stanza  : 
One  should  also  elaborate  on  all  topics  such  as  the  division 
of  the  learning  and  how  and  under  what  conditions  a  monk 
attains  whatever  (there  may  be  of)  success  or  failure. 
In  this  manner  should  the  Pitakas  be  known  in  their  divers 
aspects  :  and  in  accordance  with  them  the  word  of  the  Buddha 
should  be  understood  as  being  threefold. 

24  Inception  of  Discipline 

30.  How  is  it  fivefold  according  to  the  division  into  Nikayas  ? 
All  this  falls  into  the  fivefold  division  :  Dighanikaya,  Majjhi- 
manikaya,  Samyuttanikaya,  Anguttaranikaya,  and  Khudda- 

Therein,  what  is  the  Dighanikaya  ? 

The  thirty-four  suttas  commencing  with  Brahmajala  arranged 
in  three  vaggas  (groups). 

The  thirty-four  long  suttas  whose  arrangement  is  in  three 

vaggas  is  called  the  Dighanikaya,  the  first  in  serial  order. 

And  why  is  it  called  the  Dighanikaya  ? 

On  account  of  the  fact  that  it  is  a  collection  and  a  resting 
place  for  suttas  long  in  measure  (it  is  so  termed),  and  it  is  called 
a  nikaya  as  all  of  them  are  placed  together  as  a  collection. 
[27]  In  statements  such  as,^  "  O  monks,  I  do  not  see  any  other 
group  that  is  so  variegated  as  creatures  of  the  animal  kingdom, 
as  the  kingdom  of  those  that  go  prone  and  of  those  that  live  in 
the  mud,"  are  found  examples  both  from  the  doctrinal  aspect 
and  popular  usage.  Thus  should  the  connotation  of  the  term 
nikaya  be  understood  even  with  reference  to  the  others. 

What  is  the  Majjhimanikaya  ? 

The  152  suttas  of  medium  length  commencing  with  the 
Miilapariyaya  Sutta  and  arranged  in  fifteen  vaggas. 

That  which  contains  150  suttantas  and  two  other  suttas, 

comprising  fifteen  vaggas  is  called  the  Majjhimanikaya. 

What  is  the  Samyuttanikaya  ? 

The  7,762  suttas  commencing  with  the  Oghatarana  Sutta 
and  classified  under  such  topics  as  the  Devata  Samyutta. 

Seven  thousand  suttas  and  700  of  them  as  well  as  sixty-two 

suttantas — this  is  the  Sarnyutta  collection. 

What  is  the  Anguttaranikaya  ? 

The  9,557  suttas  commencing  with  the  Cittapariyadana,  the 
"  Summary  Grasping  of  the  Mind  ",  which  occur  as  one  factor 
in  excess  of  each  preceding  one. 

Nine  thousand  suttas  and  500  suttas  and  fifty-seven  other 

suttas  form  the  number  in  the  Anguttara. 

What  is  the  Khuddakanikaya  ? 

The  rest  of  the  word  of  the  Buddha  including  the  entire 
Vinaya    Pitaka,    the   Abhidhamma    Pitaka,   and  the  fifteen 

First  Great  Convocation  25 

divisions  commencing  with  the  Khuddakapatha  enumerated 
earHer,2  leaving  aside  the  four  nikayas.^ 

[28]  The  rest  of  the  word  of  the  Buddha,  excluding  these 

four  nikayas  such  as  the  Digha,  is  considered  the  Khudda- 


Thus  it  is  fivefold  according  to  (the  division  into)  Nikayas. 

31.  How  is  it  ninefold  according  to  (the  classification  into) 
Angas  ? 

All  this  is  comprised  under  the  ninefold  division  :  sutta, 
geyya,  veyyakarana,  gatha,  udana,  itivuttaka,  jataka,  abbhuta- 
dhamma,  and  vedalla. 

Herein,  the  twofold  Vibhanga,  the  Niddesas,  the  Khandha- 
ka,  the  Parivara,  Mangala,  Ratana,  Nalaka,  and  Tuvataka 
Suttas  of  the  Sutta  Nipata  and  other  sayings  of  the  Tathagata 
bearing  the  name  sutta  should  be  known  as  Sutta  (Discourses).^ 

All  the  suttas  containing  stanzas  should  be  known  as  Geyya 
(Recitation),  particularly  the  entire  Sagatha-vagga  (Chapter 
with  Stanzas)  in  the  Sarnyutta.^ 

The  whole  of  the  Abhidhamma  Pitaka,  suttas  which  contain 
no  stanzas  and  any  other  (sayings  from  the)  word  of  the 
Buddha  not  included  in  the  other  eight  Angas  ^  should  be 
known  as  Veyyakarana  (Expositions). 

The  Dhammapada,  Theragatha,  Therigatha,  and  sections 
entirely  in  verse  in  the  Sutta  Nipata  which  are  not  designated 
as  suttas  should  be  known  as  Gatha  (Stanzas).* 

The  eighty-two  suttantas  containing  stanzas  which  were 
prompted  by  an  awareness  of  joy  should  be  known  as  Udana 
(Utterances  of  Joy).^ 

The  112  suttantas  which  have  been  handed  down  prefixed 
with  the  statement,  "  For  this  has  been  said  by  the  Exalted 
One,"  should  be  known  as  Itivuttaka  (Thus  Saids).^ 

The  550  Birth  Stories  commencing  with  Apannaka  should 
be  known  as  Jataka  (Birth  Stories).® 

All  the  suttantas  connected  with  wonderful  and  marvellous 
phenomena  handed  down  with  words  to  such  effect  as,  "  O 
monks,  these  four  wonderful  and  marvellous  qualities  are  seen 
in  Ananda,"  should  be  known  as  Abbhutadhamma  (Marvellous 

26  Inception  of  Discipline 

[29]  All  the  suttantas  requested  to  be  preached  as  a  result  of 
repeated  attainment  of  wisdom  and  delight,  such  as  Culla- 
vedalla,  Mahavedalla,  Sammaditthi,  Sakkapafiha,  Sankhara- 
bhajaniya,  and  Mahapunnama  Suttas  ^  and  others  should  be 
known  as  Vedalla  (Analyses).^  Thus  it  is  ninefold  according 
to  (the  classification)  into  Angas. 

32.  How  is  it  eighty-four  thousandfold  according  to  the 
Dhammakkhandhas  (Units  of  the  Dhamma)  ? 

All  this,  the  entire  word  of  the  Buddha  has  84,000  divisions 
according  to  the  Units  of  the  Dhamma  as  laid  down  in  the 
following  manner  ^ : 

I  have  taken  82,000  from  the  Buddha,  and  2,000  from 

the  monks  :  and  these  are  the  84,000  extant  Units  of  the 


Herein,  a  sutta  with  a  unitary  application  is  one  Unit  of  the 
Dhamma.  Whatever  is  of  multiple  application,  the  number  of 
Units  of  the  Dhamma  in  it  depends  on  the  number  of  topics  of 
application.  In  metrical  compositions  the  question  and  the 
answer  form  two  different  Units  of  the  Dhamma.  In  the 
Abhidhamma,  each  analysis  of  a  triad  or  a  dyad  or  the  analysis 
of  each  thought-process  forms  a  separate  Unit  of  the  Dhamma. 
In  the  Vinaya,  there  are  the  subjects  for  rules,  tabulations, 
analysis  of  terms,  secondary  conditions  of  guilt,^  and  of 
innocence  and  the  demarcation  of  the  threefold  delimiting 
factors  of  offences.^  Herein,  each  category  should  be  under- 
stood as  a  separate  Unit  of  the  Dhamma.  Thus  it  has  84,000 
divisions  according  to  the  Units  of  the  Dhamma. 

33.  Thus,  this  word  of  the  Buddha  which  is  uniform  in  senti- 
ment taken  as  a  whole  (without  division),  and  consists  of  such 
divisions  as  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  in  the  divisions  such 
as  those  into  two  and  so  forth,  has  been  laid  down  as,  "  This 
is  the  Dhamma  and  this  is  the  Vinaya,  these  are  the  first, 
intermediate,  and  final  sayings  of  the  Buddha,  these  are  the 
Vinaya,  Sutta,  and  Abhidhamma  Pitakas,  these  are  the 
Nikayas  from  Digha  to  Khuddaka,  these  are  the  nine  Angas 
commencing  with  Sutta  and  these  are  the  eighty-four  thousand 
Units  of  the  Dhamma,"  was  rehearsed  together  by  the  assembly 

Second  Great  Convocation  27 

of  self-controlled  monks  with  Mahakassapa  as  their  leader  verily 
observing  this  distinction. 

[30]  And  not  only  this,  but  other  divers  distinctions  in 
compilation  to  be  met  with  in  the  three  Pitakas,  such  as  the 
stanzas  containing  Hsts  of  contents,  the  arrangement  into 
chapters,  noting  down  of  repetitions,  and  the  classification  into 
kindred  sections  of  ones,  twos,  and  so  forth,  that  into  groups 
of  kindred  topics,  and  into  groups  of  fifties  and  so  forth,  have 
been  determined  when  it  was  thus  rehearsed  together  in  seven 

And  at  the  conclusion  of  its  rehearsal  this  great  earth 
trembled  and  quaked,  shook  and  shook  violently  many  times 
over,  up  to  its  ocean-limits  as  though  giving  its  blessing  at  the 
joy  produced  that  this  Dispensation  of  the  Lord  of  Ten  Powers 
had  been  made  by  the  Elder  Mahakassapa  to  last  a  period  of 
time  extending  5,000  years.  And  many  wondrous  things  became 
manifest.  And  this  is  the  First  Great  Convocation  which  is 
commonly  known  in  the  world  as : 

Held  by  500,  and  hence  called  "  Pertaining  to  the  Five 
Hundred  "  ;  and  as  it  was  held  by  the  Elders  it  is  also 
termed  as  that  of  the  Elders. 

Here  ends  the  First  Great  Convocation. 

HI — The  Account  of  the  Second  Great  Convocation 

34.  While  the  First  Great  Convocation  was  in  progress,  the 
venerable  Mahakassapa,  who  was  asking  questions  on  the 
Vinaya,  at  the  end  of  such  statements  of  his  as,  "  Where  O 
friend,  Upali,  was  the  first  Parajika  laid  down  ?  "  asked  about 
the  subject,  the  occasion,  and  the  person.  And  the  venerable 
Upali  who  wished  to  convey  everything  by  explaining  the 
occasion  from  the  very  beginning  when  he  was  thus  asked  about 
the  occasion  here,  by  whom  it  was  proclaimed,  and  wherefore 
it  was  proclaimed,  spoke  thus  ^ :  [31]  "  At  that  time  the 
Buddha,  the  Exalted  One,  was  living  at  Verafija."  And  in  this 
manner  everything  should  be  stated.  So  it  has  been  said  by 
the  venerable  Elder  Upali.  It  should  be  known  too  that  it 
was  said  at  the  time  of  the  First  Great  Convocation.  And  with 

28  Inception  of  Discipline 

this  statement  the  meaning  of  these  words,  "  By  whom  was 
this  statement  made,  and  when  was  it  said  ?  "  has  been 

And  now,  here  is  told  (the  significance  of),  "  Wherefore  it 
has  been  said  ?  "  Since  the  Venerable  One  was  asked  the 
occasion  by  the  Elder  Mahakassapa,  it  should  be  known  that 
it  has  been  so  declared  by  the  venerable  Elder  Upali,  in  order 
to  explain  this  occasion  from  the  beginning,  at  the  time  of  the 
First  Great  Convocation  when  he  said  this  for  this  reason. 
And  so  with  this  statement  the  meaning  of  these  terms  of 
tabulation,  "  By  whom  said,  when  and  for  what  reason  "  has 
been  explained. 

35.  Now,  this  is  said  to  express  the  significance  of  the  words  : 
"  By  whom  this  was  retained  in  mind,  handed  down  by  whom, 
established  in  whom,  and  having  next  delcared  the  procedure." 
And  it  states  by  whom  the  Vinaya  Pitaka — adorned  as  it  is 
with  the  "  Occasion  "  expressed  in  words  to  the  effect,^  "  At 
that  time  the  Buddha,  the  Exalted  One  was  living  at 
Veranja  " — has  been  retained  in  mind,  by  whom  handed  down, 
and  in  whom  established.  Firstly,  from  the  beginning,  it  has 
been  retained  in  mind  by  the  venerable  Elder  Upali  having 
learned  it  under  the  Exalted  One,  and  directly  from  him,  even 
before  the  passing  away  of  the  Tathagata  in  perfect  Nibbana, 
by  many  thousands  of  monks  such  as  those  possessing  the  six- 
fold higher  knowledge,  and  after  the  passing  away  of  the  Tatha- 
gata in  perfect  Nibbana,  by  the  Elders  who  made  the  compila- 
tion of  the  Dhamma  under  the  leadership  of  Mahakassapa. 

The  meaning  of  "  By  whom  was  it  handed  down  ?  "  is  that 
it  was  firstly  handed  down  in  Jambudipa  till  the  Third  Con- 
vocation by  a  succession  of  teachers  commencing  with  the 
Elder  Upali.    [32]  And  this  is  the  succession  of  teachers  '^ : 

Upali,  Dasaka,  as  well  as  Sonaka,  similarly  Siggava  and 
Tissa  Moggaliputta — these  five  victorious  ones. 

Transmitted  the  Vinaya  in  the  glorious  (is) land  of  Jambu- 
siri  in  unbroken  succession  up  to  the  time  of  the  third 

36.  For,  the  venerable  Upali  learned  this  Vinaya  tradition, 

Second  Great  Convocation  29 

this  lineage  of  the  Vinaya,  this  legacy  of  the  Vinaya  directly 
under  the  Exalted  One  and  established  it  in  the  heart  of  many 
monks.  Among  those  individuals  who  learned  the  Vinaya 
under  the  Venerable  One  and  attained  perfection  of  knowledge 
in  the  Vinaya,  the  number  of  worldlings,  Stream-Entrants, 
Once-Returners,  and  Non-Returners  has  transcended  all 
reckoning ;  and  there  were  exactly  1,000  canker- waned 
Arahants.  And  the  Elder  Dasaka  was  his  own  Saddhiviharika.^ 
He  received  it  from  the  Elder  Upali  and  in  the  same  way  gave 
instruction  in  the  Vinaya.  The  number  of  worldlings  and 
others  who  studied  the  Vinaya  under  this  Venerable  One  too 
and  attained  perfection  of  knowledge  in  the  Vinaya  has 
transcended  all  reckoning  ;  of  canker-waned  Arahants  alone 
there  were  1,000.  Next,  the  Elder  Sonaka  was  the  Saddhi- 
viharika  of  the  Elder  Dasaka.  He  too  learned  it  from  his 
preceptor  the  Elder  Dasaka  and  in  the  same  way  gave  instruc- 
tion in  the  Vinaya.  The  number  of  worldlings  and  others  who 
studied  it  under  that  Venerable  One  too  and  attained  perfec- 
tion of  knowledge  in  the  Vinaya  has  transcended  all  reckoning  ; 
of  canker- waned  Arahants  alone  there  were  1,000. 

37.  And  the  Elder  Siggava  was  the  Saddhiviharika  of  the 
Elder  Sonaka.  He  too  studied  the  Vinaya  under  his  preceptor 
the  Elder  Sonaka  and  took  the  role  of  the  Chief  in  office  among 
a  thousand  Arahants.  Again,  the  worldlings,  Stream-Entrants, 
Once-Returners,  Non-Returners,  as  well  as  canker-waned 
Arahants  [33]  who  studied  under  that  Venerable  One  and 
attained  perfection  of  knowledge  in  the  Vinaya  were  not  (to 
be)  limited  as  so  many  hundred  or  so  many  thousand.  It  is 
said  that  there  was  a  very  large  number  of  monks  in  Jambudipa 
at  that  time.  And  the  influence  of  the  Elder  Moggaliputta 
Tissa  will  be  clearly  seen  from  the  Third  Convocation.  It  should 
be  known  that  in  this  manner  the  Vinaya  Pitaka  was  first 
handed  down  in  Jambudipa  until  the  Third  Convocation  by  this 
succession  of  teachers. 

38.  In  order  to  know  well  the  Second  Convocation  this 
procedure  should  be  understood.    For  when. 

Those  500  Elders,  including  Kassapa  and  others  who  were 

30  Inception  of  Discipline 

effulgent  and  canker- waned  and  devoid  of  attachment, 
rehearsed  the  Good  Teaching,  making  it  shine  everywhere, 
remained  till  the  end  of  their  life-time  and  passed  away  in 
Nibbana  like  lamps  with  oil  consumed  ; 
as  days  and  nights  were  passing  by,  one  by  one,  in  due  course,^ 
when  it  was  a  hundred  years  since  the  passing  away  of  the 
Exalted  One  in  perfect  Nibbana,  the  Vajjiputtaka  monks  of 
VesalT  proclaimed  at  Vesali  these  ten  indulgences  ^  \  It  is 
permissible  to  use  salt  in  a  horn,  to  eat  when  the  sun  has  turned 
two  digits  after  noon,  to  go  into  the  village  for  alms  a  second 
time,  to  hold  separate  uposatha  ^  meetings  within  the  same 
sima,*  to  pass  a  formal  act  of  the  Order  awaiting  the  sanction 
of  the  others,  to  follow  precedent  in  practices,  to  drink  whey 
after  meals,  to  drink  unfermented  liquor,  to  use  rugs  not  of 
the  prescribed  length  if  they  have  no  fringe,  and  to  accept 
gold  and  silver.  King  Kalasoka,  son  of  Susunaga  ^  was  on 
their  side. 

At  that  time  the  venerable  Yasa,  son  of  Kakandaka  who 
was  on  his  sojourns  in  the  land  of  the  Vajjis  came  to  hear  that 
the  Vajjiputtaka  monks  of  Vesali  had  put  forward  ten  indul- 
gences, and  soon  arrived  at  Vesali  thinking  to  himself,  "  It 
does  not  become  me  to  remain  indifferent  hearing  the  danger 
that  is  to  befall  the  Dispensation  of  the  Lord  of  Ten  Powers  : 
let  me  check  the  propounders  of  this  heresy  [34]  and  make  the 
Dhamma  shine."  Thereupon  the  venerable  Yasa,  son  of 
Kakandaka  took  up  his  residence  in  the  Gabled  Hall  in  the 
Great  Wood  near  Vesali. 

And  at  that  time  the  Vajjiputtaka  monks  of  Vesali,  on  the 
day  of  the  uposatha,  filled  a  bronze  vessel  with  water,  placed 
it  in  the  midst  of  the  Order  of  monks,  and  began  to  say  to  the 
lay  devotees  of  Vesali  who  came  there,  "  Friends,  give  a 
kahapana  ^  to  the  Order,  even  half  a  kahapana,  even  a  quarter 
or  even  a  masaka  :  '  it  will  be  of  use  to  the  Order  to  procure 
requisites."  All  that,  as  far  as  the  statement  ^  that  at  this 
rehearsal  of  the  Vinaya  there  were  exactly  700  monks,  neither 
less  nor  more,  and  that  therefore  this  Second  Convocation 
was  called  that  of  the  Seven  Hundred,^  should  be  mentioned. 
In  this  manner,  at  that  assembly  1,200,000  monks  gathered 
together  urged  by  the  venerable  Yasa.    In  their  midst,  those 

Second  Great  Convocation  31 

ten  indulgences  were  decided  on  by  the  Elder  Sabbakami  who, 
being  questioned  by  the  venerable  Revata,  explained  the 
Vinaya,  and  the  dispute  was  thus  settled.  ^^ 

Next/^  the  Elders  who  wished  to  rehearse  the  Dhamma  and 
the  Vinaya  afresh,  selected  700  monks  versed  in  the  Three 
Pitakas  and  possessing  analytic  insight ;  and  making  them  sit 
in  conclave  at  Valukarama  in  Vesali,  cleansed  the  Dispensation 
of  every  impurity  and  they  again  rehearsed  the  entire  Dhamma 
and  the  Vinaya  separately  as  pitakas,  nikayas,  angas,  and 
Units  of  the  Dhamma  even  in  the  same  manner  as  it  was 
rehearsed  by  the  Elder  Mahakassapa.  This  convocation  was 
concluded  in  eight  months. 

What  is  commonly  held  in  the  world  as. 

That  of  the  Seven  Hundred  as  it  was  done  by  700,  and  also 
called  the  Second  by  reason  of  the  one  that  was  held  earlier  ; 
is  verily  this  :  ^^ 

Well  known  among  those  Elders  by  whom  this  rehearsal 
was  done  were  those  Saddhiviharikas  of  the  Elder  Ananda, 
Sabbakami,  Salha,  Revata,  Khujjasobhita,  [35]  Yasa,  and 
Sanasambhiita,  Elders  who  had  themselves  seen  the  Tatha- 

These  two,  Sumana  and  VasabhagamT,  should  be  known 
as  the  Saddhiviharikas  of  Anuruddha,  who  had  themselves 
seen  the  Tathagata. 

Further,  those  Elders  by  whom  the  Second  Recital  was 
rehearsed,  all  of  them  had  laid  aside  their  burden,  done  their 
duty  and  were  cankerless. 

This  is  the  Second  Convocation. 

39.  Having  thus  finished  rehearsing  this  Second  Recital,  those 
Elders  who  were  investigating  whether  a  calamity  of  this  nature 
would,  in  the  future,  befall  the  Dispensation  foresaw  thus  : 
"  In  the  hundred  and  eighteenth  year  from  now,  the  King 
named  Dhammasoka  will  appear  in  Pataliputta  and  reign  over 
the  whole  of  Jambudipa.  He  will  win  faith  in  the  Dispensation 
of  the  Buddha  and  bestow  upon  it  great  material  gains  and 
honour.  Consequently,  heretics  coveting  gain  and  honour  will 
enter  the  Order  in  the  Dispensation  and  propound  each  his 

32  Inception  of  Discipline 

own  philosophical  dogma.  In  this  manner  a  great  calamity 
will  befall  the  Dispensation." 

Thereupon  it  so  occurred  to  them,  "  When  this  calamity  has 
arisen  will  we  be  able  to  meet  the  situation  or  not  ?  '*  And  all 
of  them,  realizing  that  they  themselves  would  not  live  to  see  it, 
surveyed  the  whole  of  the  human  world  and  the  six  heavenly 
regions  of  the  sensuous  plane, ^  and  not  being  able  to  perceive 
any  one  who  would  be  able  to  settle  this  dispute,  beheld  in  the 
world  of  Brahma,  the  Great  Brahma  named  Tissa  whose  span 
of  life  there  was  drawing  to  a  close  and  who  had  developed 
the  path  for  birth  in  a  higher  Brahma-world. 

Perceiving  this  it  so  occurred  to  them  :  "  If  we  should  make 
an  effort  to  induce  him  to  be  born  in  the  world  of  men,  for 
certain,  [36]  he  would  take  birth  ^  in  the  family  of  the  Brahmin 
Moggali.  Next,  with  his  curiosity  aroused  for  the  mantas  ^ 
he  will  go  forth  from  home  and  enter  the  Order.  Having  thus 
entered  the  Order  he  will  learn  the  entire  word  of  the  Buddha, 
attain  analytic  insight,  subdue  the  heretics,  give  his  judgment 
on  the  dispute  and  stabilize  the  Dispensation." 

They  went  to  the  world  of  Brahma  and  spoke  thus  to  the 
Great  Brahma  Tissa,  "  One  hundred  and  eighteen  years  from 
now,  a  great  calamity  will  befall  the  Dispensation.  While 
surveying  the  whole  world  of  men  and  the  six  heavenly  regions 
of  the  sensuous  plane  we  did  not  see  any  one  able  to  stabilize 
the  Dispensation,  but  in  our  search  in  the  world  of  Brahma 
we  saw  your  worthy  self.  It  would  be  well,  O  good  Sir,  if  you 
will  give  us  the  assurance  that  you  will  be  born  in  the  world  of 
men  and  stabilize  the  Dispensation  of  the  Lord  of  Ten  Powers." 

When  this  was  said,  the  Great  Brahma  who  was  overjoyed 
and  fired  with  enthusiasm  at  the  thought  that  indeed  he  would 
have  the  ability  to  stabilize  the  Dispensation  by  purifying  it 
of  the  calamity  that  would  arise  in  it,  gave  them  the  assurance 
saying,  "  So  be  it."  The  Elders  having  accomplished  their  task 
in  the  world  of  Brahma  came  back  again. 

40.  And  at  that  time  there  were  two  young  monks  called  the 
Elder  Siggava  and  the  Elder  Candavajji,  who  were  newly 
ordained,  were  versed  in  the  Three  Pitakas,  and  gained  analytic 
insight  and  were  canker-waned.   They  did  not  take  part  in  the 

Third  Great  Convocation  33 

settlement  of  that  dispute.  The  Elders  said  to  them,  "  Friends, 
you  did  not  give  us  your  assistance  in  the  settlement  of  this 
dispute.  And  let  this  be  your  punishment  for  it  :  The  Brahma 
named  Tissa  will  take  birth  in  the  family  of  the  brahmin 
Moggali.  Let  one  of  you  take  him  away  and  admit  him  into 
the  Order,  let  the  other  teach  him  the  word  of  the  Buddha  "  ; 
and  all  of  them  remained  till  the  end  of  their  span  of  life  and 

Those  Elders  of  great  psychic  power,  headed  by  Sabba- 
kami,  blazed  forth  in  the  world  hke  columns  of  fire  and 
became  extinct.^ 

[37]  And  verily,  those  canker-waned  Elders  who  had 
reached  full  mastery  (over  themselves)  and  developed  analytic 
insight,  made  the  second  rehearsal,  purified  the  Dispensation, 
and  paved  the  way  for  the  purity  of  the  Good  Teaching  even 
for  the  future  and  finally  were  overpowered  by  the  way  of 

Thus  knowing  the  contemptible  nature  and  unassailability 
of  the  way  of  impermanence  let  the  wise  man  endeavour  to 
reach  that  immortal  state  which  is  everlasting. 

With  this  is  concluded  the  description  of  the  Second  Convoca- 
tion in  all  its  aspects. 

IV — The  Account  of  the  Third  Great  Convocation 

41.  Now  Tissa  the  Great  Brahma  passed  away  from  the  world 
of  Brahma  and  took  birth  in  the  house  of  the  brahmin  Moggali. 
From  the  day  he  took  birth,  the  Elder  Siggava  too  continued 
for  seven  years  to  visit  the  brahmin's  house  for  alms.  Not  on 
a  single  day  did  he  receive  even  a  ladleful  of  gruel  or  a  spoonful 
of  rice.  Then  one  day,  at  the  end  of  seven  years  he  received  the 
mere  word,  "  Your  pardon  Sir,  go  on."  On  the  same  day,  the 
brahmin  too  who  was  returning  home  having  attended  to  some 
business  outside  saw  the  Elder  going  the  opposite  way  and 
asked  him,  "  O  good  recluse,  did  you  visit  our  home  ?  " 

"  Yes,  brahmin,  we  went  thither." 
"  Did  you  receive  anything  there  ?  " 
"  Yes,  brahmin,  we  did  receive." 

34  Inception  of  Discipline 

He  went  home  and  inquired,  "  Did  you  give  anything  to  that 
recluse  ?  " 

"  We  gave  nothing  whatever." 

On  the  following  day,  the  brahmin  seated  himself  right  on  the 
doorway  thinking  to  himself,  "  Today  I  will  put  the  recluse 
to  shame  for  lying."  And  on  this  second  day,  the  Elder  came 
to  the  door  of  the  brahmin's  house.  On  seeing  the  Elder  the 
brahmin  said  to  him,  "  Without  receiving  anything  from  our 
house  yesterday,  you  said  that  you  did  receive.  Is  it  becoming 
of  you  to  utter  falsehood  ?  "  The  Elder  replied,  "  Brahmin, 
for  seven  years  we  have  not  been  honoured  at  your  house  even 
with  the  mere  words,  '  Your  pardon  Sir,  go  on,'  but  yesterday 
I  received  this  mere  word.  Hence  I  spoke  in  that  manner 
taking  into  account  this  act  of  courtesy." 

The  Brahmin  reflected,  "  These  (recluses)  having  received 
but  a  courteous  greeting  express  their  thanks  to  us  for  having 
received  it.  [38]  In  what  manner  will  they  not  praise  us  if 
they  receive  anything  else  in  the  form  of  hard  and  soft  food  ?  " 
and  was  pleased,  and  had  a  spoonful  of  food,  together  with 
curries  suitable  for  it,  given  to  him  from  the  food  prepared  for 
his  use,  and  said  that  he  would  be  receiving  that  quantity  of 
alms  every  day.  He  was  highly  impressed  by  the  composure 
of  the  Elder  who  continued  to  visit  him  from  the  following  day 
onwards,  and  begged  of  the  Elder  to  partake  of  his  meals  in  his 
house  for  all  time.  The  Elder  accepted  the  invitation,  and  every 
day,  at  the  end  of  his  meal  on  his  visit  there,  preached  the  word 
of  the  Buddha  a  little  at  a  time  before  he  departed. 

42.  As  for  the  young  brahmin,  even  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  he 
had  gained  proficiency  in  the  three  Vedas.  There  is  no  one  else 
who  may  sit  on  or  lie  down  on  the  seat  or  couch  used  by  a  pure 
being  who  has  come  down  from  the  world  of  Brahma.  When 
he  visits  his  teacher's  house  they  cover  his  bed  and  seat  with 
a  white  cloth  and  keep  them  apart  hanging  them  up. 

The  Elder  thought,  "  The  time  is  now  come  to  admit  the 
youth  into  the  Order.  Though  I  have  been  coming  here  for  a 
long  time  no  conversation  has  ever  taken  place  with  the  youth. 
It  would  be  expedient  now  if  it  were  to  take  place  by  this 
means,  on  account  of  his  divan."  and  went  to  the  house  and 

Third  Great  Convocation  35 

made  a  determination  of  will  that  no  other  seat  should  be 
visible  in  that  house  except  this  divan  of  the  youth.  The 
inmates  of  the  brahmin's  house  who  were  not  able  to  see  any 
other  seat  when  they  saw  the  Elder,  spread  out  the  divan  of 
the  young  man  and  offered  it  to  him.  The  Elder  sat  on  the  divan. 
The  youth  too,  who  had  returned  from  the  house  of  his  teacher 
that  very  instant,  saw  the  Elder  seated  on  his  divan,  and  being 
angry  and  displeased  asked,  "  Who  prepared  my  divan  for  the 
recluse  ?  " 

The  Elder  finished  his  meal  and  when  the  youth's  churlishness 
had  subsided,  asked  him  "  How  now,  young  man,  [39]  do  you 
know  any  manta  ?  "  The  youth  replied,  "  Well,  recluse,  if 
I  do  not  know  the  mantas  who  else  knows  them  ?  "  and  asked 
the  Elder,  "  Do  you  yourself  know  the  manta  ?  " 

"  Ask  me,  young  man,  you  will  find  out." 

Thereupon  the  youth  questioned  the  Elder  on  all  those  knotty 
points  of  the  three  Vedas  with  their  glossaries,  ritual,  phonology, 
etymology,  and  traditional  lore  as  the  fifth, ^  whose  meanings 
neither  he  nor  his  teacher  could  comprehend.  As  he  had 
mastered  the  three  Vedas  even  by  nature  ^  and  had  now  gained 
analytic  insight,  the  Elder  found  no  difficulty  in  solving  those 
problems.  First  of  all,  he  unravelled  those  problems  and  next 
told  the  youth,  "  Young  man,  I  have  been  asked  many  questions 
by  you,  now  I  too  will  ask  you  one  question.  Will  you  answer 
it  for  me  ?  " 

"  Yes,  good  recluse,  ask,  I  will  answer." 

The  Elder  asked  the  following  question  from  the  Cittaya- 
maka  ^ :  "He  whose  thought  arises  but  does  not  cease,  will 
his  thought  cease  and  not  arise  ;  or  he  whose  thought  will 
cease  and  not  arise,  does  his  thought  arise  and  not  cease  ?  " 
The  young  man  who  was  not  able  to  call  to  mind  the  beginning 
or  the  end  asked  him,  "  What  indeed,  O  good  recluse,  is  this  ?  " 

"  Young  man,  this  is  called  the  Buddha-manta." 

"  Is  it  possible,  Sir,  to  initiate  me  too  into  it  ?  " 

"  Yes,  young  man,  it  is  possible  to  give  it  to  him  who  obtains 
the  ordination  which  we  have  ourselves  taken  upon." 

[40]  Thereupon  the  youth  went  up  to  his  parents  and  told 
them,  "  This  recluse  here  knows  what  is  called  the  Buddha- 
manta,  but  he  does  not  give  it  to  any  one  who  has  not  entered 

36  Inception  of  Discipline 

the  Order  under  him.  I  wish  to  enter  the  Order  under  him 
and  learn  the  manta."  And  his  parents  gave  him  their  permis- 
sion, thinking,  "  Let  our  son  even  enter  the  Order  and  learn  the 
mantas  ;  after  he  has  learned  them  he  will  come  back  to  us  "  ; 
and  said  to  him,  "  Son,  you  may  receive  it." 

43.  The  Elder  admitted  him  into  the  Order  and,  first  of  all, 
acquainted  him  with  the  topics  of  meditation  on  the  thirty-two 
parts  of  the  body.^  Doing  his  preliminary  exercises  with  regard 
to  them,  before  long,  he  established  himself  in  the  fruit  of  the 
Stream-Entrant  stage.  The  Elder  next  thought,  "  The  novice 
has  attained  the  fruit  of  the  Stream-Entrant  stage,  it  is  now 
impossible  for  him  to  turn  back  from  the  Dispensation.  If 
I  should  assign  to  him  more  elaborate  topics  of  meditation, 
he  would  attain  arahatship  and  would  evince  no  keenness  to 
learn  the  word  of  the  Buddha.  Now  is  the  tine  to  send  him 
to  the  Elder  Candavajji." 

Subsequently  he  said  to  him,  "  Come  novice,  go  to  the  Elder 
and  learn  the  word  of  the  Buddha.  Inquire  after  his  health 
on  my  behalf  and  say  to  him,  '  Sir,  my  preceptor  sent  me  to 
you.'  When  you  are  asked  the  name  of  your  preceptor  say, 
*  Sir,  he  is  the  Elder  Siggava.'  When  he  asks  you  what  his 
name  is  say,  '  Sir,  my  preceptor  knows  your  name.'  "  ^ 

Saying,  "  Very  well,  Sir,"  the  novice  Tissa  took  leave  of  the 
Elder  by  reverentially  circumambulating  him,  and  in  due  course, 
went  before  the  Elder  Candavajji  and  saluting  him  stood 
respectfully  aside.  The  Elder  asked,  "  Novice,  from  where  do 
you  come  ?  "  He  replied,  "  My  preceptor,  Sir,  sent  me  to 

"  What  is  the  name  of  your  preceptor  ?  " 

"  Sir,  he  is  the  Elder  Siggava." 

"  And  what  is  my  name  ?  " 

"  Sir,  my  preceptor  knows  your  name." 

"  Then  put  away  your  bowl  and  robe." 

Saying,  "  So  be  it.  Sir,"  the  novice  [41]  put  away  the  bowl 
and  robe  ;  and  on  the  following  day  swept  the  cell  and  provided 
water  and  a  tooth  cleaner. 

The  Elder  swept  over  again  the  place  that  had  been  swept, 
brought  fresh  water  throwing  away  that  water,   and  took 

Third  Great  Convocation  37 

another  tooth-stick  removing  that  tooth-stick.  He  did  this 
for  seven  days  and  on  the  seventh  day  questioned  him  again. 
Once  again  the  novice  spoke  in  the  manner  he  had  spoken  in 
before.  The  Elder  reahzed  for  certain  that  he  was  the  brahmin 
and  asked  him,  "  What  is  your  purpose  in  coming  here  ?  " 

"  Sir,  to  learn  the  word  of  the  Buddha." 

Saying,  "  Novice,  then  you  may  learn  it,"  the  Elder  initiated 
him  into  the  word  of  the  Buddha  from  the  following  day 
onwards.  Whilst  yet  being  a  novice,  Tissa  mastered  together 
with  the  commentary,  the  entire  word  of  the  Buddha  with  the 
exception  of  the  Vinaya  Pitaka.  When  he  had  received  the 
higher  ordination,  even  before  he  had  spent  the  first  Rains- 
residence,  he  had  become  proficient  in  the  Three  Pitakas. 

The  teacher  and  the  preceptor  having  established  the  entire 
word  of  the  Buddha  in  the  hands  of  the  Elder  Moggaliputta 
Tissa,  remained  till  the  end  of  their  span  of  life  and  passed 
away  in  perfect  Nibbana.  And  at  a  subsequent  date  the  Elder 
Moggaliputta  Tissa  developed  the  topics  of  meditation,  and 
having  gained  arahatship  imparted  the  Dhamma  and  Vinaya 
to  many. 

44.  And  at  this  time  King  Bindusara  had  one  hundred  sons. 
Asoka  killed  all  of  them  except  Prince  Tissa  who  was  born  of 
the  same  mother.^  Whilst  carrying  on  his  campaigns  against 
them  he  reigned  for  four  years  without  being  anointed  king  ; 
and  at  the  end  of  the  four  years  he  was  consecrated  as  the  sole 
ruler  of  Jambudipa  in  the  218th  year  after  the  passing  away 
of  the  Tathagata  in  perfect  Nibbana. ^  [42]  By  virtue  of  his 
consecration  the  following  supernatural  royal  powers  accrued 
to  him  :  His  sway  extended  over  a  region  of  a  yojana  below 
the  great  earth  and  a  similar  region  above  in  the  sky.  Daily, 
the  deities  brought  to  him  sixteen  pots  of  water  in  eight 
pingoes  ^  from  the  lake  Anotatta,*  of  which,  after  he  had  won 
faith  in  the  Dispensation,  he  gave  eight  pots  to  the  Order  of 
monks,  two  pots  to  the  monks  versed  in  the  Three  Pitakas 
numbering  about  60,000,  two  pots  to  his  chief  queen  Asandhi- 
mitta,  and  he  himself  used  four  pots.  There  is  in  the  Himalayas 
a  variety  of  tooth-stick  called  nagalata,^  smooth  and  soft  and 
full  of  sap.    Daily,  the  deities  brought  these  as  well,  and  they 

38  Inception  of  Discipline 

served  as  the  daily  tooth-cleaners  to  the  King,  the  Queen, 
16,000  (women)  dancers  and  60,000  monks. 

And  daily,  the  deities  brought  for  him  medicinal  myrobalan 
fruits,  golden  coloured  medicinal  gall-nuts,  and  sweet  smelling 
and  juicy  ripe  mangoes.  In  the  same  way,  they  brought  from 
the  Chaddanta  lake  ®  inner  and  outer  garments  of  the  five 
colours,  yellow  silken  cloth  for  wiping  the  hand,  and  celestial 
drink.  And  daily  the  Naga  Kings  brought  for  him  from  the 
Naga  realm  perfumed  ointments,  silken  cloth  for  his  outer 
garments  interwoven  with  jasmine  flowers  without  using 
thread,  and  costly  unguents.  [43]  Parrots  brought  daily,  9,000 
vahas  '  of  sali  rice  grown  in  the  Chaddanta  lake  ;  and  rats 
removed  the  husk  so  that  not  one  grain  was  broken  ;  and  on 
all  occasions  this  grain  was  meant  for  the  King's  use.  Bees 
made  honey.  In  forges  and  other  places  (of  work)  bears  swung 
the  hammers.  The  cuckoos  came  forth  warbling  in  sweet  tones 
and  paid  homage  to  the  King. 

45.  The  King  who  was  endowed  with  these  supernatural 
powers,  one  day  sent  a  golden  chain  to  bind  the  Naga  king  called 
Kala  ^  whose  span  of  life  is  an  aeon  and  who  had  had  the 
opportunity  of  seeing  four  Buddhas  in  person  ;  and  he  had 
him  brought  before  him,  and  seating  him  on  a  worthy  divan 
beneath  the  white  parasol  of  state  made  offering  of  flowers  of 
many  hundred  colours  sprung  both  on  land  and  water,  as  well 
as  with  flowers  of  gold.  Making  16,000  (women)  dancers  decked 
in  all  their  finery  to  stand  around  him  on  all  sides  he  requested 
him,  "  Firstly,  set  before  these  eyes  of  mine  the  form  of  the 
Perfectly  Enlightened  One,  the  Exalted  Universal  Monarch 
of  the  Good  Teaching."  And  beholding  the  form  of  the  Buddha 
created  by  him,  decked  with  all  the  eighty  minor  marks 
scattered  all  over  his  body,  arisen  through  the  power  of  his 
merit  and  resembling  an  expanse  of  water  adorned  with  red, 
blue,  and  white  lotuses  in  full  bloom  on  account  of  the  splendour 
of  the  thirty- two  characteristics  of  a  Great  Being, ^  or  like  the 
expanse  of  the  heavens  resplendent  with  the  suffusion  of  the 
clear  radiance  from  the  clusters  of  rays  from  myriads  of  stars, 
or  which  resembled  the  peak  of  a  golden  mountain  surrounded 
by  flashes  of  lightning  and  rain-bows  with  the  sheen  of  the 

Third  Great  Convocation  39 

twilight  glow  on  them  on  account  of  the  splendour  of  the 
fathom-deep  halo  of  the  interwoven  rays  of  the  diversified 
colours  consisting  of  blue,  yellow,  red,  and  others  around  him, 
[44]  radiant  with  the  graceful  head  dazzling  with  the  splendour 
of  the  bright  pinnacle  of  rays  consisting  of  many  colours,  and 
Hke  an  unguent  to  the  eyes  of  the  hosts  of  brahmas,  devas, 
human  beings,  nagas,  and  yakkhas  ;  and  for  seven  days,  he 
made  what  is  known  as  the  offering  of  his  gaze.^ 

46.  After  he  received  his  consecration,  for  three  years,  the 
King,  it  is  said,  supported  an  outside  heretical  sect,  and  in  his 
fourth  year  gained  faith  in  the  Dispensation  of  the  Buddha.  ^ 
As  for  his  father  Bindusara,  he  was  an  adherent  of  Brahmanism. 
He  established  the  constant  feeding  of  brahmins,  heretical 
teachers  born  of  the  brahmin  caste,  and  white-robed  wandering 
ascetics,  numbering  about  60,000. 

Asoka,  who  likewise  continued  at  his  palace,  the  gift  of  alms 
that  was  performed  by  his  father,  one  day,  as  he  stood  at  his 
lion- window,  2  saw  them  eating  and  conducting  themselves  in  a 
manner  bereft  of  all  composure,  with  unrestrained  faculties 
and  with  undisciplined  bodily  movements,  and  he  thought, 
"It  is  worth  investigating  and  making  this  gift  to  a  suitable 
recipient."  Having  thus  reflected,  he  said  to  his  ministers, 
"  Go,  fellows,  and  bring  hither  to  my  palace  recluses  and 
brahmins  whom  each  one  of  you  considers  worthy,  for  we 
wish  to  give  alms."  Replying  to  the  King,  "  So  be  it.  Sire," 
the  ministers  brought  various  classes  of  white-robed  wandering 
ascetics,  religious  mendicants,  naked  ascetics,  and  others  and 
announced,  "  These,  Sire,  we  deem  holy." 

The  King,  thereupon,  had  various  types  of  high  and  low 
seats  prepared  at  his  palace,  and  inviting  them  to  come,  said 
to  all  of  them  who  came,  "  Sit  down  on  any  seat  suitable  for 
each  one  of  you."  [45]  Some  of  them  sat  down  on  comfortable 
seats,  others  on  seats  of  plank.  Seeing  this  the  King  realized 
that  there  was  no  inner  substance  in  them,  and  he  gave  them 
hard  and  soft  food  agreeable  to  them  and  sent  them  away. 

47.  As  time  thus  went  by,  one  day,  standing  at  his  lion-window 
he  saw  the  novice  Nigrodha  ^  walking  by  the  royal  courtyard, 

40  Inception  of  Discipline 

restrained,  self-controlled,  with  senses  guarded  and  endowed 
with  deportment  in  his  movements.  And  who  is  this  Nigrodha  ? 

He  is  the  son  of  Prince  Sumana,  the  eldest  son  of  King 
Bindusara.  And  here  follows  the  story  from  the  beginning  : 
It  is  said  that  during  King  Bindusara's  dotage  Prince  Asoka 
gave  up  the  principality  of  Ujjeni  which  was  assigned  to  him 
and  came  and  took  the  whole  city  under  his  control  and 
captured  Prince  Sumana.  On  the  very  same  day.  Princess 
Sumana,  Prince  Sumana's  wife,  had  completed  the  full  period 
of  pregnancy.  She  went  away  in  disguise  ;  and  while  she  was 
on  her  way  through  a  Candala  village  she  heard  the  words, 
"  Come  hither  Sumana,"  uttered  by  the  deity  who  had  made  a 
banyan  tree  growing  hard  by  the  house  of  the  Candala  chieftain 
his  abode  and  she  went  thither  (up  to  the  deity). 

By  his  supernatural  power  the  deity  created  a  hut  ^  and  gave 
it  to  her  requesting  her  to  live  in  it.  She  entered  that  hut. 
Even  on  the  day  she  went  away  she  gave  birth  to  a  son.  As 
he  had  received  the  protection  of  the  deity  of  the  banyan 
(nigrodha)  tree  she  gave  him  the  name  Nigrodha.  The  Candala 
chieftain,  from  the  day  he  saw  her,  began  to  attend  on  her 
regularly  looking  upon  her  as  the  daughter  of  his  lord.^  The 
Princess  lived  there  for  seven  years. 

[46]  The  Prince  Nigrodha  too  reached  the  age  of  seven  years. 
At  this  time  the  Elder  Mahavaruna,  an  Arahant  who  was  living 
there,  seeing  the  latent  potentialities  of  the  child  thought, 
"  This  child  is  now  seven  years  old,  it  is  time  to  admit  him  into 
the  Order  "  ;  and  sending  word  to  the  Princess,  he  admitted 
Prince  Nigrodha  into  the  Order.  The  Prince  attained  arahat- 
ship  in  the  tonsure-hall  itself.  One  day,  after  he  had  attended 
to  his  bodily  ablutions  early  in  the  morning,  he  performed  his 
duties  to  the  teacher  and  the  preceptor,  and  taking  the  bowl 
and  robe  set  out  with  the  intention  of  visiting  the  home  of 
his  mother,  a  lay-devotee.  And  the  place  of  residence  of  his 
mother  had  to  be  reached  by  entering  the  city  through  the 
southern  gate  and  going  through  the  heart  of  the  city  and 
emerging  from  the  eastern  gate. 

48.  At  this  time,  Asoka  the  righteous  monarch,  was  pacing 
up  and  down  at  the  lion- window  facing  the  East.   Even  at  this 

Third  Great  Convocation  41 

moment  Nigrodha  reached  the  royal  courtyard,  with  his  senses 
controlled,  mind  pacified,  and  looking  but  a  yoke's  distance 
ahead.  Therefore  it  is  said  :  "  One  day,  standing  at  his  lion- 
window  he  saw  the  novice  Nigrodha  walking  by  the  royal 
courtyard,  retrained,  self-controlled,  with  senses  guarded  and 
endowed  with  deportment  in  his  movements."  ^  Seeing  him, 
it  so  occurred  to  him,  "  All  these  people  are  confused  in  mind 
and  are  like  the  perturbed  deer  ;  but  this  child  is  not  confused 
in  mind,  his  gaze  ahead  and  around  and  the  movement  of  his 
limbs  to  and  fro  are  exceedingly  pleasant  ;  for  surely,  within 
him  there  is  bound  to  be  some  transcendental  virtue  "  ;  and 
at  the  mere  sight  (of  him)  the  King's  mind  was  pleased  with 
the  novice  and  there  arose  love  towards  him. 


It  is  said  that  in  the  past,  when  they  were  doing  good  works 
together,  he  was  born  as  a  merchant,  as  the  King's  eldest 
brother.  2  For  it  is  said,^ 

[47]  By  living  in  constant  association  in  the  past  or  through 

affection  in  the  present,  there  thus  arises  this  love  like  a  lotus 

in  the  water. 

The  King  with  love  arisen  for  him  and  with  great  esteem 
for  him,  despatched  his  ministers  saying,  "  Summon  this 
novice."  As  he  saw  that  they  were  delaying  long  he  again 
sent  two  or  three  others  in  order  to  hasten  his  arrival. 

The  novice  came  along  with  his  usual  measured  gait.  The 
King  said,  "  Select  a  suitable  seat  and  sit  down."  He  looked 
around  this  way  and  that  and  ascertaining  that  there  were  no 
other  monks  present  at  the  time,  went  up  to  the  royal  divan 
over  which  was  hoisted  the  white  parasol  of  state  and  made  a 
sign  for  the  King  to  take  his  bowl.  The  moment  the  King 
saw  him  going  up  to  the  divan  he  reflected,  "  Now,  even  today, 
this  novice  will  be  the  lord  of  this  house."  Giving  the  bowl 
into  the  hands  of  the  King,  the  novice  ascended  the  divan  and 
sat  down.  The  King  offered  him  all  the  various  preparations 
of  food  such  as  gruel  and  hard  food  which  had  been  prepared 
for  his  own  use.  The  novice  accepted  the  food,  both  hard  and 
soft,  sufficient  only  for  his  sustenance.  At  the  end  of  the  meal 
the  King  asked,  "  Do  you  know  the  instruction  given  you  by 
the  Teacher  ?  " 

42  Inception  of  Discipline 

"  Great  King,  I  know  some  aspect  of  it." 
"  Preach  it  to  me  too,  my  dear." 

"  Very  well,  Great  King,"  said  he,  and  preached,  in  order  to 
arouse  the  King's  joy,  the  Chapter  on  Diligence  in  the  Dhamma- 
pada  *  which  was  most  suited  to  him.  And  the  King,  even  as 
he  heard  the  words,  ^  "  Diligence  is  the  path  to  immortality 
and  indolence  is  the  path  of  Death,"  said,  "  I  have  understood 
it,  my  dear,  do  conclude  it."  At  the  end  of  the  discourse  which 
kindled  his  joy  he  said,  "  I  will,  my  dear,  give  you  eight 
appointed  meals."  The  novice  replied,  "  Great  King,  I  will 
give  these  to  my  preceptor." 

' '  And  pray,  my  dear,  who  is  this  preceptor  that  you  speak  of  ?  " 
"  Great  King,  it  is  he  who  urges  me  on  and  makes  me 
remember  when  he  sees  my  repeated  wrong  behaviour." 
"  I  will,  my  dear,  give  you  eight  other  meals." 
[48]  "  Great  King,  I  will  give  these  to  my  teacher." 
"  And  pray,  my  dear,  who  is  this  teacher  that  you  speak  of  ?  " 
"  Great  King,  it  is  he  who  establishes  me  in  the  principles 
(dhamma)    in   which    one    should   have    a   training   in   this 

"  It  is  well,  my  dear,  I  will  give  you  eight  other  meals." 
"  Great  King,  these  I  will  give  to  the  Order  of  monks." 
"  And  pray,  my  dear,  what  is  this  Order  of  monks  that  you 
speak  of  ?  " 

"  Great  King,  it  is  they  on  whom  depend  the  ordination  and 
higher  ordination  of  my  preceptor  and  my  teacher  and  of  me." 
The  King  was  exceedingly  delighted  and  said,  "  I  will  give 
you  eight  further  meals,  my  dear." 

The  novice  accepted,  saying,  "  So  be  it,"  and  on  the  following 
day,  entered  the  royal  palace  taking  with  him  thirty-two  other 
monks  and  partook  of  his  meals  there.  The  King  said,  "  Let 
thirty-two  other  monks  in  addition  accept  alms  with  you 
tomorrow  "  ;  and  in  this  manner,  day  by  day,  he  made  the 
number  increase  and  discontinuing  the  meals  for  the  60,000 
brahmins,  wandering  ascetics,  and  others,  and,  on  account  of 
his  devotion  to  the  Elder  Nigrodha,  established  the  continual 
feeding  of  60,000  monks  at  his  inner  apartments. 

And  the  Elder  Nigrodha  estabhshed  the  King  together  with 
his  followers  in  the  Three  Refuges  and  in  the  five  moral  precepts 

Third  Great  Convocation  43 

and  made  firm  their  faith  as  that  of  common  people  in  the 
Dispensation  of  the  Buddha,  so  that  it  should  not  waver.* 

Moreover,  the  King  had  the  great  monastery  called 
Asokarama  built  and  instituted  the  permanent  feeding  of 
60,000  monks.  And  righteously  and  not  by  unlawful  means, 
he  had  in  the  84,000  townships  all  over  Jambudipa,  monasteries 
duly  adorned  with  84,000  cetiyas,  built. 

49.  And  so  one  day,  seated  amidst  the  Order  of  monks 
numbering  60,000,  when  he  had  given  magnificient  alms  at 
Asokarama  and  made  offerings  of  the  four  requisites  ^  to  the 
Order,  the  King  asked  the  question,  "  What  is  the  extent  of  the 
Dhamma  preached  by  the  Exalted  One  ?  " 

"  Great  King,  according  to  angas,  it  forms  nine  Angas  : 
according  to  units,  it  forms  eighty-four  thousand  Units  of  the 
Dhamma."  ^ 

Having  won  faith  in  the  Dhamma,  the  King  said,  "  I  will 
honour  each  one  of  the  Units  of  the  Dhamma  with  a  monastery," 
[49]  and  spent  ninety-six  crores  of  wealth  on  one  and  the  same 
day  and  ordered  his  ministers,  "  Come  hither,  fellows,  having 
a  monastery  erected  in  every  town  have  eighty-four  thousand 
monasteries  built  in  the  eighty-four  thousand  townships  "  : 
and  he  himself  initiated  the  work  for  the  construction  of  the 
Great  Asoka  Monastery  at  Asokarama. 

The  Order  gave  him  the  services  of  the  Elder  named  Inda- 
gutta,  a  canker-waned  Arahant  of  great  psychic  and  super- 
natural power,  as  the  officer  supervising  the  new  construct  ions.  ^ 
By  his  supernatural  power  the  Elder  completed  whatever  work 
had  failed  to  reach  completion.  In  this  manner  too,  the  work  of 
the  construction  of  the  monasteries  was  completed  in  three  years. 

On  one  and  the  same  day  letters  arrived  from  all  the  towns  ; 
and  the  ministers  announced  to  the  King,  "  Sire,  the  eighty-four 
thousand  monasteries  are  completed." 

The  King  sent  out  a  drum  of  proclamation  in  the  city 
announcing,  "  Seven  days  hence  will  be  held  the  festival  of 
dedication  of  the  monasteries.  Let  all  make  preparations  both 
within  and  without  the  city  for  the  festival  of  dedication  of  the 
monasteries,  taking  upon  themselves  the  eightfold  moral 

44  Inception  of  Discipline 

50.  Seven  days  later,  surrounded  by  his  fourfold  army  con- 
sisting of  many  hundred  thousands  decked  in  all  their  cere- 
monial attire,  he  went  to  the  monastery  parading  through  the 
city  which  had  been  gaily  dressed  by  the  eager  multitudes  who 
were  anxious  to  make  the  city  excel  in  splendour  the  glory  of 
the  royal  city  of  Amaravati  ^  in  heaven,  and  went  and  stood 
amidst  the  Order  of  monks. 

And  at  that  time  there  had  assembled  eighty  crores  of 
monks  and  9,600,000  nuns.  Among  these  monks  the  canker- 
waned  alone  numbered  100,000.  It  thus  occurred  to  them, 
"  If  the  King  were  to  obtain  an  unobstructed  view  of  the  service 
he  was  rendering,  he  would  win  faith  to  a  greater  extent  in  the 
Dispensation  of  the  Buddha."  [60]  They  then  performed  a 
miracle  called  the  Unveiling  of  the  World.  As  the  King  surveyed 
the  four  directions,  remaining  at  Asokarama,  he  saw  up  to  its 
ocean  limits  Jambudipa  right  round  him  and  also  beheld  the 
84,000  monasteries  resplendent  with  the  magnificent  ceremonies 
connected  with  the  festival  of  dedication. 

Seeing  this  splendour  he  was  overcome  with  great  joy  and 
fervour ;  and  reflecting  whether  such  joy  and  fervour  had 
arisen  to  any  one  else  before,  he  asked  the  Order  of  monks, 
"  Sirs,  who  has  made  great  sacrifice  to  the  Dispensation  of 
the  Lord  of  Ten  Powers,  our  saviour  of  the  world  ?  And 
whose  sacrifice  is  considered  the  greatest  ?  "  The  Order  of 
monks  entrusted  the  responsibility  (of  answering)  to  the 
Elder  Moggaliputta  Tissa.  The  Elder  repHed,  "  Great  King, 
even  during  the  life-time  of  the  Tathagata  there  was  no  other 
giver  of  requisites  like  you.  Your  sacrifice  alone  is  great." 
When  the  King  heard  the  Elder's  words,  with  his  body  in- 
cessantly permeated  with  great  joy  and  fervour,  he  thought, 
"  And  so  there  is  no  giver  of  requisites  like  me,  great  is  my 
sacrifice,  and  I  am  said  to  support  the  Dispensation  with  material 
gifts !  This  being  so  am  I  or  am  I  not  an  heir  of  the  Dispensation ' '  ? 

51.  Then  he  asked  the  Order  of  monks,  "  Am  I  Sirs,  an  heir 
of  the  Dispensation  ?  "  The  Elder  Moggaliputta  who  heard  this 
statement  of  the  King,  perceiving  the  inherent  suflicing 
quahfications  (for  arahatship)  of  Mahinda,  the  King's  son, 
thought,  "  If  this  Prince  were  to  enter  the  Order  there  would  be 

Third  Great  Convocation  45 

great  progress  for  the  Dispensation  "  ;  and  spoke  thus  to  the 
King,  "  Great  King,  not  indeed  with  this  alone  have  you 
become  an  heir  of  the  Dispensation,  but  you  will  only  be 
designated  as  a  giver  of  requisites  or  as  a  servitor.  For,  Great 
King,  even  he  who  gives  a  heap  of  requisites  measuring  from 
the  earth  to  the  world  of  Brahma,  is  not  designated  as  an  heir 
of  the  Dispensation." 

"  Then  Sir,  how  does  one  become  an  heir  of  the  Dis- 
pensation ?  " 

"  Great  King,  he  who,  [51]  whether  rich  or  poor,  has  his  own 
begotten  son  enter  the  Order,  he,  O  Great  King,  is  called  an  heir 
of  the  Dispensation."  When  it  was  said  thus,  King  Asoka 
reflected,  "  And  so,  even  with  this  sacrifice  I  have  made  I  have 
not  become  an  heir  of  the  Dispensation  !  "  and  in  his  desire  to 
be  an  heir  of  the  Dispensation,  looked  about  this  way  and  that 
and  saw  Prince  Mahinda  standing  nearby.  Seeing  him  it  so 
occurred  to  him,  "  Even  though  I  have  been  eager  to  invest 
him  with  the  office  of  Viceroy  from  the  day  Prince  Tissa  ^ 
entered  the  Order,  now  methinks,  ordination  is  better  (for 
him)  than  Viceregal  splendour." 

Then  he  said  to  the  Prince,  "  My  son,  will  you  be  able  to 
join  the  Order  ?  "  As  for  the  Prince,  he  was  naturally  inclined 
to  seek  ordination  ever  since  the  day  Prince  Tissa  entered  the 
Order,  and  hearing  the  words  of  the  King  he  was  exceedingly 
delighted  and  replied,  "  Sire,  I  will  enter  the  Order,  admit  me 
into  the  Order  and  you  become  an  heir  of  the  Dispensation." 

At  this  time,  the  King's  daughter  Sanghamitta  too  was 
standing  at  the  same  place.  And  her  husband,  the  Prince  called 
Aggibrahma  had  entered  the  Order  along  with  the  Viceroy, 
Prince  Tissa.  The  King  saw  her  and  said,  "  My  child,  will  you 
too  be  able  to  join  the  Order  ?  " 

"  Yes  father,  I  am  able." 

Having  obtained  the  consent  of  his  children,  the  King  was 
overjoyed  and  spoke  thus  to  the  Order  of  monks,  "  Sirs,  admit 
these  children  into  the  Order  and  make  me  an  heir  of  the 

52.  The  Order  (of  monks)  approved  of  the  King's  request  and 
admitted  the   Prince  into  the   Order  appointing  the  Elder 

46  Inception  of  Discipline 

Moggaliputta  Tissa  as  preceptor  and  the  Elder  Mahadeva  ^  as 
teacher  and  gave  the  higher  ordination  with  the  Elder  Maj  jhan- 
tika  2  as  teacher.  At  that  time,  it  is  said,  the  Prince  had 
completed  his  twentieth  year.  Even  within  the  precincts  of  the 
sima  ^  for  the  higher  ordination,  he  attained  arahatship  gaining 
the  fourfold  analytic  insight.*  The  teacher  of  the  Princess 
Sanghamitta  was  the  Elder  (-nun)  Ayupali  and  the  preceptor 
was  the  Elder  (-nun)  Dhammapali.  [52]  At  this  time  Sangha- 
mitta was  eighteen  years  of  age.  The  moment  she  entered  the 
Order,  even  within  the  precincts  of  the  sima  they  established 
her  in  the  training  in  moral  precepts.  At  the  time  of  the  ordina- 
tion of  the  two  of  them  the  King  was  in  the  sixth  year  after 

Thereupon  the  Elder  Mahinda,  from  the  time  he  received  the 
higher  ordination,  studying  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  under 
his  preceptor,  within  three  years  learnt  the  complete  Tradition 
of  the  Elders  consisting  of  the  works  of  the  Three  Pitakas 
together  with  their  commentaries  handed  down  at  the  two 
Convocations,  and  became  the  leader  among  a  thousand  monks, 
resident-pupils  of  his  preceptor. 

53.  By  this  time  Asoka  the  righteous  monarch  was  in  the 
ninth  year  of  his  consecration.  And  even  during  the  eighth 
year  of  the  King's  consecration  the  Elder  Kontiputta  Tissa  ^ 
who  was  wandering  about  following  the  observance  of  begging 
his  requisites  ^  did  not  receive  a  handful  of  ghee  for  the  treat- 
ment of  his  ailment,  and  with  his  span  of  life  reduced  by  the 
intensity  of  his  disease  he  admonished  the  Order  of  monks  to 
be  diligent,  and  seated  cross-legged  in  mid-air  entered  the 
element  of  fire  and  passed  away  in  perfect  Nibbana.  The  King 
heard  of  this  incident,  paid  all  due  honour  to  the  Elder,  and 
exclaiming,  "  Even  during  my  reign  the  requisites  of  the  monks 
are  so  rare  !  "  he  had  tanks  constructed  at  the  four  gateways 
of  the  city  and  filling  them  with  medicaments  had  them 

54.  At  that  time,  it  is  said,  the  King  had  a  daily  revenue  of 
500,000,  of  which  400,000  were  collected  at  the  four  gates 
and  100,000  at  the  hall  of  justice.     Of  this  the  King  spent 

Third  Great  Convocation  47 

100,000  daily  for  the  Elder  Nigrodha,  100,000  for  offerings  of 
incense  and  garlands  at  the  cetiyas  built  in  honour  of  the 
Buddha,  100,000  for  the  Dhamma — it  served  the  purpose  of 
procuring  the  four  requisities  for  learned  monks  well  versed  in 
the  Dhamma — 100,000  for  the  Order  of  monks  and  the  other 
100,000  to  provide  medicines  at  the  four  gates. ^  In  this  manner 
[53]  there  arose  great  gain  and  honour  to  the  Dispensation.  The 
heretics,  whose  gain  and  honour  had  dwindled  to  the  extent 
of  their  failing  to  obtain  even  food  and  clothing,  gained  admis- 
sion to  the  Order  in  the  Dispensation  in  their  eagerness  for 
gain  and  honour,  and  each  propounded  his  philosophical 
dogmas  claiming  them  to  be  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya. 
And  those  who  failed  to  gain  admission  to  the  Order,  themselves 
shaved  off  their  hair,  and  wearing  yellow  robes  wandered  about 
in  monasteries  intruding  at  the  uposatha  ^  and  "  Invitation  " 
(pavarana)  ^  ceremonies  and  at  formal  Acts  of  the  Order  * 
and  of  the  Chapter.  ^  The  monks  did  not  perform  the  uposatha 
ceremony  in  their  company. 

55.  Thereupon  the  Elder  Moggaliputta  Tissa  handed  over  the 
leadership  of  the  Chapter  to  the  Elder  Mahinda,  thinking, 
"  Now  this  dispute  has  arisen,  it  will  soon  be  aggravated  ; 
and  it  is  not  possible  to  settle  it  living  in  their  midst  "  ;  and 
wishing  to  abide  at  peace  as  he  was  wont  to,  he  retired  to  the 
hill  near  Ahoganga.^ 

And  in  spite  of  the  heretics  being  subjected  to  censure  by  the 
Order  of  monks  with  regard  to  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya 
and  the  Teaching  of  the  Master,  they  gave  rise  to  divers  forms 
of  upheavals,  stains,  and  thorns  in  the  Dispensation,  as  they  did 
not  conform  to  the  principles  laid  down  in  accordance  with 
the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya.  Some  of  them  tended  the 
sacrificial  fire,  some  subjected  themselves  to  the  heat  of  the  ^ve 
fires,  2  some  worshipped  the  sun  following  its  movements  in 
the  sky,  while  others  made  a  determined  effort  to  destroy  the 
Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya. 

At  that  time  the  Order  of  monks  held  neither  the  uposatha 
nor  the  "  Invitation  "  with  them.  The  uposatha  at  Asokarama 
was  interrupted  for  seven  years.  They  informed  the  King  too 
of  this  matter.   The  King  commanded  a  minister  to  go  to  the 

48  Inception  of  Discipline 

monastery  and  settle  the  dispute  and  revive  the  uposatha.^ 
This  minister  who  had  not  the  courage  to  ask  questions  of  the 
King  in  turn,  approached  the  other  ministers  and  asked  them, 
"  The  King  has  despatched  me  charged  with  the  duty  of  going 
to  the  monastery  to  settle  the  dispute  and  revive  the  uposatha. 
How  is  this  dispute  to  be  settled  ?  "  [54]  They  replied,  "  We 
are  inclined  to  believe  that  what  the  King  intended  was  that 
all  those  who  did  not  perform  the  uposatha  should  be  slain 
even  as  those  who  quell  an  uprising  in  the  frontier  districts 
execute  the  culprits."  ^  Then  the  minister  went  to  the 
monastery,  and  summoning  an  assembly  of  the  Order  of 
monks,  told  them,  "  I  have  been  sent  by  the  King  to  see  that 
the  uposatha  is  held.  Sirs,  hold  now  the  uposatha."  The 
monks  replied  that  they  would  not  hold  the  uposatha  in  the 
company  of  the  heretics.  The  minister  began  cutting  off  their 
heads  with  his  sword,  starting  from  the  seat  of  the  seniormost 

56.  And  the  Elder  Tissa  saw  this  minister  who  was  committing 
this  misguided  act.  The  Elder  Tissa  was  a  person  of  no  mean 
consequence  ;  he  was  Prince  Tissa,  the  King's  brother,  born 
of  the  same  mother.  The  King,  after  his  consecration,  appointed 
him  Viceroy.  One  day,^  on  one  of  his  visits  to  the  forest  he 
saw  a  large  herd  of  deer  disporting  themselves  in  delightful 
gambol.  On  seeing  them  it  so  occurred  to  him,  "  These  deer 
that  feed  on  mere  grass  play  about  thus,  but  what  manner  of 
agreeable  sport  will  these  recluses  not  indulge  in, 2  eating 
delicious  food  at  the  royal  household  and  sleeping  in  comfort- 
able beds  ?  "  He  returned  from  there  and  told  the  King  about 
this  reflection  of  his. 

Thinking  :  "  The  Prince  feels  remorse  for  no  reason  ;  and  it 
would  be  well  if  I  convinced  him  in  this  manner,"  the  King, 
one  day,  pretended  to  be  very  angry  over  something  or  another 
and  said  to  him,  "  Come  hither,  accept  the  kingship  for  seven 
days  :  after  that  I  will  put  you  to  death  "  ;  and  threatening 
him  with  impending  death  he  made  him  realize  that  fact.  And 
as  for  the  Prince,  he  did  not  bathe  at  leisure,  neither  ate  nor 
slept,  and  his  body  became  miserably  emaciated  as  he  kept  on 
thinking  that  they  would  kill  him  after  seven  days.  Thereupon 

Third  Great  Convocation  49 

the  King  asked  him,  "  Why  are  you  reduced  to  this  condition  ?  " 

"  For  fear  of  death,  Sire." 

"  Look  you,  seeing  death  that  is  due  within  a  fixed  time- 
Hmit  [55]  you  are  not  yourself  and  do  not  enjoy  Ufe.  How  can 
the  monks  rejoice  observing  death  which  is  intrinsically  con- 
nected with  in-breathing  and  out-breathing  ?  "  Thenceforth 
the  Prince  gained  faith  in  the  Dispensation. 

And  again  one  day,  while  roaming  in  the  forest,  when  he 
had  set  out  on  a  deer-hunt,  he  saw  the  Elder  Mahadhamma- 
rakkhita,  a  Yona,^  who  was  seated  and  being  fanned  by  a 
lordly  elephant  with  the  branch  of  a  sala-tree.  He  was  delighted 
on  seeing  this  and  thought  to  himself,  "  When,  indeed,  will 
I  too  be  able  to  enter  the  Order  like  this  great  Elder  ?  Will 
that  day  ever  come  to  pass  ?  "  The  Elder  perceived  his  reflec- 
tion, and  while  he  was  looking  on  rose  into  the  air  and, 
descending  on  the  surface  of  the  lotus  lake  at  Asokarama, 
began  to  bathe  making  his  robe  and  upper  robe  float  in  mid-air. 
The  Prince  was  exceedingly  delighted  when  he  beheld  the 
Elder's  supernatural  powers  ;  and  turned  back  wishing  to 
enter  the  Order  that  very  day  and  announced  to  the  King, 
"  Sire,  I  wish  to  enter  the  Order." 

Though  he  begged  of  him  in  many  ways,  the  King  was  unable 
to  keep  him  back.  He  had  the  road  leading  to  Asokarama 
decorated,  and  making  the  Prince  attire  himself  in  festive 
garb,  conducted  him  to  the  monastery,  led  in  procession  by  the 
army  in  festive  array.  Hearing  that  the  Viceroy  would  enter 
the  Order  many  monks  prepared  bowls  and  robes.  The  Prince 
made  his  way  to  the  hall  of  meditation,  and  together  with 
a  thousand  men  entered  the  Order  under  the  Elder  Maha- 
dhammarakkhita.  There  was  no  limit  to  the  number  of  those 
who  entered  the  Order  following  the  Prince's  example. 

The  Prince  entered  the  Order  during  the  fourth  year  of  the 
King's  consecration.*  Further,  there  was  another  Prince 
named  Aggibrahma,  a  nephew  of  the  King,  Sanghamitta's 
husband.  Sanghamitta  bore  him  an  only  son.^  [56]  Having 
heard  that  the  Viceroy  had  entered  the  Order,  he  too  went  up 
to  the  King  and  begged  of  him,  "  Sire,  I  too  wish  to  enter  the 
Order."  Receiving  the  King's  permission,  "  Enter  the  Order, 
dear  child,"  he  entered  the  Order  on  the  same  day. 

50  Inception  of  Discipline 

In  this  manner  should  be  known  the  Elder  Tissa  the 
younger  brother  of  the  King,  whose  entry  into  the  Order 
was  followed  by  that  of  a  band  of  Khattiyas  of  great 
splendour  and  opulence. 

57.  He  saw  the  minister  who  was  thus  committing  this  mis- 
guided act  and  reflected,  "  The  King  will  not  send  him  to  kill 
the  Elders.  Assuredly,  this  minister  must  be  acting  under  a 
misapprehension  "  ;  and  he  himself  went  and  sat  down  in  the 
seat  nearest  to  him.^  Recognizing  the  Elder,  and  not  having 
the  courage  to  bring  his  weapon  down  upon  him  he  went  back 
and  announced  to  the  King,  "  Sire,  I  have  beheaded  so  many 
monks  who  were  not  willing  to  hold  the  uposatha  ;  and  then 
came  the  turn  of  the  venerable  Elder  Tissa.  What  shall  I  do  ?  " 
The  moment  the  King  heard  this  he  reprimanded  him,  "  You 
villian,  did  I  sent  you  to  kill  the  monks  ?  "  And  with  his  body 
burning  with  anguish  he  hastened  to  the  monastery  and  asked 
the  Elder  monks,  "  Venerable  Sirs,  this  minister  has  thus 
acted  contrary  to  my  commands.  On  whom  will  the  evil 
devolve  ?  " 

Some  Elders  replied,  "  He  has  acted  at  your  command.  The 
evil  is  yours."  Some  replied,  "  This  evil  belongs  to  both  of  you." 
And  some  others  asked,  "  Was  there.  Great  King,  the  intention 
in  you  that  he  should  go  and  kill  the  monks  ?  " 

"  No  Sirs,  I  sent  him  with  all  good  intentions  that  the  Order 
of  monks  might  hold  the  uposatha  being  united." 

"  If  you  had  good  intentions,  no  evil  belongs  to  you,  but  it 
devolves  on  the  minister." 

58.  The  King  was  perplexed  with  doubt  and  asked,  "  Sirs,  is 
there  any  monk  who  can  cut  off  this  doubt  of  mine  and  stabilize 
the  Dispensation  ?  " 

"  There  is.  Great  King,  the  Elder  named  Moggaliputta 
Tissa.  [57]  He  is  able  to  cut  off  this  doubt  and  stabilize  the 

And  on  the  same  day  the  King  sent  four  preachers  of  the 
Dhamma,  each  attended  by  a  thousand  monks,  and  four 
ministers,  each  attended  by  a  thousand  men,  to  conduct  the 
Elder  to  him. 

They  went  and  said,  "  The  King  summons  you."  The  Elder 

Third  Great  Convocation  51 

did  not  go.  The  second  time  the  King  sent  eight  preachers  of 
the  Dhamma  and  eight  ministers,  each  one  attended  by  a 
retinue  of  a  thousand  asking  them  to  say,  "  Sir,  the  King 
summons  you  "  ;  and  to  conduct  him  to  him.  Even  so  did 
they  speak  to  him,  but  the  Elder  did  not  go  to  him  even  the 
second  time.  The  King  asked  the  Elders,  "  Sirs,  I  have  sent 
for  him  twice  ;   why  does  the  Elder  not  come  ?  " 

"  Great  King,  as  he  is  told  that  the  King  summons  him,  he 
does  not  come.  If  it  is  restated  thus,  '  Sir,  the  Dispensation  is 
sinking.  Be  of  assistance  to  me  to  stabilize  the  Dispensation,' 
then  he  would  come." 

Thereupon  the  King  despatched  sixteen  preachers  of  the 
Dhamma  and  sixteen  ministers,  each  with  a  retinue  of  a 
thousand  followers,  charged  with  this  message.  He  asked  the 
monks,  "  Sirs,  is  the  Elder  young  or  old  ?  " 

"He  is  old,  Great  King." 

"  Sirs,  will  he  ride  in  a  carriage  or  in  a  palanquin  ?  " 

"  Great  King,  he  will  not  ride  in  it."  ^ 

"  Sirs,  where  does  the  Elder  live  ?  " 

"  On  the  upper  reaches  of  the  Ganges,  Great  King." 

The  King  then  commanded,  "  If  that  be  so,  my  men,  tie  a 
raft  of  boats,  make  the  Elder  sit  in  it,  station  guards  on  both 
banks  and  conduct  the  Elder  hither."  The  monks  and  the 
ministers  went  to  the  Elder  and  conveyed  to  him  the  King's 
message.  The  Elder  heard  it  and  thinking  to  himself,  "  Indeed, 
here  am  I  who  have  entered  the  Order  from  the  very  outset 
for  the  purpose  of  stabilizing  the  Dispensation  ;  and  the  time 
has  now  come  to  me,"  he  rose  taking  with  him  his  piece  of 
hide.  2 

59.  [58]  Now  at  night,  the  King  dreamt  a  dream  ^  which 
indicated  that  the  Elder  would  reach  Pataliputta  the  following 
day.  And  thus  was  his  dream :  A  majestic  elephant,  all  white, 
came  and  felt  the  King's  body  right  down  from  his  head  and 
held  him  by  the  right  hand.  On  the  following  day  the  King 
questioned  the  interpreters  of  dreams,  "  I  have  seen  such  a 
dream  :  what  will  befall  me  ?  " 

"  Great  King,  a  mighty  monk  will  take  you  by  the  right 

52  Inception  of  Discipline 

Then  the  King,  as  soon  as  he  heard  that  the  Elder  had  come, 
went  to  the  bank  of  the  Ganges,  waded  into  the  river,  and  going 
forward  to  meet  him  reached  the  Elder  when  the  water  was 
knee-deep  and  gave  his  hand  to  the  Elder  so  that  he  could 
descend  from  the  boat.  The  Elder  held  the  King  by  the  right 
hand.  Seeing  this,^  the  sword-bearers  drew  forth  their  swords 
from  the  scabbards  thinking  of  cutting  off  the  Elder's  head. 
Why  ?  It  was  customary  among  ruling  clans  that  whosoever 
holds  the  king's  right  hand  shall  have  his  head  cut  off  with 
a  sword.  The  King  saw  their  shadow  only  and  said,  "  I  enjoy 
no  peace  of  mind  for  the  past  wrongs  done  to  the  monks.  Do 
not  do  the  Elder  any  harm."  And  why  did  the  Elder  hold  the 
King  by  his  hand  ?  Since  he  had  been  invited  by  the  King 
for  the  purpose  of  asking  a  question,  he  therefore  held  him 
(by  the  right  hand)  treating  him  as  his  resident-pupil. 

60.  The  King  conducted  the  Elder  to  his  park,  and  placing 
three  sets  of  guards  all  round  outside,  he  himself  washed  the 
Elder's  feet,  smeared  them  with  oil,  and  sat  near  him  ;  and 
in  order  to  test  whether  the  Elder  was  capable  of  removing 
his  doubt  and  stabilizing  the  Dispensation  by  settling  the 
dispute  that  had  arisen,  he  said  to  him,  "  Sir,  I  am  desirous  of 
seeing  a  miracle." 

"  Great  King,  which  miracle  do  you  wish  to  see  ?  " 

"  Sir,  the  earth  quake." 

"  Great  King,  do  you  wish  to  see  the  whole  earth  tremble, 
or  only  a  region  ?  " 

"  Which  of  them.  Sir,  is  more  difficult  ?  " 

"  Which,  Great  King,  is  the  more  difficult  to  move — all  the 
water  in  a  bronze  bowl  filled  with  water,  or  only  a  part  of  it  ?  " 

"  A  part  of  it,  Sir." 

"  Even  in  the  same  way.  Great  King,  it  is  more  difficult  to 
make  a  part  of  the  earth  to  tremble." 

"  Then,  Sir,  I  wish  to  see  a  part  of  the  earth  tremble." 

[59]  "  If  that  be  so.  Great  King,  at  an  interval  of  a  yojana 
in  every  direction  let  a  chariot  be  placed  on  the  eastern  side 
with  one  wheel  standing  inside  the  boundary,  let  a  horse  stand 
on  the  southern  side  with  two  feet  inside  the  boundary,  let 
a  man  stand  on  the  western  side  with  one  foot  resting  within 

Third  Great  Convocation  53 

the  boundary  and  let  a  bowl  of  water  be  placed  on  the  boundary 
on  the  northern  side  with  half  of  it  resting  within  the  boundary." 
The  King  had  this  done.  The  Elder  entered  the  fourth 
jhana  which  has  higher  knowledge  as  its  basis,  and  emerging 
from  it  made  a  resolution  of  will  that  the  earth  should  tremble 
to  the  extent  of  a  yojana  for  the  King  to  see.  The  wheel 
of  the  chariot  that  stood  within  the  boundary  on  the  eastern 
side  shook,  the  other  did  not ;  in  the  same  way,  the  feet  of 
the  horse  and  the  man  which  were  within  the  boundary  on  the 
southern  and  western  sides  respectively,  shook,  together  with 
half  their  bodies  ;  on  the  northern  side,  the  water  of  that  half 
of  the  bowl  which  stood  within  the  boundary  shook  and  the 
rest  remained  still. 

61.  The  King  saw  this  miracle  and  came  to  the  conclusion  that 
the  Elder  was  capable  of  stabilizing  the  Dispensation,  and 
questioned  him  about  his  own  remorse,  "  Sir,  I  despatched  a 
minister  asking  him  to  go  to  the  monastery  to  settle  the 
dispute  and  make  the  uposatha  held.  He  went  to  the  monastery 
and  put  to  death  so  many  monks.  To  whom  does  this  evil 
belong  ?  " 

"  What,  Great  King,  was  it  your  intention  that  he  should  go 
to  the  monastery  and  kill  the  monks  ?  " 

"  Not  so,  Sir." 

"  If,  Great  King,  you  had  no  such  intention,  the  evil  is  not 

Thereupon  the  Elder  convinced  the  King  on  this  matter 
with  the  following  discourse  ^ :  "  O  monks,  I  say  that  volition 
is  action.  Having  willed  one  does  a  deed  physically,  verbally,  or 
mentally."  [60]  In  order  to  elucidate  this  meaning  he  quoted 
the  Tittira  Jataka  ^ :  In  the  past,  O  Great  King,  a  decoy 
partridge  asked  an  ascetic  ^ : 

"  Many  are  the  beings  that  come  with  the  thought,  '  Here 

is  seated  our  kinsman.'  My  mind  is  in  doubt  regarding  whom 

the  consequent  action  affects." 

The  ascetic  replied,  "  Is  there  the  thought  in  you  that  those 
birds  should  come  to  you,  guided  by  your  voice  or  seeing  your 
form,  and  be  trapped  and  killed  ?  "  "  No  Sir,"  replied  the 
partridge.  Thereupon  the  ascetic  assured  him,  "  If  the  thought 

54  Inception  of  Discipline 

was  not  in  you,  no  evil  belongs  to  you.  Action  affects  him  only 
that  wills  and  not  him  who  wills  not." 

If  the  mind  harbours  no  evil,  no  consequent  action  affects 
it.  Evil  does  not  smear  the  virtuous  man  of  meagre  cares.* 

62.  In  this  manner  the  Elder  reassured  the  King  :  and  living 
there  in  the  King's  park  itself  for  seven  days,  he  instructed  the 
King  on  the  Teaching.^  On  the  seventh  day,  the  King  had  the 
Order  of  monks  assembled  at  Asokarama  and  having  had  an 
enclosure  of  screens  put  round,  he  sat  within  that  enclosure, 
and  separately  grouping  together  monks  who  held  divergent 
views,  and  summoning  each  group  of  monks,  asked,  "  What 
teaching  did  the  Perfectly  Enlightened  One  propound  ?  "  Then 
the  eternalists  replied  that  He  was  an  eternalist.  The  qualified 
etemalists,  the  propounders  of  the  theory  of  finiteness  and 
infinitude,  the  eel-wrigglers,  casuists,  those  who  held  theories 
of  conscious  existence,  non-conscious  existence,  neither  con- 
scious nor  non-conscious  existence,  [61]  annihilationists  and 
those  who  professed  Nibbana  of  this  life  also  replied  (in  accord- 
ance with  their  view).^  Since  the  King  had  already  studied  the 
Teaching  ^  he  realized  that  they  were  not  monks  but  heretics 
belonging  to  other  schools  ;  and  giving  them  white  garments 
he  expelled  them  from  the  Order.*  They  numbered  60,000  in  all. 

He  next  summoned  the  remaining  monks  and  asked,  "  What 
teaching  did  the  Perfectly  Enlightened  One  expound  ?  " 

"  Great  King,  He  was  an  exponent  of  the  analytical  doctrine 
(Vibhajjavada)."  ^ 

When  it  was  said  thus  the  King  asked  the  Elder,  "  Did  the 
Perfectly  Enlightened  One  expound  the  analytical  doctrine  ?  " 

"  Yes,  Great  King." 

Thereupon  the  King  said,  "  Sir,  the  Dispensation  is  now  pure  ; 
let  the  Order  of  monks  hold  the  uposatha  "  ;  and  giving  them 
his  protection  he  entered  the  city.  The  Order,  in  perfect 
harmony,  assembled  and  held  the  uposatha.^  In  that  assembly 
were  6,000,000  monks.  At  that  meeting  the  Elder  Moggaliputta 
Tissa  recited  the  treatise  Kathavatthu  refuting  the  heretical 
theories.  Even  as  the  Elders  Mahakassapa  and  Yasa  son  of 
Kakandaka  rehearsed  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya,  he  too 
selected,  out  of  the  monks  numbering  6,000,000  who  were 

Succession  of  Teachers  55 

well  versed  in  the  learning  of  the  Three  Pitakas  and  were  of 
profound  analytic  insight  and  possessed  of  the  threefold 
knowledge,  1,000  monks,  and  rehearsing  the  Dhamma  and  the 
Vinaya  he  purified  the  Dispensation  of  all  stains  and  held  the 
Third  Convocation.  At  the  end  of  the  rehearsal  the  earth 
trembled  in  many  ways.  This  rehearsal  was  concluded  in  nine 
months.    What  is  commonly  known  in  the  world  as  : 

Has  been  held  by  a  thousand  monks,  and  hence  is  called 

"  Pertaining  to  One  Thousand  "  ;    and,  on  account  of  the 

earlier  two,  is  also  called  "  The  Third  " 

— this  is  the  Third  Convocation. 

V — The  Account  of  the  Succession  of  Teachers 

63.  Whatever  we  have  said  to  the  effect,  "  It  has  been  handed 
down  firstly  in  Jambudipa  up  to  the  Third  Convocation,  by 
the  succession  of  teachers  commencing  with  the  Elder  Upali  "  ^ ; 
has  been  said  to  this  extent  for  the  purpose  of  answering  this 
question,  "  By  whom  has  it  been  handed  down  ?  "  [62]  And 
here  follows  the  succession  of  teachers  ^ : 

Upali,  Dasaka,  as  well  as  Sonaka,  similarly  Siggava  and 

Tissa  Moggaliputta — these  five  victorious  ones 

Transmitted  the  Vinaya  in  the  glorious  (is)  land  of  Jambu- 

siri,  in  unbroken  succession  up  to  the  time  of  the  third 


And  to  this  extent  is  its  meaning  declared.  And  after  the  time 
of  the  third  rehearsal  it  has  been  brought  to  this  Island  by 
Mahinda  and  others.  Having  learned  it  from  Mahinda,  for 
some  time,  it  was  handed  down  by  the  Elder  Arittha  and  others  : 
and  it  should  be  known  that  from  that  time  up  to  the  present 
day  ^  it  has  been  handed  down  by  the  succession  of  teachers 
who  constituted  their  own  line  of  resident-pupils.  For  as  the 
Poranas  *  say  ^ : 

Thereupon  Mahinda,  Itthiya,  Uttiya  and  Sambala  .  .  .  and 

the  learned  Bhadda — 

These  sinless  sages  of  great  wisdom  came  hither  from 

Jambudipa.  They  taught  the  Vinaya  Pitaka  in  Tambapanni. 

They  also  taught  the  five  Nikayas  and  the  seven  (Abhi- 

dhamma)  treatises. 

56  Inception  of  Discipline 

Then  the  wise  Arittha  and  the  learned  Tissadatta,  the 
skilled  Kalasumana,  the  Elder  named  Digha  .  .  .  and  the 
learned  Dighasumana, 

And  another  Kalasumana,  the  Elder  Naga,  Buddha- 
rakkhita,  the  wise  Elder  Tissa  and  the  learned  Elder  Deva, 

And  another  wise  Sumana  proficient  in  the  Vinaya, 
Culanaga  of  great  learning,  unassailable  as  an  elephant, 

[63]  The  Elder  named  Dhammapalita,  and  Rohana 
revered  by  the  virtuous,  his  pupil  named  Khema  of  great 
wisdom  and  learned  in  the  Three  Pitakas, 

Who  in  his  wisdom  shone  with  great  splendour  in  the 
Island,  like  the  king  of  the  stars,  Upatissa  the  wise,  Phussa- 
deva  the  great  orator. 

And  another  wise  Sumana,  he  of  great  learning  named 
Phussa,  the  great  orator  Mahasiva  proficient  in  all  the 
contents  of  the  Pitaka,^ 

And  again  another  wise  Upali  skilled  in  the  Vinaya, 
Mahanaga  of  great  wisdom,  proficient  in  the  tradition  of  the 
Good  Teaching, 

And  again  the  wise  Abhaya  skilled  in  all  the  contents  of  the 
Pitaka,  the  wise  Elder  Tissa  proficient  in  the  Vinaya, 

His  pupil  named  Puppha  of  great  wisdom  and  of  much 
learning,  who  while  protecting  the  Dispensation  had  estab- 
lished himself  in  Jambudipa, 

The  wise  Culabhaya  proficient  in  the  Vinaya,  the  wise 
Elder  Tissa  skilled  in  the  tradition  of  the  Good  Teaching, 

Culadeva  the  wise,  proficient  in  the  Vinaya  and  the  wise 
Elder  Siva  skilled  in  all  the  contents  of  the  Vinaya — 

These  nagas  (sinless  sages)  of  great  wisdom,  knowing  the 
Vinaya  and  skilled  in  the  path,  proclaimed  the  Vinaya 
Pitaka  in  the  Island  of  Tambapanni. 

64.     And  here  follows  the  story  connected  with  it  ^ : 

It  is  said  that  the  Elder  Moggaliputta  Tissa  ^  conducted  the 
Third  Rehearsal  of  the  Dhamma  and  thought  thus  :  "  Where 
will  the  Dispensation  be  firmly  established  in  the  future  ?  " 
As  he  reflected  it  so  occurred  to  him,  "  It  will  be  firmly  estab- 
lished in  the  border  districts."  Handing  over  the  responsibility 
to  various  groups  of  monks,  he  sent  those  monks  in  these 

Succession  of  Teachers  57 

respective  directions  :  he  sent  the  Elder  Majjhantika  ^  to  the 
kingdom  of  Kasmira-Gandhara  *  saying,  "  You  go  to  that 
kingdom  and  estabHsh  the  Dispensation  there."  Making  the 
same  request  he  sent  the  Elder  Mahadeva  ^  to  the  principality 
of  Mahisaka,  the  Elder  Rakkhita  to  Vanavasi,  [64]  the  Elder 
Dhammarakkhita,  the  Yona,  to  the  Western  Lands,  the  Elder 
Mahadhammarakkhita  to  Maharattha,  the  Elder  Maharak- 
khita  to  the  Yona  World,  ^  the  Elder  Majjhima  ^  to  the  districts 
bordering  the  Himalayas,  the  Elders  Sonaka  and  Uttara  to 
Suvannabhumi,  and  his  own  co-resident  pupil,  the  Elder 
Mahinda,  together  with  the  Elders  Itthiya,  Uttiya,  Sambala, 
and  Bhaddasala  to  the  Island  of  Tambapanni,  saying,  "  You  go 
to  the  Island  of  Tambapanni  and  establish  the  Dispensation 
there."  And  all  of  them,  as  they  went  to  the  respective  districts, 
took  with  them  four  companions  each  considering  that  a  chapter 
of  five  was  sufficient  to  confer  the  higher  ordination  in  the 
border  districts.^ 

65.  And  at  this  time,  a  Naga  King  named  Aravala  ^  created 
a  hail-storm  ^  during  the  harvesting  season  in  the  land  of 
Kasmira-Gandhara  and  had  the  grain  carried  down  to  the 
great  ocean.  The  Elder  Majjhantika  rose  into  the  air  at  Patali- 
putta  and  alighting  on  the  lake  Aravala  in  the  Himalayas 
continued  to  walk  up  and  down,  stand  upon,  sit  down  and 
recline  on  the  surface  of  the  lake  Aravala.  The  Naga  youths 
saw  him  and  announced  to  Aravala  the  Naga  King,  "  Great 
King,  a  shaven  headed  recluse  draped  in  a  yellow  patch-work 
garment  of  tattered  rags  pollutes  our  water."  Forthwith  the 
Naga  King  was  overcome  with  anger  ;  and  going  forth  he 
beheld  the  Elder,  and  not  being  able  to  restrain  his  rage  he 
created  many  terrors  in  the  sky.  Winds  blew  vehemently  from 
every  direction,  trees  were  uprooted,  mountain-peaks  were 
shattered,  thunder  roared,  lightning  flashed,  thunderbolts 
crashed,  water  streamed  forth  as  though  the  sky  were  rent 
asunder,  [65]  and  Naga  youths  congregated  assuming  hideous 
shapes  :  and  he  himself  emitted  smoke,  blazed  forth  and 
unleashed  torrents  of  weapons  and  intimidated  the  Elder  with 
harsh  words  such  as,  "  Who  is  this  shaven-headed  recluse  draped 
in   a  yellow   patch- work  garment   of  tattered  rags  ?  "    and 

58  Inception  of  Discipline 

commanded  the  Naga  hosts,  "  O  come,  capture  this  monk,  bind 
him,  exterminate  him."  ^  The  Elder  warded  off  all  these  terrors 
with  his  own  psychic  powers  and  said  to  the  Naga  King  :  * 

Should  even  the  whole  world  together  with  the  deities 
come  and  terrify  me  it  would  not  be  sufficient  to  produce  in 
me  fear  and  dismay. 

Great  Naga,  even  if  you  were  to  raise  up  the  whole  earth 
together  with  its  oceans  and  mountains  and  hurl  it  upon  me, 

You  will  not  be  able  to  produce  in  me  fear  and  dismay. 
But  on  the  other  hand,  O  Lord  of  Nagas,  there  would  result 
vexation  to  you  alone. 

When  this  was  said,  the  Naga  King  with  his  powers  subdued 
and  efforts  turned  fruitless  became  sad  and  dejected.  The 
Elder,  with  a  doctrinal  discourse  befitting  the  occasion,  in- 
structed him,  incited  him,  fired  him  with  enthusiasm,  and 
gladdened  him,  and  along  with  his  84,000  Nagas  established 
him  in  the  Three  Refuges  and  in  the  five  precepts.  And  many 
other  dwellers  in  the  Himalayas,  Yakkhas,  Gandhabbas,  and 
Kumbhandas  who  listened  to  the  Elder's  discourse  were 
established  in  the  Refuges  and  precepts.  And  the  Yakkha 
Pancaka  together  with  the  Yakkhini  his  wife,^  as  well  as 
500  sons  were  established  in  the  fruit  of  the  first  stage.  There- 
upon the  Elder  Majjhantika  addressed  all  the  Nagas,  Yakkhas, 
and  Rakkhasas  and  said  to  them  ^ : 

From  this  day,  no  longer  give  rise  to  anger  as  before,  do 
not  destroy  crops,  for  beings  desire  happiness.  Extend  love 
to  creatures  and  let  men  live  happily. 

[66]  And  all  of  them  replied  to  the  Elder,  "  Very  well.  Sir," 
and  conducted  themselves  as  instructed.  And  on  that  very  day 
the  time  for  paying  homage  to  the  Naga  King  was  due.  Then 
the  Naga  King  had  his  jewelled  throne  brought  to  him  and  had 
it  prepared  for  the  Elder.  The  Elder  sat  on  the  throne  ;  and 
the  Naga  King  stood  there  fanning  the  Elder.  The  inhabitants 
of  Kasmira-Gandhara  who  came  at  that  time  saw  the  Elder, 
and  thinking,  "  The  Elder  possesses  greater  supernatural 
powers  than  our  Naga  King,"  venerated  the  Elder  himself 
and  sat  down.  The  Elder  preached  to  them  the  Asivisopama 
Suttanta.''    At  the  end  of  the  discourse  there  resulted  the 

Succession  of  Teachers  59 

realization  of  the  Dhamma  to  80,000  beings,  and  100,000  men  of 
family  entered  the  Order.  Thenceforth  up  to  the  present  day, 
the  land  of  Kasmira-Gandhara  has  been  aglow  with  the  yellow 
robe  and  been  fanned  with  a  breeze  hallowed  by  sages. 

Then  the  sage  Majjhantika  went  to  Kasmira-Gandhara, 
converted  the  enraged  Naga  and  released  many  from  bondage.  ^ 

66.  And  the  Elder  Mahadeva  went  to  the  principality  of 
Mahirnsaka  ^  and  preached  the  Devaduta  Sutta.^  At  the  con- 
clusion of  the  discourse  40,000  beings  gained  insight  into  the 
Dhamma  and  a  further  40,000  beings  entered  the  Order. 

Mahadeva  of  great  psychic  power  went  to  the  country  of 
Mahisa  and  exhorting  them  with  the  "  Divine  Messengers  " 
released  many  from  bondage. ^ 

67.  The  Elder  Rakkhita  went  to  Vanavasi,^  and  standing  in 
the  sky  converted  the  inhabitants  of  Vanavasi  with  a  discourse 
on  the  Anamataggapariyaya.2  And  at  the  end  of  the  discourse 
there  resulted  the  realization  of  the  Dhamma  to  60,000, 
[67]  and  about  37,000  entered  the  Order. 

The  Elder  Rakkhita  of  great  psychic  power  went  to 
Vanavasi  and  remaining  in  mid-air  there,  preached  the 
discourse  on  the  Anamatagga,  the  "  Inconceivable  Ends  ".^ 

68.  And  the  Elder  Dhammarakkhita,  the  Yona,  went  to  the 
Western  Lands  ^  and  converted  the  people  of  the  Western 
Lands  with  a  discourse  on  the  Aggikkhandhupama  Suttanta  ^ 
and  made  37,000  beings  to  drink  the  nectar  of  the  Dhamma  : 
and  1,000  men  from  the  Khattiya  clan  and  in  addition  6,000 
women  entered  the  Order.  In  this  manner  he  established  the 
Dispensation  there. 

The  Elder  Dhammarakkhita,  the  Yona,  entered  the 
Western  Lands  and  here  converted  many  people  with  the 
Aggikkhandhupama,  the  Simile  of  the  Column  of  Fire.^ 

69.  And  the  Elder  Mahadhammarakkhita  went  and  converted 
the  people  of  Maharattha  ^  with  a  discourse  on  the  Mahana- 
radakassapa  Jataka  ^  and  established  84,000  beings  in  the 

6o  Inception  of  Discipline 

fruits  of  the  paths,  and  13,000  entered  the  Order.  In  this 
manner  he  estabhshed  the  Dispensation  there. 

The  sage  Mahadhammarakkhita  went  to  Maharattha  and 

converted  the  multitude  by  preaching  a  jataka,  a  Birth 


70.  And  the  Elder  Maharakkhita  went  to  the  Yonaka 
Kingdom  ^  and  converted  the  Yona- World  with  a  discourse  on 
the  Kalakarama  Suttanta  ^  and  gave  the  ornaments  of  the 
fruits  of  the  paths  to  37,000  in  excess  of  100,000  beings  ; 
and  10,000  entered  the  Order  under  him.  Even  in  this  manner 
he  established  the  Dispensation  there. 

Then  the  sage  Maharakkhita  went  to  the  Yonaka  Kingdom 
and  converted  the  Yonas  by  means  of  the  Kalakarama 

71.  [68]  And  again,  the  Elder  Majjhima,^  together  with  the 
Elders  Kassapagotta,^  Alakadeva,^  Dundubhissara,*  and  Maha- 
deva  ^  went  to  the  districts  bordering  the  Himalayas  and 
converted  that  district  by  preaching  the  Dhammacakkap- 
pavattana  Suttanta  ^  and  conferred  the  treasures  of  the  fruits 
of  the  paths  on  eighty  crores  of  beings.  These  five  Elders 
converted  five  kingdoms,  and  about  100,000  entered  the  Order 
under  each  one  of  them.  In  this  manner  they  established  the 
Dispensation  there. 

The  Elder  Majjhima  went  to  the  Himalayas  and  con- 
verted hosts  of  Yakkhas  by  preaching  to  them  the  Dhamma- 
cakkappavattana,  the  "  Turning  of  the  Wheel  of  the 
Dhamma  "."^ 

72.  The  Elder  Sonaka,  with  the  Elder  Uttara,  went  to  Suvan- 
nabhumi.i  At  that  time  a  Rakkhasi  was  in  the  habit  of  coming 
out  of  the  sea  and  devouring  all  the  children  born  in  the  royal 
family.  That  very  day,  a  child  was  born  in  the  royal  family. 
The  people  saw  the  Elder  and  thinking  that  he  was  a  com- 
panion of  the  Rakkhasas  went  forth  to  attack  the  Elder 
taking  their  weapons  with  them.  The  Elder  asked,  "  Why  do 
you  come  towards  me  armed  with  your  weapons  ?  "  They 
replied,  "  Rakkhasas  devour  all  the  children  born  in  the  royal 

Succession  of  Teachers  6i 

family.  You  are  their  companions."  The  Elder  said,  "  We 
are  not  the  companions  of  Rakkhasas  ;  we  are  monks  who 
abstain  from  the  destruction  of  life  (etc.)  and  from  drinking 
intoxicants  and  we  subsist  on  one  meal  a  day,  we  are  of  virtuous 
conduct  and  of  good  moral  habits."  At  that  very  moment, 
the  Rakkhasi,  with  her  retinue,  came  out  of  the  sea  thinking 
of  devouring  the  child  born  in  the  royal  family.  The  people 
saw  her  and,  overcome  with  fear,  cried  out,  "  Sir,  here  comes  the 
Rakkhasi."  The  Elder  created  phantoms  twice  as  large  as  the 
Rakkhasas  and  with  those  phantoms  [69]  encircled  the  Rakkhasi 
and  her  retinue  on  either  side,  placing  them  in  the  centre. 
She  and  her  retinue  thought,  "  Assuredly  this  place  has  been 
obtained  ^  by  them,  and  we  will  become  their  prey  "  ;  and  so 
all  the  Rakkhasas  fled  in  haste  in  fear.  The  Elder  drove  them 
out  of  sight  and  secured  the  protection  of  the  land  on  all  sides. 
By  preaching  the  Brahmajala  Suttanta  ^  he  converted  the  large 
multitude  that  had  assembled  there  on  that  occasion  and 
established  them  in  the  Refuges  and  the  precepts.  Hereat 
there  resulted  the  realization  of  the  Dhamma  to  60,000  people, 
3,500  young  men  of  family  and  1,500  young  women  of  family 
entered  the  Order.  In  this  manner  he  established  the  Dis- 
pensation there.  Thenceforth  they  gave  the  name  Sonuttara 
to  the  children  born  in  the  royal  family. 

Sona  and  Uttara  of  great  psychic  power,  having  gone 

to  Suvannabhumi  and  driven  away  the  goblins  preached  the 

Brahmajala,  the  "  Perfect  Net  ".* 

73.  And  the  Elder  Mahinda  who  was  requested  by  his  pre- 
ceptor and  the  Order  of  monks  ^  to  go  to  the  Island  of  Tam- 
bapanni  and  establish  the  Dispensation,  reflected,  "Is  it  or 
is  it  not  the  time  for  me  to  go  to  the  Island  of  Tambapanni  ?  " 
As  he  investigated,  it  occurred  to  him  that  the  time  was  not 
ripe.  What  considerations  made  him  think  so  ?  (He  saw  that) 
Mutasiva  ^  was  in  his  dotage  ;  and  therefore  he  thought,  "  This 
king  is  old.  He  is  not  capable  of  receiving  this  ^  and  establishing 
the  Dispensation  firmly.  Soon  his  son  Devanampiyatissa  will 
be  reigning,  he  will  be  able  to  receive  it  and  establish  the 
Dispensation  firmly.  Indeed,  it  would  be  well  if  we  were  to 
visit  our  kinsmen  until  that  time  comes.    Perhaps  we  may  or 

62  Inception  of  Discipline 

may  not  have  the  opportunity  of  again  returning  to  this 
district."  Having  thus  reflected,  he  saluted  the  preceptor  and 
the  Order  of  monks  and  setting  out  from  Asokarama  and  going 
on  his  sojourns  in  the  District  of  Dakkhinagiri  *  following  a 
circuitous  route  from  the  city  of  Rajagaha,  in  the  company  of 
those  four  Elders  Itthiya  and  others,  the  novice  Sumana,  son 
of  Sanghamitta  [70]  and  the  lay  disciple  Bhanduka,  he  spent 
six  months  visiting  his  kinsmen.  And  in  due  course  he  arrived 
at  the  city  of  Vedisa,^  the  residence  of  his  mother. 

74.  It  is  said  that  Asoka,  on  his  way  to  Ujjeni,^  when  he  had 
been  appointed  ruler  of  that  district,  in  his  early  youth,  arrived 
at  the  city  of  Vedisa  and  accepted  the  hand  of  the  daughter  of 
the  alderman  Deva.^  Even  on  that  day  she  conceived  and  later 
gave  birth  to  Prince  Mahinda  at  Ujjeni. 

When  the  Prince  was  fourteen  years  old  the  King  was  con- 
secrated ruler. 3  At  that  time,  she,  his  mother,  was  living  in 
the  home  of  her  parents.  Therefore  it  is  said  :  In  due  course 
he  arrived  at  the  city  of  Vedisa,  the  residence  of  his  mother. 
Devi,  the  Elder's  mother  seeing  that  the  Elder  had  arrived, 
saluted  at  his  feet  with  head  bent  low,  gave  him  alms  and 
conducted  him  to  the  Great  Monastery  of  Vedisagiri  built 
by  her.  Seated  in  the  monastery,  the  Elder  thought,  "  Our 
duty  here  is  done,  is  it  now  the  time  to  visit  the  Island  of 
Lanka  ?  "  He  further  thought,  "  Let  Devanampiyatissa  first 
undergo  the  consecration  *  sent  by  my  father,  let  him  hear  the 
virtues  of  the  Triad  of  Gems,  let  him  set  out  from  the  cit}^  in 
order  to  celebrate  the  festival  ^  and  climb  the  peak  Missaka ;  ® 
then  will  I  meet  him  there."  And  after  that  he  spent  a  further 
month  there.  On  the  elapse  of  that  month  all  of  them  assembled 
on  the  uposatha  day  of  the  full  moon  of  the  month  of  Jettha- 
mula  ^  and  considered  whether  it  was  the  time  for  them  to  visit 
the  Island  of  Tambapanni  or  not.  Hence  the  Porana  have 
said  ^ : 

Then  there  was  the  Elder  named  Mahinda,  a  leading  Elder 

in  the  Sangha,   (and  there  were  also)  the  Elders  Itthiya, 

Uttiya,  Bhaddasala,  and  Sambala, 

[71]  The  novice  Sumana  of  sixfold  higher  knowledge  and 

of  great  psychic  power ;  the  seventh  among  them  was  the 

Succession  of  Teachers  63 

lay  disciple  Bhanduka  ®  who  had  visioned  the  truth — these 
were  the  great  nagas  (sinless  sages)  who  conferred  in  seclusion. 

75.  Then  Sakka/  the  lord  of  the  deities,  came  to  the  Elder 
Mahinda  and  said,  "  Sir,  King  Mutasiva  is  dead  ;  the  great 
King  Devanampiyatissa  is  reigning  now.  Besides,  ^  the  Perfectly 
Enlightened  One  has  thus  prophesied  about  you,  '  A  monk 
named  Mahinda,  will,  in  the  future,  convert  the  Island  of 
Tambapanni.'  Therefore,  Sir,  it  is  now  the  time  to  go  to  that 
fair  Island.  I  too  will  assist  you."  Why  did  Sakka  say  this  ? 
It  is  said  that  the  Exalted  One,  even  as  he  surveyed  the  world 
with  his  eye  of  wisdom,  seated  at  the  foot  of  the  Bodhi  tree, 
foresaw  the  future  prosperity  of  this  Island  and  told  him  about 
it.3  He  further  commanded  him  to  be  of  service  then.  Hence 
he  made  this  statement.  The  Elder  accepted  his  bidding,  and 
rising,  with  himself  as  the  seventh,  into  the  sky  from  the 
mountain  Vedisa,  alighted  on  the  mountain  Missaka  situated 
to  the  East  of  Anuradhapura,  now  known  as  Cetiyapabbata. 
Hence  the  Porana  have  said  :* 

Having  spent  thirty  days  in  Vedisagiri  near  Rajagaha(?),^ 
and  considered  that  it  was  the  time  to  go,  they  decided  that 
they  would  go  to  that  fairest  Island. 

Like  the  royal  swan  in  the  sky,  the  Elders  rose  into  the  air 
leaving  Jambudipa  and  alighted  on  the  lordly  peak. 

Like  swans  on  a  mountain  top  they  descended  on  the 
summit  of  the  hill  ®  which  had  the  appearance  of  a  cloud 
and  was  situated  to  the  East  of  the  best  of  cities. ' 

76.  [72]  Thus  when  the  venerable  Elder  Mahinda  came  with 
Itthiya  and  the  others  and  set  foot  here,  it  should  be  known  that 
he  established  himself  in  this  Island  in  the  236th  year  after  the 
passing  away  of  the  Perfectly  Enlightened  One  in  perfect 
Nibbana.i  And  the  Perfectly  Enlightened  One  passed  away  in 
perfect  Nibbana  in  the  eighth  year  of  Ajatasattu's  reign.  In 
the  same  year  Prince  Vijaya,  the  first  king  of  the  Island  of 
Tambapanni,  son  of  Prince  Siha,  came  to  this  Island  and  made 
it  a  human  habitation. ^  In  the  fourteenth  year  of  Udaya- 
bhadda's  reign  in  Jambudipa,  Vijaya  died  here.  In  the  fifteenth 

64  Inception  of  Discipline 

year  of  Udayabhadda's  reign  Panduvasadeva  ascended  the 
throne  in  this  Island.  In  the  twentieth  year  of  King  Nagada- 
saka's  reign  there,  Panduvasadeva  died  here  having  reigned 
for  thirty  years.  In  the  same  year  a  Prince  named  Abhaya 
became  king  of  this  Island.  In  the  seventeenth  year  of  King 
Susanaga's  reign  there,  twenty  years  had  been  completed  in 
King  Abhaya's  reign.  And  in  the  twentieth  year  of  Abhaya's 
reign,  a  rebel  named  Pakundakabhaya  ^  seized  the  kingdom. 
In  the  sixteenth  year  of  Kalasoka's  reign  there,  seventeen  years 
had  been  completed  in  Pakundakabhaya's  reign.  These 
seventeen  years,  together  with  the  previous  one  year,*  form 
eighteen  years.  In  the  fourteenth  year  of  Candagutta's  reign 
there,  Pakundakabhaya  died  here,  and  King  Mutasiva  ascended 
the  throne.  In  the  seventeenth  year  of  the  righteous  King 
Asoka's  reign  there,  King  Mutasiva  died  here  and  King  Deva- 
nampiyatissa  ascended  the  throne. 

After  the  passing  away  of  the  Sambuddha,  the  Enlightened 
One  in  perfect  Nibbana,  Ajatasattu  reigned  for  twenty-four 
years,  [73]  Udayabhadda  sixteen  years,  Anuruddha  and  Munda 
eight  years,  Nagadasaka  twenty-four  years,  Susunaga  eighteen 
years,  and  his  son  (Kala)  Asoka  twenty-eight  years,  and 
Asoka's  sons  the  ten  brothers  who  ascended  the  throne  reigned 
for  twenty-two  years.  After  them  the  nine  Nandas  (reigned 
for)  also  twenty-two  years,  Candagutta  twenty-four  years,  and 
Bindusara  twenty-eight  years.  At  the  end  of  his  reign,  Asoka 
ascended  the  throne,  reigned  for  four  years  without  being 
consecrated,  and  in  the  eighteenth  year  after  his  consecration 
the  Elder  Mahinda  estabhshed  himself  in  this  Island.  In 
accordance  with  this  succession  of  rulers  it  should  be  thus 
known  that  he  established  himself  in  this  Island  in  the  236th 
year  after  the  Perfectly  Enlightened  One  had  passed  away  in 
perfect  Nibbana. 

77.  And  on  this  day,  in  the  Island  of  Tambapanni  there  was  a 
festival  called  the  festival  of  the  asterism  of  Jetthamiila.  Ihe 
King  had  the  holiday  proclaimed,  and  commanding  his 
ministers  to  conduct  the  festivities,  set  out  from  the  city  with 
a  retinue  of  40,000  men  ;  and  wishing  for  the  sport  of  a  deer- 
hunt  wended  his  way  to  the  Missaka  mountain.  Then  a  tutelary 

Succession  of  Teachers  65 

divinity  of  that  hill  who  wished  to  show  the  Elders  to  the 
King  assumed  the  form  of  a  ruddy  deer  and  walked  about  in 
the  vicinity  pretending  to  be  eating  grass  and  leaves.  The  King 
saw  it,  and  thinking  that  it  was  not  proper  to  shoot  it  then, 
unguarded  as  it  was,  twanged  his  bow-string.  The  deer  began 
to  run  along  the  road  leading  to  Ambatthala.^  Chasing  the 
deer  close  behind,  the  King  climbed  Ambatthala  itself.  The 
deer  too  disappeared  not  far  from  the  Elders.  When  the  Elder 
Mahinda  saw  the  King  close  at  hand  coming  towards  him,  he 
made  a  resolution  of  will,  "  Let  the  King  see  me  alone  and  not 
the  others,"  and  said  aloud,  "  Tissa,  O  Tissa,  come  hither  !  " 
Upon  hearing  it  the  King  thought,  "  No  one  born  in  this  Island 
is  capable  of  addressing  me  by  name.  [74]  But  this  shaven- 
headed  recluse  draped  in  a  yellow  patch-work  garment  of 
tattered  rags  addresses  me  by  my  name.  Who  can  he  be,  a 
human  being  or  a  non-human  ?  "  ^  The  Elder  said,^ 

"  Great  King,  we  are  monks,  disciples  of  the  King  of 
the  Dhamma  who  have  come  here  from  Jambudipa  with 
consideration  for  you  yourself." 

78.  At  that  time  the  great  King  Devanampiyatissa  and  the 
righteous  monarch  Asoka  were  friends  who  had  not  seen  each 
other.  By  the  potency  of  the  merits  of  the  great  King  Devanam- 
piyatissa, three  bamboo  shoots  about  the  size  of  chariot  poles 
sprang  up  in  a  thicket  of  bamboos  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain 
Chataka  ^ ;  one  of  them  was  known  as  the  "  creeper-sapling  ", 
the  second  as  the  "  flower-sapling  ",  and  the  other  as  the 
"  bird-sapling."  Of  these,  the  creeper-sapling  was  of  a  silver 
colour ;  the  creeper  that  grew  decorating  it  appeared  to  be 
golden  in  colour.  And  there  appeared  on  the  flower-sapling, 
flowers  of  blue,  yellow,  red,  white,  and  dark  colours  with  clearly 
marked  stalks,  petals,  and  filaments.  On  the  bird-sapling  there 
appeared  figures  of  birds  such  as  swans,  fowls,  and  pheasants 
as  well  as  various  kinds  of  four-footed  animals  as  though  they 
were  aHve.  And  so  it  has  been  said  in  the  Dipavamsa  ^ : 

There  were  three  bamboo  shoots  at  the  foot  of  the  Chata 
mountain.  The  silver-sapling  was  white  and  the  creeper 
appeared  to  be  of  gold. 

66  Inception  of  Discipline 

Whatever  flowers  there  were  of  colours  such  as  blue, 
such  were  they  that  appeared  on  the  flower-sapling  ;  and  on 
the  bird-sapling  were  arrayed  birds  in  their  natural  form. 

[75]  From  the  ocean  too  there  arose  to  him  manifold  treasures 
such  as  pearls,  gems,  and  lapis-lazuli.  Eight  varieties  of  pearl 
arose  in  Tambapanni — the  horse-pearl,  the  elephant-pearl,  the 
chariot-pearl,  the  myrobalan-pearl,  the  bracelet-pearl,  the 
finger- wrapping-pearl,  the  kakudha  ^-fruit-pearl,  and  the  natural 
pearl.  He  sent  those  saplings  and  these  pearls  and  many  other 
treasures  as  gifts  to  Asoka,  the  righteous  monarch.  Asoka  was 
pleased  and  sent  him  the  five  ensigns  of  royalty  :  the  parasol 
of  state,  the  yak-tail  fan,  the  sword,  the  diadem,  and  the  golden 
sandals  and  gifts  of  many  other  articles  required  for  the  con- 
secration, namely,  the  conch  shell,  water  from  the  Ganges, 
perfumed  bath-powder,*  ear  ornaments,  a  water  jar,  a  cere- 
monial vessel  with  markings  in  the  auspicious  direction,^  a 
palanquin,  a  young  girl,^  a  ladle,  a  pair  of  garments  which 
required  no  washing,  a  cloth  for  wiping  the  hands,  yellow 
sandalwood,  reddish  clay,  ointment,  gall-nut,  and  myrobalan.^ 
And  so  it  has  been  said  in  the  Dipavarnsa  ^ : 

A  yak-tail  fan,  a  diadem,  a  parasol,  a  sword,  sandals,  a 
turban,  a  golden  chain,  a  water  jar,  and  a  vessel  with  markings 
auspicious-wise — 

A  palanquin,  a  conch,  ear-ornaments,  a  pair  of  garments 
which  required  no  washing,  a  golden  bowl,  a  ladle,  a  valuable 
cloth  for  wiping  the  hands  ; 

Water  from  the  lake  Anotatta,  a  maiden  most  noble,® 
yellow  sandalwood,  [76]  reddish  clay  and  ointments  brought 
by  the  Nagas — 

Gall-nut  and  myrobalan,  precious  heavenly  medicine, 
6o,ooo  waggonloads  of  perfumed  sali-rice  brought  to  him  by 
the  parrots  :  all  this  his  deserts  of  past  good  deeds,  did  the 
renowned  Asoka  send. 

He  sent  not  only  this  material  gift  but  also  the  following 
message  of  the  Dhamma  ^ : 

I  have  sought  the  refuge  of  the  Buddha,  the  Dhamma,  and 
the  Sangha,  and  proclaimed  lay  discipleship  in  the  Dispensa- 
tion of  the  Son  of  the  Sakyas.^^ 

Succession  of  Teachers  67 

May  you,  too,  O  lord  of  men  win  faith  in  mind  as  regards 
these  three  noblest  objects  and  seek  their  refuge  with 
devotion.  ^^ 

79.  And  this  King  had  been  anointed  for  one  month  to  this 
day  with  the  consecration  sent  by  the  King  Asoka,  for  his 
consecration  was  performed  on  the  full  moon  day  of  the  month 
of  Visakha.^  And  recalling  to  mind  the  news  of  the  Dispensa- 
tion which  he  had  but  recently  heard,  ^  and  realizing  that  the 
venerable  ones  had  already  come,  he  threw  down  his  weapon 
immediately  when  he  heard  the  words  of  the  Elder,  "  Great 
King,  we  are  monks,  disciples  of  the  King  of  the  Dhamma,"  and 
sat  beside  him  exchanging  pleasant  greetings.    For  it  is  said,^ 

Laying  aside  his  weapon  he  sat  respectfully  aside  :  seated 
thus  the  King  indulged  in  pleasant  talk  of  immense  benefit. 
Even  while  he  was  making  his  speech  of  welcome  those 

40,000  followers  came  and  stood  around  him.     At  this  stage 

the  Elder  made  the  other  six  visible.*    Seeing  them  the  King 

asked,  "  When  did  they  come  ?  " 

[77]  "  Together  with  me.  Great  King." 

"  Are   there  other  monks  such  as  they  in  Jambudipa  at 

present  ?  " 

"  There  are,  Great  King.  Jambudipa  is  aglow  with  the  yellow 

robe  and  fanned  with  a  breeze  hallowed  by  sages."  Therein,^ 
There  are  many  disciples  of  the  Buddha  who  possess  the 
threefold  higher  knowledge,  have  gained  psychic  powers,  are 
skilled  in  the  knowledge  of  others'  minds  and  are  canker- 
waned  Arahants. 

80.  (He  asked  ^),  "  Sirs,  how  did  you  come  ?  " 
"  Great  King,  neither  by  water  nor  by  land." 

The  King  inferred  that  they  had  come  through  the  air.  In 
order  to  test  the  King's  accompHshment  in  wisdom,  the  Elder 
began  asking  him  questions  on  the  mango  tree  nearby. 

"  Great  King,  what  is  the  name  of  this  tree  ?  " 

"  Sir,  it  is  known  as  a  mango  tree." 

"  Besides  this  mango  tree.  Great  King,  is  there  any  other 
mango  tree  or  not  ?  " 

"  There  are,  Sir,  many  other  mango  trees." 

68  Inception  of  Discipline 

"  Leaving  aside  this  mango  tree  and  the  other  mango  trees, 
are  there,  Great  King,  other  trees  ?  " 

"  Yes  Sir,  there  are,  but  they  are  not  mango  trees." 

"  Leaving  out  those  mango  trees  and  the  other  trees  that 
are  not  mango,  is  there  any  other  tree  ?  " 

"  This  mango  tree  alone.  Sir." 

"  Good,  Great  King,  you  are  wise." 

"  Great  King,  have  you  any  kinsmen  ?  " 

"  Yes,  Sir,  they  are  many  in  number." 

"  Besides  them,  are  there  any  who  are  not  your  kinsmen, 
Great  King  ?  " 

"  Those  who  are  not  my  kinsmen.  Sir,  are  many  more  than 
my  kinsmen." 

"  Leaving  aside  your  kinsmen  and  those  who  are  not  your 
kinsmen.  Great  King,  is  there  any  one  else  ?  " 

"  Yes,  Sir,  I  myself." 

"  Good,  Great  King,  a  person  himself  is  neither  his  kinsman 
nor  non-kinsman." 

8i.  Thereupon  the  Elder,  realizing  that  the  King  was  intelli- 
gent and  would  be  able  to  understand  the  Dhamma,  preached 
the  Culahatthipadopama  Sutta.^  At  the  end  of  the  discourse, 
together  with  his  40,000  followers,  the  King  estabhshed  himself 
in  the  Three  Refuges.  Exactly  at  this  moment  the  King's 
food  [78]  was  brought  to  him.  Even  as  he  was  listening  to  the 
discourse  the  King  knew  ^  that  it  was  not  permissible  for  them 
to  eat  at  that  time,  and  thinking  that  it  was  wrong  to  eat 
without  asking  them  he  asked,  "  Sirs,  will  you  eat  ?  " 

"  Great  King,  food  is  not  permissible  for  us  at  this  time."  ^ 

"  Sirs,  at  what  time  is  it  permissible  ?  " 

"  Starting  from  dawn  till  mid-day,  Great  King."  * 

"  Sirs,  let  us  go  to  the  city." 
"  No,  Great  King,  we  will  reside  even  here." 
"  Sirs,  if  you  will  live  here,  let  the  child  come  with  me." 
"  Great  King,  this  child  has  attained  the  fruits  ^  and  under- 
stood the  instruction  and  is  an  aspirant  for  ordination  who  will 
presently  enter  the  Order." 

Succession  of  Teachers  69 

The  King,  saying,  "  If  that  be  so.  Sir,  I  will  send  you  a 
chariot  tomorrow,  come  riding  in  it,"  saluted  him  and  departed. 

82.  Scarcely  had  the  King  departed  than  the  Elder  addressed 
the  novice  Sumana,  "  Come  hither,  Sumana,  proclaim  the  time 
for  listening  to  the  Dhamma." 

"  Sir,  how  far  shall  I  make  the  announcement  heard  ?  " 

"  In  the  whole  Island  of  Tambapanni." 

"  Good,  Sir,"  said  the  novice,  and  having  entered  the  fourth 
jhana  ^  which  has  higher  knowledge  as  its  basis,  he  emerged 
from  it  and  with  mind  concentrated,  thrice  announced  the  time 
for  listening  to  the  Dhamma,  making  it  heard,  by  virtue  of 
his  resolution  of  will,  throughout  the  whole  Island  of  Tam- 
bapanni. The  King  heard  this  announcement  and  sent  a 
messenger  to  the  Elders  inquiring  whether  they  were  in  any 
danger.  They  replied,  "  No  misfortune  has  befallen  us.  We 
have  announced  the  time  for  listening  to  the  Dhamma,  and 
we  wish  to  preach  the  word  of  the  Buddha."  Hearing  the 
novice's  proclamation,  terrestrial  deities  repeated  the  announce- 
ment and  in  this  manner  the  proclamation  reached  as  far  as 
the  world  of  Brahma. ^  As  a  result  of  this  proclamation  there 
arose  a  large  assembly  of  deities.  Seeing  the  large  assembly 
of  deities,  the  Elder  preached  the  Samacitta  Suttanta.^  At 
the  end  of  the  discourse  there  resulted  the  realization  of  the 
Dhamma  to  countless  deities.  [79]  Many  Nagas  and  Supannas 
were  established  in  the  Refuges.  As  was  (the  size  of)  the 
assembly  of  deities  when  the  Elder  Sariputta  preached  this 
suttanta,  so  it  was  when  the  Elder  Mahinda  preached  it. 

83.  Then  after  that  night  had  passed,  the  King  sent  a  chariot 
for  the  Elders.  The  charioteer  halted  the  car  on  the  roadside 
and  said  to  the  Elders,  "  Sirs,  the  chariot  is  brought,  board  it 
so  that  we  may  set  out."  The  Elders  said,  "  We  will  not  board 
the  chariot ;  you  may  go,  we  will  come  later."  And  rising  into 
the  air  they  descended  on  the  site  of  the  Pathamakacetiya,^ 
to  the  east  of  Anuradhapura.  Because  it  was  built  at  the  place 
where  the  Elders  first  alighted,  this  cetiya  was  called  the 
Pathamakacetiya.  The  King  issued  a  command  to  the  ministers 
through  his  charioteer  to  arrange  a  pavilion  within  the  palace. 

70  Inception  of  Discipline 

Overcome  with  great  joy,  all  of  them  immediately  arranged  an 
exceedingly  delightful  pavilion.  The  King  further  reflected, 
"  While  discoursing  on  the  code  of  moral  precepts  yesterday, 
the  Elder  said  that  the  use  of  high  and  comfortable  couches 
was  not  permissible. 2  Will  the  venerable  ones  sit  in  these 
seats  or  not  ?  "  While  he  was  thus  reflecting  that  charioteer 
reached  the  city-gate.  There  he  saw  that  the  Elders  had  arrived 
before  him  and  were  draping  themselves  with  the  outer  robe, 
having  already  tied  on  their  belts.  Seeing  them,  he  was  over- 
come with  great  fervour,  and  coming  back,  he  reported  to  the 
King,  "  Sire,  the  Elders  are  come."  The  King  asked,  "  Did 
they  board  the  chariot  ?  "  He  replied,  "  No,  Sire,  they  did  not ; 
but  they  set  out  after  me  and  have  arrived  at  the  eastern  gate 
before  me."  Learning  that  they  did  not  board  the  chariot 
and  realizing  that  the  venerable  ones  would  then  on  no  account 
accept  high  couches,  the  King  issued  instructions,  "  If  that  be 
so,  my  men,  prepare  seats  for  the  Elders  in  the  manner  floor- 
carpets  are  arranged,"  and  went  the  opposite  way  to  greet 
them.  The  ministers  first  laid  down  a  mat  ^  on  the  floor  and 
then  laid  on  it  many-coloured  spreadings  of  fleecy  counterpanes 
and  so  on. 

The  soothsayers  saw  this  and  explained,  "  They  are  now 
firmly  rooted  in  the  soil ;  they  [80]  will  be  the  masters  of  the 
Island  of  Tambapanni."  The  King  went  up  and  saluted  the 
Elders.  Taking  the  bowl  from  the  Elder  Mahinda's  hand  he 
conducted  the  Elders  to  the  city  with  great  honour  and 
reverence  and  led  them  to  his  palace.  Seeing  the  seats  that 
were  arranged,  the  Elder  sat  down  thinking  that  their  Message 
would  be  established  throughout  the  Island  of  Lanka,  as 
widespread  and  calm  as  the  earth.  The  King  himself  personally 
waited  on  the  Elders  and  regaled  them  with  various  kinds  of 
delicacies  both  hard  and  soft  and,  sending  for  the  500  ladies 
of  the  court  led  by  the  Princess  Anula  so  that  they  might 
greet,  pay  homage  to,  and  honour  the  Elders,  he  sat  respectfully 
aside.  His  meal  over,  the  Elder  preached  the  Petavatthu,  the 
Vimanavatthu,  and  the  Saccasamyutta  *  to  the  King  and  his 
courtiers  showering  upon  them  the  treasures  of  the  Dhamma. 
Having  listened  to  that  discourse  on  the  Dhamma  by  the 
Elder  those  500  women  realized  the  fruit  of  Stream-Entrantship. 

Succession  of  Teachers  71 

All  those  men  who  had  seen  the  Elders  on  the  Missaka 
mountain  the  previous  day,  spoke  of  the  virtues  of  the  Elders 
at  various  places.  Hearing  their  words  a  large  multitude  of 
people  gathered  at  the  royal  courtyard  and  made  a  big  uproar. 
The  King  asked,  "  What  noise  is  this  ?  " 

"  Sire,  the  townspeople  lament  that  they  have  not  been  able 
to  see  the  Elders,"  was  the  reply.  Thinking  that  there  would 
be  no  room  if  they  were  all  to  enter  there,  the  King  ordered, 
"  Go,  my  men,  prepare  the  elephants'  stall, ^  strewing  white 
sand  and  flowers  of  the  five  colours  ^  and  setting  up  an  awning, 
and  prepare  seats  for  the  Elders  in  the  place  occupied  by  the 
state  elephant."  The  King's  ministers  carried  out  the  com- 
mand. The  Elder  went  there,  sat  down  and  preached  the 
Devadiita  Suttanta.^  At  the  end  of  the  discourse  a  thousand 
people  were  established  in  the  fruit  of  Stream-Entrantship. 
Later,®  finding  that  the  elephants'  stall  was  overcrowded,  they 
prepared  a  seat  in  the  Nandana  Pleasure-grove  ^  in  the  direction 
of  the  southern  gate.  Seated  there,  the  Elder  preached  the 
Asivisopama  Sutta.^^  Hearing  this  too  a  thousand  beings 
[81]  received  the  fruit  of  Stream-Entrantship.  Thus  there 
resulted  the  realization  of  the  Dhamma  to  2,500  people  on  the 
day  after  his  arrival. 

84.  While  the  Elder  was  exchanging  greetings  with  the  women, 
maidens,  and  girls  of  the  noble  families  who  visited  the  Nandana 
Grove,  it  became  evening.  Considering  what  time  of  day  it  was, 
the  Elder  rose  thinking  of  returning  to  the  Missaka  mountain. 
The  ministers  asked,  "  Where  would  you  go.  Sirs  ?  " 

"  To  our  place  of  abode." 

They  informed  the  King  of  this  and  with  the  King's  approval 
said,  "It  is  not  the  time  now.  Sirs,  to  go  there.  May  the 
Venerable  Ones  make  this  Nandana  Pleasure-grove  itself  their 
place  of  abode." 

"  Not  so,  we  will  go." 

Again  they  said  on  the  King's  behalf,  "  Sirs,  the  King  says  that 
the  park  known  as  Meghavana  ^  which  belonged  to  his  father 
is  situated  neither  too  far  nor  too  near  the  city  and  is  within 
easy  access ;  he  wishes  the  Elders  to  take  up  their  abode  there."  ^ 

And  the  Elders  lived  in  the  Meghavana  Park.^    When  that 

72  Inception  of  Discipline 

night  was  spent  the  King  himself  visited  the  Elder  and,  having 
asked  him  whether  he  had  slept  well,  inquired,  "  Sir,  is  an 
arama  permissible  (for  the  use  of)  the  Order  of  monks  ?  "  The 
Elder  replied,  "  Great  King,  it  is  permissible,"  and  further  cited 
this  sutta,*  "  O  monks,  I  sanction  the  use  of  an  arama."  The 
King  was  pleased,  and  taking  a  golden  water- jar  he  poured 
the  water  of  dedication  on  the  Elder's  hand  and  gave  the 
pleasure-grove  Mahamegha.  Simultaneously  with  the  pouring 
of  the  water  of  dedication  the  earth  trembled.^  This  was  the 
first  occasion  when  the  earth  trembled  at  the  Mahavihara. 
The  King  was  frightened  and  asked  the  Elder,  "  Sir,  why  did 
the  earth  tremble  ?  " 

"  Fear  not,  Great  King,  the  Dispensation  of  the  Lord  of 
Ten  Powers  will  be  established  in  this  Island  ;  and  this  is  the 
place  where  the  first  monastery  will  be.  This  is  the  prognostica- 
tion of  it." 

The  King  was  exceedingly  delighted.  Even  on  the  following 
day,  the  Elder  took  his  meal  in  the  palace  itself  and  preached 
the  Anamataggiyas  (the  Inconceivable  Ends)  ^  in  the  Nandana 
Grove.  The  day  after  that  he  preached  the  Aggikkhandhopama 
Sutta.''  In  this  manner  he  preached  for  seven  days,  bringing 
about  the  realization  of  the  Dhamma  to  8,500  people.  Thence- 
forth [82]  the  Nandana  Grove  received  the  name  Joti  Grove 
as  it  became  the  centre  from  which  the  radiance  of  the 
Dispensation  became  manifest. 

85.  And  on  the  seventh  day  the  Elders  preached  the  Maha- 
Appamada  Sutta  ^  to  the  King  in  the  inner  apartments  of  the 
palace  and  returned  to  Cetiyagiri  ^  itself.  Thereupon  the  King 
asked  the  ministers,  "  The  Elder  gives  admonition  of  deep 
meaning.  Is  it  that  he  is  ready  to  go  ?  "  The  ministers  replied, 
"  Sire,  the  Elder  came  of  his  own  accord  without  being  invited 
by  you  and  it  may  be  that  he  will  go  away  without  your 
permission."  Thereupon  the  King,  mounted  on  his  chariot  and 
with  his  two  Queens  made  to  sit  with  him,  journeyed  to  Cetiya- 
giri in  great  regal  splendour.  Arriving  there  greatly  fatigued, 
he  himself  went  up  to  the  Elders,  making  the  Queens  retire 
aside.  The  Elder  asked  him,  "  Wherefore,  Great  King,  do  you 
come  being  so  fatigued  ?  " 

Succession  of  Teachers  73 

"  Sir,  it  is  in  order  to  find  out  whether  it  is  your  intention 
now  to  go  away  ;  for  the  last  admonition  you  gave  us  was  of 
great  significance." 

"  Great  King,  it  is  not  our  intention  to  go  ;  but.  Great  King, 
the  time  is  now  come  for  entering  upon  the  Rains-residence, 
and  with  reference  to  it  a  monk  should  know  where  he  should 
spend  the  Rains-residence." 

86.  On  the  same  day,  the  minister  named  Arittha  ^  with 
fifty-five  elder  and  younger  brothers,  stood  near  the  King  and 
said  to  him,  "  Sire,  we  wish  to  enter  the  Order  under  the  Elders." 
The  King  gave  them  his  consent  saying,  "  Very  well,  my  men, 
enter  the  Order,"  and  entrusted  them  to  the  Elder.  The  Elder 
admitted  them  into  the  Order  the  same  day.  All  of  them 
attained  arahatship  even  while  in  the  hall  of  tonsure.  And 
that  very  instant  the  King  too  ordered  work  to  begin  on  the 
erection  of  sixty-eight  cells  around  the  courtyard  of  the 
Kantakacetiya,^  and  returned  to  the  city.  [83]  Those  Elders 
too  converted  the  royal  family  including  the  ten  brothers  ^ 
and  spent  the  Rains-residence  at  Cetiyagiri  giving  admonition 
to  the  people.  At  that  time  there  were  sixty-two  *  Arahants 
spending  the  first  Rains-residence  at  Ceityagiri. 

87.  And  ^  now  the  venerable  Mahamahinda  having  spent  the 
Rains-residence  and  performed  the  Invitation  ceremony  (at 
the  end  of  the  rains),  on  the  uposatha  day  of  the  full  moon  of 
Kattika,  said  to  the  King,  "  Great  King,  it  is  a  long  time  since 
we  have  last  seen  the  Perfectly  Enlightened  One,  we  have  lived 
as  destitutes.  We  ^  wish  to  go  to  Jambudipa."  The  King 
asked,  "  Sir,  I  have  provided  you  with  the  four  requisites  and 
these  people  are  established  in  the  Three  Refuges  on  account 
of  you.    Wherefore  are  you  dissatisfied  ?  " 

"  Great  King,  it  is  a  long  time  since  we  have  seen  the 
Perfectly  Enlightened  One  ;  and  there  is  no  object  here  which 
we  can  show  devotion  and  reverence  to,  pay  respectful  salutation 
and  homage  to  ;   therefore  are  we  disappointed." 

"  But  Sir,  have  you  not  said  that  the  Perfectly  Enlightened 
One  has  passed  away  in  perfect  Nibbana  ?  " 

74  Inception  of  Discipline 

"  Great  King,  even  though  He  has  passed  away  in  perfect 
Nibbana,  his  bodily  reUcs,  however,  remain." 

"  I  now  reaUze,  Sir,  that  you  are  greatly  eager  for  the 
establishment  of  a  thupa.  I  will  build  a  thupa  ;  may  you 
first  select  a  suitable  site.  Yet,  Sir,  where  shall  we  obtain 
relics  ?  "  ^ 

"  Discuss  it  with  Sumana,  Great  King." 

"  Good,  Sir,"  said  the  King,  and  going  up  to  Sumana  he 
asked  him,  "  Where  shall  we  now  obtain  relics  ?  "  Sumana 
replied,  "  Great  King,  do  not  be  anxious,  have  the  streets 
cleaned  and  decorated  with  banners,  streamers,  full  pitchers, 
and  such  articles  and  take  upon  yourself  the  uposatha  vows 
in  the  company  of  your  retinue  and  go  towards  the  Mahanaga 
Pleasure-grove  *  in  the  evening,  attended  by  your  full  train  of 
musicians,  together  with  the  state  elephant  adorned  with  all  its 
paraphernalia,  with  the  white  parasol  of  state  hoisted  above  it. 
Assuredly  [84]  you  will  obtain  the  relics  there."  The  King 
agreed  saying,  "  So  be  it." 

The  Elders  returned  to  Cetiyagiri.  Thereat  the  Elder  Mahinda 
told  the  novice  Sumana,  "  Novice,  return  to  Jamibudipa,  go 
to  your  grandfather  Asoka  the  righteous  monarch  and  tell  him 
on  my  behalf,  '  Great  King,  your  friend  Devanampiyatissa 
who  has  gained  faith  in  the  Dispensation  of  the  Buddha 
wishes  to  erect  a  thiipa  ;  and  it  is  known  that  you  have  relics 
in  your  possession.  Give  me  some  of  them.'  ^  Taking  these  you 
next  go  to  Sakka,  the  king  of  the  deities,  and  tell  him,  '  Great 
King,  it  is  said  that  you  possess  two  relics,  the  right  eye-tooth 
and  the  right  collar-bone.  Of  these  you  continue  to  honour 
the  tooth-relic,  but  give  me  the  collar-bone.'  And  tell  him 
further,  *  Great  King,  why  do  you  remain  indifferent  having 
sent  us  to  the  Island  of  Tambapanni  ?  '  "  6  Accepting  the 
words  of  the  Elder  saying,  "  So  be  it,  Sir,"  and  taking  his  bowl 
and  robe,  Sumana  immediately  rose  into  the  air  and  descending 
at  the  gate  of  Pataliputta  went  to  meet  the  King  and  conveyed 
the  message  to  him. 

88.  The  King  was  pleased,  and  taking  the  bowl  from  the 
novice's  hand  smeared  it  with  perfumes  and  returned  it  to  him 
fining  it  with  relics  which  resembled  lovely  pearls.    Taking  it 

Succession  of  Teachers  75 

along  with  him  he  went  to  Sakka,  the  king  of  the  deities.  No 
sooner  did  he  see  the  novice  than  Sakka,  the  king  of  the  deities 
asked  him,  "  Why  0  venerable  Sir,  Sumana,  do  you  roam 
about  ?  " 

"  Great  King,  why  do  you  remain  indifferent  when  you 
yourself  have  sent  us  to  the  Island  of  Tambapanni  ?  " 

"  I  am  not  indifferent.  Sir  ;  tell  me  what  I  should  do." 

"It  is  well  known  that  you  have  in  your  possession  two 
relics,  the  right  eye-tooth  and  the  right  collar-bone  ;  of  them 
the  right  eye-tooth  you  may  continue  to  honour,  but  give  me 
the  right  collar-bone." 

"  So  be  it.  Sir,"  said  Sakka  the  lord  of  the  deities  and  un- 
fastening the  gem-built  thupa  ^  that  was  a  yojana  in  extent,  he 
brought  forth  the  relic  of  the  right  collar-bone  and  gave  it  to 
Sumana.  Taking  this  he  alighted  at  Cetiyagiri  itself.  Thereupon 
all  those  great  nagas  (sinless  sages)  led  by  Mahinda  [85]  de- 
posited there  at  Cetiyagiri  itself  the  relics  given  by  Asoka  the 
righteous  monarch,  and  at  eventide,  the  time  when  long 
shadows  are  cast,  they  repaired  to  the  pleasure  park  of  Maha- 
naga  Pleasure-grove  taking  with  them  the  right  collar-bone. 

89.  The  King  too  who  had  performed  the  rites  and  ceremonies 
as  instructed  by  Sumana,  arrived  at  the  Mahanaga  Grove 
mounted  on  a  lordly  elephant  and  himself  bearing  the  white 
parasol  of  state  above  the  state-elephant.  Then  this  thought 
struck  him,  "  If  this  is  a  relic  of  the  Perfectly  Enlightened  One, 
then  let  the  parasol  sway  aside  and  let  the  state-elephant 
fall  on  its  knees  on  the  ground  and  let  the  casket  of  relics  place 
itself  on  my  head."  Even  as  this  thought  passed  in  the  King's 
mind  the  parasol  swayed  aside,  the  elephant  went  down  on 
its  knees  and  the  casket  of  relics  placed  itself  on  the  King's 
head.  Overcome  by  supreme  joy  and  fervour,  like  one  whose 
body  was  sprinkled  with  nectar,  the  King  asked,  "  What,  Sir, 
shall  I  do  with  the  relic  ?  " 

"  For  the  time  being,  replace  it  on  the  elephant's  frontal. 
Great  King." 

The  King  took  the  casket  of  relics  and  placed  it  on  the 
elephant's  forehead.  In  its  great  joy  the  elephant  trumpeted. 
A  large  raincloud  arose  and  burst  forth  into  a  "  lotus-shower  "^ 

76  Inception  of  Discipline 

There  was  a  mighty  earthquake  right  to  the  ocean-Umits  (to 
celebrate  the  fact)  that  a  rehc  of  the  Perfectly  Enlightened 
One  should  be  enshrined  in  a  border  country.  Deities  and  men 
were  overjoyed.  Thus  producing  joy  in  deities  and  men  by  the 
splendour  of  supernatural  power, 

The  Great  Hero  ^  came  here  from  the  world  of  the  deities 
on  the  full  moon  day  of  the  fourth  month  (of  Kattika)  ^  and 
was  established  on  the  elephant's  frontal. 

Then  this  great  elephant,  surrounded  by  a  band  of  numerous 
musicians  and  honoured  with  exceedingly  magnificent  offerings, 
walked  backwards  facing  the  west  as  far  as  the  eastern  gate 
of  the  city,  and  entering  the  city  by  the  eastern  gate,  [86]  left 
the  city  by  the  southern  gate  while  great  homage  was  paid  to 
it  by  the  entire  city,  and  arriving  at  the  place  called  Maheja- 
vatthu  *  situated  to  the  east  of  the  Thuparama,  stopped  there 
again  facing  the  Thuparama.  ^ 

90.  By  this  time  there  was  already  at  Thuparama  a  site  where 
sacred  objects  used  by  three  previous  Perfectly  Enlightened 
Ones  were  enshrined.^  It  is  said  that  in  the  past,  this  Island 
was  known  as  Ojadipa  :  the  king  was  called  Abhaya  and  his 
city  Abhayapura.  The  Cetiyapabbata  was  known  as  Devakuta- 
pabbata  and  the  Thuparama  as  Patiyarama.  At  that  time  the 
Exalted  One  Kakusandha  had  appeared  in  the  world.  His 
disciple  named  Mahadeva,  together  with  a  thousand  monks, 
established  himself  on  Devakuta  as  did  the  Elder  Mahinda  on 
Cetiyapabbata.  At  this  time  the  people  in  Ojadipa  met  with 
utter  disaster  and  ruin  through  a  fever.  And  the  Exalted  One 
Kakusandha,  as  he  surveyed  the  world  with  his  eye  of  enlighten- 
ment saw  those  beings  brought  to  utter  disaster  and  ruin  ; 
and  when  he  had  seen  this,  he  went  there  attended  by  40,000 
monks.  By  his  supernatural  power  the  fever  was  allayed 
instantaneously.  When  the  epidemic  subsided  the  Exalted 
One  preached  the  Dhamma  and  there  resulted  the  realization 
of  the  Dhamma  to  84,000  beings.  The  Exalted  One  gave  his 
sacred  water-pot  (with  strainer)  and  departed.  Enshrining  it 
they  built  a  cetiya  at  Patiyarama.  Ministering  to  the  Island 
with  his  counsel,  Mahadeva  lived  there. 

Succession  of  Teachers  77 

91.  Again,  during  the  time  of  the  Exalted  One  Konagamana 
this  Island  was  known  as  Varadipa  :  the  king  was  called 
Samiddha  and  his  city  Vaddhamana.  [87]  The  mountain  was 
called  Suvannakuta.  At  that  time  in  Varadipa  there  was  a 
drought  resulting  in  famine  and  failure  of  crops.  People  met 
with  utter  disaster  and  ruin  through  disease  consequent  on 
hunger.  And  the  Exalted  One  Konagamana,  as  he  surveyed 
the  world  with  his  eye  of  enlightenment  saw  those  beings 
brought  to  utter  disaster  and  ruin  ;  and  when  he  had  seen  this 
he  went  there  attended  by  30,000  monks.  By  the  supernatural 
power  of  the  Buddha  there  arose  a  torrential  downpour  of  rain 
and  there  was  an  abundance  of  food.  The  Exalted  One  preached 
the  Dhamma  and  there  resulted  the  realization  of  the  Dhamma 
to  84,000  beings.  The  Exalted  One  stationed  on  the  Island  the 
Elder  named  Mahasumana  together  with  a  following  of  a 
thousand  monks  and  departed,  presenting  his  belt.  Enshrining 
it  they  built  a  cetiya. 

92.  Again,  during  the  time  of  the  Exalted  One  Kassapa  this 
Island  was  known  as  Mandadipa  ^ :  the  king  was  called  Jayanta, 
his  city  Visala,  and  the  mountain  Subhakuta.  At  this  time  in 
Mandadipa  there  was  a  great  dispute.  Involved  in  quarrels 
and  controversies  many  people  met  with  utter  disaster  and  ruin. 
And  the  Exalted  One  Kassapa,  as  he  surveyed  the  world  with 
his  eye  of  enlightenment  saw  those  beings  brought  to  utter 
disaster  and  ruin  ;  and  when  he  had  seen  this,  he  went  there 
attended  by  20,000  monks,  and  settling  the  dispute  he  preached 
the  Dhamma  to  them.  There  resulted  the  realization  of  the 
Dhamma  to  84,000  beings.  The  Exalted  One  stationed  on  the 
Island  the  Elder  named  Sabbananda  together  with  a  following 
of  a  thousand  monks  and  departed,  presenting  his  bathing 
mantle.  Enshrining  this  too  they  built  a  cetiya. 

Thus  at  Thuparama  stood  the  cetiyas  to  the  three  previous 
Buddhas.2  They  perish  with  the  disappearance  of  the  Teaching, 
the  site  only  remains.  Therefore  it  is  said  :  Already  by  this 
time  at  Thuparama  was  the  site  where  sacred  objects  used  by 
the  three  previous  Perfectly  Enlightened  Ones  were  enshrined. 
When  the  cetiyas  have  perished  the  spot  [88]  remains,  by  the 
power  of  the  deities,  concealed  with  various  shrubs  having 

78  Inception  of  Discipline 

branches  covered  with  thorns,  so  that  no  one  may  desecrate  it 
with  rubbish,  impurities,  dirt,  and  filth. 

93.  Thereupon  ^  the  King's  officers  went  in  front  of  the 
elephant  and  cleared  the  ground  cutting  down  all  the  shrubs 
and  making  it  as  even  as  the  palm  of  the  hand.  The  elephant 
went  up  and  stood  facing  that  spot  at  the  place  of  the  Bodhi 
tree  situated  to  the  west  of  it.  Then  they  attempted  to  take 
down  the  relic  from  the  elephant's  forehead.  The  elephant 
did  not  allow  it  to  be  taken  down.  The  King  asked  the  Elder, 
"  Wherefore,  Sir,  does  not  the  elephant  allow  the  relic  to  be 
taken  down  ?  " 

"  Great  King  (it  thinks  that)  it  is  not  proper  to  take  down 
what  has  been  once  placed  upon  it."  ^ 

At  that  time  the  Abhayavapi  ^  had  gone  dry,  the  earth  around 
it  was  caked  and  lumps  of  clay  could  be  easily  removed.  The 
people  quickly  brought  clay  from  there  and  made  a  heap  to  the 
height  of  the  elephant's  frontal  globe.  And  at  the  same  time 
they  began  making  bricks  for  building  the  thupa.  Until  all 
the  bricks  were  ready  the  great  elephant  spent  a  few  days 
standing  in  the  elephant -stall  at  the  place  of  the  Bodhi  tree 
by  day,  and  walking  around  the  place  of  the  construction  of 
the  thupa  at  night.  Having  had  the  site  filled  in,  the  King 
asked  the  Elder,  "  In  what  manner,  Sir,  should  the  thupa 
be  built  ?  " 

"  Great  King,  in  the  shape  of  a  heap  of  paddy."  * 

"So  be  it.  Sir,"  said  the  King,  and  having  had  the  thupa 
constructed  knee-high  (to  the  level  of  the  platform),^  he  held 
a  great  festival  in  honour  of  taking  down  the  relic.  The  whole 
city  and  the  country  assembled  to  witness  the  ceremony  in 
honour  of  the  relic.  When  that  large  multitude  had  assembled, 
the  relic  of  the  Lord  of  Ten  Powers  rose  into  the  sky  from 
the  elephant's  frontal,  to  the  height  of  seven  palm  trees  and 
performed  the  twin-miracle.®  From  the  different  sides  of  the 
relic  streams  of  water  of  six  colours  and  columns  of  fire  issued 
forth.  There  took  place  a  miracle  which  resembled  the  one 
performed  by  the  Exalted  One  at  the  foot  of  the  Gandamba 
tree  at  Savatthi. '  [89]  Indeed,  this  was  not  by  the  power  of  the 
Elder,  nor  by  the  power  of  the  deities,  but  by  the  power  of  the 

Succession  of  Teachers  79 

Buddha  alone.  For  in  His  lifetime,  He  had  made  a  resolution 
of  will  ^ :  "  Let  the  twin-miracle  take  place  after  I  have 
passed  away  in  perfect  Nibbana  on  the  day  of  the  enshrining  of 
my  right  collar-bone  at  the  place  where  cetiyas  have  been  built 
over  the  sacred  objects  used  by  three  previous  Enlightened 
Ones,  and  which  lies  to  the  south  of  Anuradhapura  in  the  Island 
of  Tambapanni." 

Thus  inconceivable  are  the  Buddhas  and  inconceivable 
are  the  ways  of  the  Buddhas  ;  inconceivable  are  the  results 
to  those  who  have  confidence  in  those  who  are  thus  incon- 
ceivable ^. 

94.  In  His  lifetime,^  the  Perfectly  Enlightened  One  came 
thrice  to  this  Island.  First,  He  came  alone  to  tame  the  Yakkhas, 
and  having  done  so  went  round  the  Island  thrice  securing 
protection  for  the  Island  of  Tambapanni,  knowing  that  after 
He  had  passed  away  in  perfect  Nibbana  the  Teaching  would  be 
established  in  the  Island.  The  second  time  He  came  by  Himself 
in  order  to  pacify  the  two  Naga  Kings,^  uncle  and  nephew, 
and  returned  having  pacified  them.  The  third  time  He  came 
with  a  retinue  of  500  monks  and  entering  the  attainment  of 
cessation,  sat  down  at  the  sites  of  the  Mahacetiya,^  the 
Thiiparamacetiya,  the  place  where  the  Great  Bodhi  tree  was 
to  stand,  the  Mutiyanganacetiya,*  the  Dighavapicetiya,  ^  and 
the  Kalyanicetiya.  ^  This  fourth  visit  of  His  was  paid  physically 
by  means  of  a  (bodily)  relic.  And  there  was  no  region  of  the 
entire  land  of  Tambapanni  which  was  not  moistened  by  the 
sprays  of  water  that  issued  forth  from  the  surface  of  this 
(bodily)  relic.  Thus  this  (bodily)  relic  of  His  allayed  the 
heat  of  the  land  of  Tambapanni  with  the  sprays  of  water, 
performed  a  miracle  for  the  people,  descended  (from  the  sky) 
[90]  and  placed  itself  on  the  King's  head.  Thinking  that  his 
birth  as  a  human  being  had  proved  fruitful,  the  King  had  the 
relic  deposited,  paying  great  homage  to  it  :  and  simultaneously 
with  the  depositing  of  the  relic  there  was  a  mighty  earthquake. 
The  King's  brother,  the  Prince  named  Abhaya  "^  gaining  faith 
at  heart  at  that  miracle  performed  by  the  relic,  entered  the 
Order  together  with  a  thousand  men.  Five  hundred  youths 
from  Cetaligama  ^  also  entered  the  Order.   Similarly,  groups  of 

8o  Inception  of  Discipline 

500  youths  each,  coming  from  villages  such  as  Dvaramandala.  ® 
All  those  from  within  and  without  the  city  who  entered  the 
Order  numbered  30,000.  When  the  thupa  was  completed,  the 
King,  the  King's  brothers,  and  the  Queens  each  severally 
made  offerings  causing  astonishment  even  to  the  deities, 
Nagas,  and  Yakkhas.  When  the  ceremony  of  paying  homage 
to  the  relic  was  over  and  the  wonderful  relic  enshrined,  the 
Elder  Mahinda  returned  to  the  Mahamegha  Pleasure-grove  and 
took  up  his  residence  there. 

95.  At  that  time  the  Princess  Anula  became  desirous  of 
entering  the  Order  and  told  the  King  about  it.  On  hearing 
her  words  the  King  spoke  thus  to  the  Elder,  "  Sir,  the  Princess 
Anula  wishes  to  enter  the  Order,  admit  her  into  the  Order." 

"  Great  King,  it  is  not  permissible  for  us  to  admit  womenfolk 
into  the  Order.  ^  But  there  lives  at  Pataliputta  my  sister  the 
Elder(-nun)  Sanghamitta.  Send  for  her.  Further,  Great  King, 
the  Bodhi  of  three  previous  Perfectly  Enlightened  Ones  has 
stood  in  this  Island  ^  and  it  is  meet  that  the  Bodhi  of  our 
Exalted  One  which  diffuses  clusters  of  dazzling  rays  should  be 
established  here.  Therefore  despatch  a  message  so  that 
Sanghamitta  will  come  here  bringing  with  her  the  Bodhi." 

"  So  be  it.  Sir,"  said  the  King,  and  accepting  the  word  of  the 
Elder,  and  holding  a  conference  with  his  ministers,  he  said  to 
his  nephew  Arittha,^  "  Will  you  be  able  to  go  to  Pataliputta 
and  bring  the  venerable  Elder(-nun)  Sanghamitta  together  with 
the  Bodhi  ?  " 

"  I  will  be  able.  Sire,  if  you  will  approve  of  my  entering  the 

[91]  "Go,  my  dear,  and  bring  the  Elder  (-nun)  and  (after- 
wards) enter  the  Order." 

Bearing  the  messages  of  the  Elder  and  the  King,  he  went  to 
the  port  of  Jambukola,^  embarked  in  a  ship,  crossed  the  ocean, 
and  arrived  at  Pataliputta  all  in  one  day  by  virtue  of  the 
resolution  of  will  of  the  Elder.  And  the  Princess  Anula  herself, 
together  with  500  maidens  and  500  ladies  of  the  court,  took 
up  their  abode  in  a  convent  which  they  had  had  erected  in  a 
certain  quarter  of  the  city,  having  taken  upon  themselves  the 
ten  precepts  and  wearing  yellow  robes. 

Succession  of  Teachers  8i 

96.  The  self  same  day  Arittha  went  and  presented  the  King's 
message.  He  added,  "  Sire,  your  son,  the  Elder  Mahinda  has 
charged  me  with  this  message,  '  The  Princess  Anula,  wife  of 
the  brother  of  your  friend  King  Devanampiyatissa  wishes  to 
enter  the  Order  :  send  the  venerable  Elder(-nun)  Sanghamitta 
to  admit  her  into  the  Order,  and  with  the  venerable  lady  send 
the  Great  Bodhi.'  "  And  thus  having  conveyed  the  Elder's 
message  he  went  to  the  Elder(-nun)  Sanghamitta  and  said, 
"  Venerable  lady,  your  brother  the  Elder  Mahinda  sends  me  to 
you  with  the  message  that  the  Princess  Anula  the  wife  of  King 
Devanampiyatissa's  brother,  together  with  500  maidens  and 
500  ladies  of  the  court,  wishes  to  enter  the  Order,  and  he 
requests  you  to  go  there  and  admit  them  into  the  Order."  ^ 
She  immediately  went  before  the  King  in  great  haste  and  said, 
"  Great  King,  my  brother  the  Elder  Mahinda  has  sent  me  a 
message  to  the  effect  that  the  Princess  Anula  the  wife  of  the 
King's  brother,  together  with  500  maidens  and  500  ladies  of 
the  court,  wishes  to  enter  the  Order.  He  looks  forward  to 
my  coming.  Great  King,  I  will  go  to  the  Island  of  Tambapanni." 
The  King  said,  "  My  dear,  my  son  the  Elder  Mahinda  and  my 
grandson  the  novice  Sumana  have  gone  to  the  Island  of 
Tambapanni  reducing  me  to  the  plight  of  a  man  with  hands  cut 
off.  [92]  The  grief  that  arises  in  me  because  of  not  seeing  them  is 
allayed  when  I  look  at  your  face.    Please,  my  dear,  do  not  go." 

"  Great  King,  I  hold  my  brother's  words  dear.  And  Anula 
the  royal  princess,  accompanied  by  a  thousand  women,  greatly 
anxious  to  enter  the  Order,  eagerly  awaits  me.  Great  King, 
I  will  go." 

"  If  that  be  so,  my  dear,  take  the  Great  Bodhi  when  you  go." 

97.  How  did  the  King  come  to  possess  the  Great  Bodhi  ? 
Some  time  prior  to  then,  even  before  Sumana's  visit  for  the 

purpose  of  removing  the  relics,  the  King  was  eager  to  send  the 
Great  Bodhi  to  the  Island  of  Lanka.  Debating  within  himself 
as  to  how  he  should  send  the  Great  Bodhi  which  it  was  not 
fitting  to  cut  with  a  weapon,  and  not  being  able  to  find  a 
method,  he  asked  the  minister  named  Mahadeva.  He  replied, 
"  Sire,  there  are  many  wise  monks."  On  hearing  this  the  King 
offered  a  meal  to  the  Order  of  monks,  and  at  the  end  of  the 

82  Inception  of  Discipline 

meal  asked  the  Sangha,  "  Sirs,  should  the  Bodhi  of  the  Exalted 
One  go  to  the  Island  of  Lanka  or  not  ?  "  The  Sangha  referred 
the  question  to  the  Elder  Moggaliputta  Tissa.  The  Elder 
replied,  "  Great  King,  the  Great  Bodhi  should  go  to  the  Island 
of  Lanka  ;  "  and  related  the  five  great  resolutions  of  will  of 
the  Exalted  One.    What  are  the  five  ?  ^ 

Lying  in  His  death-bed  prior  to  passing  away  in  perfect 
Nibbana,  it  is  said,  the  Exalted  One  made  the  first  resolution 
of  will,  "  The  great  King  Asoka  will  go  to  remove  the  Great 
Bodhi  in  order  to  have  it  established  in  the  Island  of  Lanka- 
Then  let  the  southern  branch  of  the  Great  Bodhi  sever  of  itself 
and  plant  itself  in  a  golden  vase."  This  was  His  first  resolution 
of  will.  He  next  made  the  resolution  of  will,  "  Even  at  the  time 
of  planting  itself  there,  let  the  Great  Bodhi  enter  a  bank  of 
snowy  clouds  and  remain  there."  This  was  the  second  resolution 
of  will.  He  next  made  the  resolution  of  will,  "  On  the  seventh 
day,  when  it  plants  itself  again  in  the  golden  vase,  having 
descended  from  the  bank  of  snowy  clouds,  let  it  emit  the  six- 
hued  rays  from  its  leaves  and  fruits."  This  was  the  third 
resolution  of  will.  He  also  made  the  resolution  of  will,  "  Let 
the  right  collar-bone,  on  the  day  of  its  enshrining  in  the  cetiya 
at  Thiiparama  perform  the  twin-miracle."  This  was  the  fourth 
resolution  of  will.  He  finally  made  the  resolution  of  will, 
"  Let  a  dona  measure  ^  of  my  relics,  at  the  time  of  their  en- 
shrining in  the  Mahacetiya  in  the  Island  of  Lanka,  [93]  assume 
the  form  of  the  Buddha,  rise  into  the  air  and  perform  the  twin- 
miracle."  This  was  the  fifth  resolution  of  will. 

When  he  heard  of  these  five  great  resolutions  of  will,  the  King 
was  pleased  in  mind  and,  clearing  the  road  from  Pataliputta  to 
the  Great  Bodhi, ^  he  had  brought  to  him  a  large  quantity  of 
gold  for  making  a  golden  vase.  At  the  same  time  the  deity 
Vissakamma,  knowing  the  King's  thoughts,  appeared  before 
him  disguised  as  a  smith.  Seeing  him  the  King  said,  "  My  man, 
take  this  gold  and  make  a  vase." 

"  Have  you  in  mind  its  size.  Sire  ?  " 

"  Make  it  as  you  know  best,  my  man." 

Saying,  "  So  be  it,  Sire,  I  will  make  it,"  he  took  the  gold  and 
fashioning  it  with  his  hand,  by  his  supernatural  power,  made 
a  golden  vase  nine  cubits  in  circumference,  five  cubits  in  height, 

Succession  of  Teachers  83 

three  cubits  in  diameter,  eight  inches  thick,  with  the  outer  rim 
the  size  of  an  elephant's  trunk. 

98.  Then  the  King  set  out  from  PataUputta  with  a  large  army 
seven  yojanas  long  and  three  yojanas  deep,  and  went  to  the 
vicinity  of  the  Great  Bodhi  accompanied  by  the  worthy 
Sangha.  The  army  stood  around  the  Great  Bodhi  which  was 
dressed  with  banners  and  streamers,  decked  with  various  gems, 
adorned  with  divers  ornaments,  covered  with  various  kinds  of 
flowers,  and  resounding  with  the  music  of  divers  instruments. 
Taking  with  him  about  a  thousand  great  Elders  who  were  the 
leaders  of  groups,  and  surrounding  himself  and  the  Great 
Bodhi  with  a  thousand  consecrated  kings  ^  from  the  whole  of 
Jambudipa,  he  stood  at  the  foot  of  the  Great  Bodhi  and  gazed 
upon  it.  The  whole  of  the  Great  Bodhi,  except  for  the  trunk  and 
a  portion  of  the  great  southern  branch  four  cubits  long,  became 
invisible.  With  joy  and  fervour  arisen  within  him  as  he  beheld 
this  miracle,  the  King  said  to  the  Order  of  monks,  "  Sirs,  so 
am  I  pleased  on  beholding  this  miracle  that  I  offer  to  the  Great 
Bodhi  the  entire  kingdom  of  Jambudipa,"  and  he  consecrated 
it.  [94]  Then,  making  offerings  of  flowers,  perfumes,  and  so  on 
(to  the  Bodhi  tree),  and  going  round  it  thrice  with  veneration, 
worshipping  it  at  eight  places, ^  rising,  standing  with  clasped 
hands,  wishing  to  remove  the  Bodhi  by  an  act  of  asseveration 
of  truth,  having  the  golden  vase  placed  upon  a  stool  inlaid  with 
all  precious  gems  and  elevated  from  the  ground  to  the  height 
of  the  southern  branch  of  the  Great  Bodhi,  himself  climbing 
upon  the  jewelled  stool  and  taking  a  golden  pencil  and  drawing 
a  line  with  red  arsenic,  he  made  the  following  asseveration  of 
truth,  "  If  the  Great  Bodhi  should  be  estabhshed  in  the  Island 
of  Lanka  and  if  I  should  be  rid  of  doubts  as  to  the  Dispensation 
of  the  Buddha,  let  the  Great  Bodhi  plant  itself  in  this  golden 
vase  of  its  own  accord."  With  this  asseveration  of  truth  the 
branch  of  the  Bodhi  tree  broke  away  at  the  place  marked  with 
red  arsenic  and  stood  above  the  golden  vase  which  was  filled 
with  perfumed  muddy-soil. 

Its  trunk  was  ten  cubits  in  height.  There  were  five  large 
branches  each  four  cubits  in  length,  adorned  with  five  fruits  ; 
of  small  twigs  it  had  a  thousand.  Then  the  King  marked  another 

84  Inception  of  Discipline 

circular  line  on  the  stem  three  inches  above  the  marking  at  the 
bottom.  Then  instantaneously  appearing  as  bumps  ten  large 
roots  emerged.  Again,  at  intervals  of  three  inches  above  it 
he  made  nine  other  circular  markings.  From  them  too  ninety 
roots  emerged  (each)  having  become  ten  bumps.  The  first 
ten  large  roots  grew  to  a  length  of  four  inches  only  and  the 
others  emerged  interwoven  like  the  netting  over  a  gabled 
window.  Seeing  the  extent  of  those  miracles,  the  King, 
standing  on  the  jewelled  stool  itself,  clasped  his  hands  together 
and  cheered  aloud,  the  many  thousands  of  monks  shouted 
approval  with  cries  of  "  Bravo  !  ",  the  entire  royal  army 
cheered  vehemently  and  waved  a  thousand  garments  aloft, 
the  devas,  from  the  terrestrial  deities  right  to  the  hosts  of 
Brahma,  [95]  applauded  with  cries  of  "  Bravo  !  "  As  the 
King  stood  there  with  clasped  hands,  his  body  completely 
pervaded  with  joy  on  beholding  this  miracle,  the  Great  Bodhi 
with  its  hundred  roots  planted  itself  in  the  golden  vase.  The 
ten  large  roots  remained  touching  the  surface  of  the  golden 
vase,  the  other  ninety,  growing  in  due  course,  embedded 
themselves  in  the  perfumed  muddy-soil. ^ 

99.  Thus  even  as  the  Great  Bodhi  planted  itself  in  the  golden 
vase,  the  mighty  earth  trembled,  loud  peals  of  thunder  roared 
in  the  sky,  and  it  was  one  tumultuous  uproar  resounding  from 
the  surface  of  the  earth  as  far  as  the  world  of  Brahma,  with 
the  dancing  of  the  mountains,  the  shouts  of  approval  of  the 
deities,  the  exclamations  of  the  Yakkhas,  the  incantations  of 
praise  of  the  Asuras,  the  clapping  of  hands  of  the  Brahmas, 
the  roar  of  the  rain-clouds,  the  cries  of  four-footed  animals, 
the  songs  of  birds  and  the  display  of  the  individual  skill  of  each 
one  of  the  musicians.  From  each  of  the  fruits  on  the  five 
branches  the  six-hued  rays  emitted  making  the  universe  appear 
as  though  covered  with  roof -beams  made  of  jewels  and  reached 
as  far  as  the  world  of  Brahma.  From  that  instant,  for  seven 
days,  the  Great  Bodhi  remained  concealed  in  a  bank  of  snowy- 
clouds  and  no  one  was  able  to  see  the  Great  Bodhi.  Descending 
from  the  jewelled  stool,  the  King,  for  seven  days,  caused 
offerings  to  be  made  to  the  Great  Bodhi.  On  the  seventh  day, 
the  snow  and  the  six-coloured  rays  from  all  the  quarters  turned 

Succession  of  Teachers  85 

back  and  entered  the  Great  Bodhi  itself.  When  the  snowy- 
clouds  had  disappeared  and  the  vault  of  heaven  become  clear, 
the  Great  Bodhi,  [96]  complete  with  trunk,  branches,  and  twigs, 
adorned  with  the  five  fruits  and  standing  in  the  golden  vase 
became  visible. 

On  beholding  the  Great  Bodhi,  the  King,  with  joy  and  rapture 
arisen  within  him  through  those  miracles,  consecrated  it 
thinking  of  honouring  the  young  Great  Bodhi  with  the 
sovereignty  of  all  Jambudipa  and  remained  for  seven  days  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  Great  Bodhi.  The  Great  Bodhi  first  planted 
itself  in  the  golden  vase  in  the  evening  of  the  Invitation  day  ^ 
in  the  bright  fortnight  of  the  month  of  Pubbakattika.^  Seven 
days  having  passed  (while  the  Great  Bodhi  was)  in  the  snowy- 
cloud  and  seven  days  for  its  consecration,  the  uposatha  day  of 
the  dark  fortnight  arrived  and  the  King,  in  one  day  only, 
entered  Pataliputta  and  placed  the  Great  Bodhi  at  the  foot  of 
the  Eastern  Great  Sala  tree  ^  on  the  first  day  of  the  bright 
fortnight  of  Kattika.  On  the  seventeenth  day  of  its  planting 
itself  in  the  golden  vase  fresh  shoots  sprouted  on  the  Great 
Bodhi.  The  King,  pleased  on  seeing  them  too,  again  consecrated 
the  Great  Bodhi  honouring  it  with  the  sovereignty  of  all 
Jambudipa.  The  novice  Sumana  who  had  gone  there  on  the 
full  moon  day  of  Kattika  to  obtain  relics  saw  the  Kattika 
festival  offerings  to  the  Great  Bodhi. 

100.  Thus  it  was  with  reference  to  the  Great  Bodhi  which  was 
brought  from  its  platform  and  placed  at  Pataliputta  that  he 
said,  "  If  that  be  so,  my  dear,  take  the  Great  Bodhi  and  go." 
She  agreed  to  it  saying,  "  So  be  it." 

For  the  purpose  of  guarding  the  Great  Bodhi  the  King  gave 
eighteen  families  of  royal  clan,^  eight  families  each  of  ministers, 
brahmins,  wealthy  householders,  herdsmen,  Taracchas,^  and 
natives  of  Kalinga,^  and  for  the  purpose  of  sprinkling  water 
he  gave  eight  golden  and  eight  silver  vessels  ;  and  placing 
the  Great  Bodhi  together  with  its  retinue,  on  board  a  ship  in 
the  Ganges,  [97]  and  himself  departing  from  the  city  and 
crossing  the  Viiijha  forest  *  he  arrived  in  due  course  at 
Tamalitti  ^  in  seven  days.  On  the  way,  deities,  Nagas,  and  men 
paid  the  highest  homage  to  the  Great  Bodhi.    The  King  too, 

86  Inception  of  Discipline 

keeping  the  Great  Bodhi  on  the  sea-shore  for  seven  days, 
offered  to  it  the  great  sovereignty  of  all  Jambudipa.  This  is 
the  third  time  that  he  dedicated  the  rulership  of  Jambudipa. 

loi.  Having  thus  offered  the  great  sovereignty  the  righteous 
monarch  Asoka,  on  the  first  day  of  the  bright  fortnight  of  the 
month  of  Maggasira,^  raised  the  Great  Bodhi  and  placed  it  on 
board  the  ship,  wading  into  the  water  up  to  his  neck.  Telling 
the  Elder(-nun)  Sanghamitta  to  embark  with  her  retinue,  he 
spoke  thus  to  the  minister  Arittha,  "  I  have,  my  dear,  thrice 
honoured  the  Great  Bodhi  with  the  sovereignty  of  all  Jam- 
budipa, and  descended  neck-deep  into  the  water  whilst  sending 
it  to  my  friend  ;  let  him  too  honour  the  Great  Bodhi  in  the 
self-same  way."  Thus  he  gave  his  message  to  his  friend,  and 
lamenting,  "  Behold,  there  goes  the  Great  Bodhi-tree  emitting 
a  glow  of  glorious  rays  of  the  Lord  of  Ten  Powers  !  "  he  stood 
there  with  his  hands  clasped  and  shedding  tears.  And  the  ship 
too,  with  the  Great  Bodhi  placed  upon  it,  even  while  the  great 
King  was  looking  on,  sped  over  the  surface  of  the  great  ocean. 
The  waves  of  the  mighty  ocean  became  calm  to  the  distance  of 
a  yojana  all  round,  lotuses  of  the  five  colours  blossomed, 
heavenly  music  resounded  in  the  sky,  and  exceedingly  splendid 
offerings  were  made  from  the  sky  by  the  tutelary  divinities  of 
the  waters,  the  highlands,  trees,  and  the  like.  The  Elder(-nun) 
Sanghamitta,  in  the  guise  of  a  supanna  ^  scared  away  hordes 
of  Nagas  in  the  great  ocean.  Those  Nagas  who  were  terrified 
came  back  again,  and  beholding  its  splendour  begged  of  the 
Elder(-nun)  and  carried  the  Great  Bodhi  to  the  abode  of 
the  Nagas,  and  for  seven  days  [98]  made  an  offering  of  the 
Naga  kingdom  and  placed  it  on  the  ship  again.  The  same  day 
the  ship  arrived  at  the  port  of  Jambukola.  And  the  great 
King  Asoka  who  was  overcome  by  the  pangs  of  separation  from 
the  Great  Bodhi,  weeping  and  lamenting  gazed  on  as  long  as 
it  was  within  his  range  of  vision  and  then  turned  back. 

102.  And  the  Great  King  Devanampiyatissa,  acting  in 
accordance  with  the  words  of  the  novice  Sumana,  beginning 
on  the  first  day  of  the  bright  fortnight  of  the  month  of  Mag- 
gasira,  had  the  road  from  the  northern  gate  to  the  port  of 
Jambukola  cleared  and  decorated  ;   and  on  the  day  of  setting 

Succession  of  Teachers  87 

out  from  the  city,  as  he  stood  on  the  site  of  the  Samudda- 
sala  ^  situated  near  the  northern  gate,  he  saw  by  the  super- 
natural power  of  the  Elder,  the  Great  Bodhi  coming  on  the 
high  seas  in  all  its  glory  ;  and  glad  at  heart  he  set  out,  causing 
the  whole  length  of  the  road  to  be  strewn  with  flowers  of  the 
five  colours,  2  placing  flower-altars  at  intervals  :  and  arriving 
at  the  port  of  Jambukola  on  the  same  day  he  descended  neck- 
deep  into  the  water  attended  by  his  whole  train  of  musicians 
and  making  offerings  of  flowers,  incense,  perfumes,  and  so  on, 
and  overcome  with  great  joy  that  the  Bodhi  tree  had  indeed 
come  sending  forth  a  glow  of  glorious  rays  of  the  Lord  of  Ten 
Powers,  he  raised  the  Great  Bodhi  and  setting  it  respectfully 
upon  his  head  with  great  devotion  and  coming  out  of  the  sea 
accompanied  by  sixteen  noble  families  ^  who  had  come  in 
attendance  upon  the  Great  Bodhi,  he  placed  the  Great  Bodhi 
on  the  sea-shore  and  for  three  days  honoured  it  with  the 
sovereignty  of  the  whole  Island  of  Tambapanni  *  and  entrusted 
the  duties  of  state  to  the  sixteen  families  of  noble  birth. 

Then  on  the  fourth  day,  taking  the  Great  Bodhi  with  him, 
making  splendid  offerings  to  it,  he  gradually  reached  Anura- 
dhapura.  At  Anuradhapura  too,  he  paid  great  homage  to  it, 
and  on  the  fourteenth  day,  at  eventide,  the  time  when  long 
shadows  are  cast,  he  made  the  Great  Bodhi  enter  the  city  by  the 
northern  gate ;  and  carrying  it  through  the  middle  of  the  city,  [99] 
he  left  through  the  southern  gace  and  deposited  the  Great 
Bodhi  at  the  gateway  to  the  precincts  of  the  Royal  Grounds, 
a  place  situated  500  bow-lengths  from  the  southern  gate, 
where  the  ground  had  been  first  prepared  at  the  request 
of  the  novice  Sumana  and  had  become  the  symbol  of  beauty 
to  the  pleasure  park  within  the  Mahamegha  Pleasure-grove, 
and  where  our  Enlightened  One  once  sat  in  the  attainment 
of  cessation,  where  the  three  previous  Perfectly  Enlightened 
Ones  had  sat  while  reaching  the  attainments,  and  where 
stood  the  Great  Sirisa  Bodhi  of  the  Exalted  One  Kakusandha, 
the  Udumbara  Bodhi  of  the  Exalted  One  Konagamana,  and  the 
Nigrodha  Bodhi  of  the  Perfectly  Enlightened  One  Kassapa. 
How  ?  The  members  of  these  sixteen  noble  families  who  came 
in  attendance  upon  the  Bodhi  took  upon  themselves  the  duties 
of  state.    The  King  stationed  himself  as  the  gate-keeper.    The 

88  Inception  of  Discipline 

sixteen  families  took  the  Great  Bodhi  and  reverentially  placed 
it  on  the  ground.  Scarcely  had  the  Great  Bodhi  been  released 
from  their  hands  than  it  rose  into  the  sky  to  a  height  of  eighty 
cubits  and  emitted  the  six-hued  rays.  The  magnificent  rays 
spread  over  the  entire  Island  and  penetrated  as  far  as  the  world 
of  Brahma  above. 

103.  Ten  thousand  people  with  faith  kindled  at  the  sight  of  the 
miracle  performed  by  the  Great  Bodhi  developed  insight  in 
gradual  order,  gained  arahatship,  and  entered  the  Order.  Until 
sunset  the  Great  Bodhi  remained  in  the  sky  ;  after  sunset  it 
established  itself  upon  the  earth,  under  the  asterism  of  Rohini.^ 
With  the  establishing  of  the  Bodhi,  the  great  earth  shook  to 
its  ocean-limits.  Once  it  had  established  itself,  the  Great 
Bodhi,  for  seven  days,  remained  enclosed  within  a  bank  of 
snowy  clouds  hidden  to  the  view  of  the  people.  On  the  seventh 
day  the  sky  was  clear  of  clouds.  The  six-hued  rays  flashed 
radiant  and  dazzling.  The  trunk  of  the  Great  Bodhi,  the 
branches  and  [100]  the  five  fruits  were  visible. ^ 

The  Elder  Mahinda,  the  Elder  (-nun)  Sanghamitta,  and  the 
King,  accompanied  by  their  retinues,  went  to  the  place  of  the 
Great  Bodhi.  Inhabitants  from  all  parts  of  the  Island  gathered 
there  in  large  numbers.  Even  while  they  were  looking  on,  one 
fruit  on  the  northern  branch  ripened  and  fell  from  the  branch. 
The  Elder  held  out  his  hand  and  the  fruit  came  to  rest  on  his 
hand.  The  Elder  gave  it  to  the  King  saying,  "  Plant  it,  Great 
King."  The  King  accepted  it  ;  and  scattering  scented  earth 
in  a  golden  vase  and  filling  it  with  perfumed  muddy-soil,  he 
planted  it  and  placed  it  near  the  Great  Bodhi.  Even  while 
every  one  was  looking,  eight  Bodhi-tree  saplings  four  cubits 
high  sprang  up.  Seeing  this  wondrous  happening  the  King 
made  an  offering  of  his  white  parasol  of  state  to  the  young 
Bodhi-trees  and  consecrated  them.  They  planted  one  of  these 
Bodhi-trees  at  the  port  of  Jambukola  in  the  place  where  the 
Great  Bodhi  had  been  set  down  at  the  time  of  its  arrival,  one 
at  the  entrance  to  the  village  of  the  brahmin  Tavakka,^  one  at 
the  Thuparama,  one  at  the  Issaranimmana  Monastery,*  one 
at  the  place  of  the  Pathamacetiya,  one  at  Cetiyapabbata,  one 
at  Kacaragama  ^  in  the  province  of  Rohana,  and  the  eighth  at 

Succession  of  Teachers  89 

Candanagama  ^  likewise  in  the  province  of  Rohana.  From 
the  seeds  of  the  remaining  four  fruits  they  planted  thirty-two 
Bodhi  saplings  in  aramas  situated  at  intervals  of  a  yojana 
from  one  another. 

When  the  Great  Bodhi  of  the  Lord  of  Ten  Powers,  which 
was  like  a  banner  of  the  Dhamma,  was  thus  established  for  the 
benefit  and  well-being  of  inhabitants  throughout  the  Island  for 
generations  from  son  to  grandson,  [101]  the  Princess  Anula 
together  with  a  thousand  womenfolk  consisting  of  500  maidens 
and  500  ladies  of  the  court  entered  the  Order  under  the 
Elder(-nun)  Sanghamitta,  and  before  long,  together  with  her 
followers,  gained  arahatship.  The  King's  nephew  Arittha  ^ 
too,  together  with  500  men  entered  the  Order  under  the  Elder, 
and  before  long,  together  with  his  followers  attained  arahatship. 

104.  Then  one  day,  the  King,  when  he  had  venerated  the  Great 
Bodhi,  was  going  on  his  way  to  the  Thuparama  with  the  Elder. 
When  he  reached  the  place  where  the  Lohapasada  ^  was  to 
stand,  people  brought  him  flowers.  The  King  gave  the  flowers 
to  the  Elder.  The  Elder  honoured  the  site  of  the  Lohapasada 
with  flowers.  No  sooner  did  the  flowers  fall  on  the  ground  than 
there  was  a  great  earthquake.  The  King  asked,  "  Wherefore, 
Sir,  did  the  earth  tremble  ?  " 

"  In  this  place.  Great  King,  in  the  future,  there  will  arise  an 
uposatha  hall  for  the  Sangha.  This  is  the  prognostication  of  it." 

Continuing  his  journey  with  the  Elder,  the  King  reached  a 
place  called  the  Ambangana  ^  where  a  mellow,  sweet-smelling, 
and  succulent  ripe  mango  of  exceedingly  delightful  taste  was 
brought  to  him.  The  King  offered  it  to  the  Elder  so  that  he 
might  partake  of  it.  Then  and  there,  the  Elder  ate  it  and  said, 
"  Have  this  planted  just  here."  The  King  took  the  mango 
stone  and  having  had  it  planted  in  that  very  place,  sprinkled 
water  over  it.  Simultaneously  with  the  planting  of  the  mango- 
seed  the  earth  shook.  The  King  asked,  "  Wherefore,  Sir,  did 
the  earth  tremble  ?  " 

"  In  this  place,  Great  King,  in  the  future,  there  will  be  a 
place  of  assembly  for  the  Sangha  named  Ambangana.  This 
is  the  prognostication  of  it." 

The   King  scattered  eight  handfuls  of  flowers  there  and 

9©  Inception  of  Discipline 


venerated  (the  place)  ;  and  continuing  his  journey  with  the 
Elder  arrived  at  the  place  of  the  Mahacetiya.  Champak 
flowers  were  brought  to  him  there,  and  these  the  King  gave  to 
the  Elder.  The  Elder  honoured  the  site  of  the  Mahacetiya  with 
the  flowers  and  paid  homage,  and  immediately  the  great  earth 
shook.  The  King  asked,  "Wherefore,  Sir,  did  the  earth  tremble  ? " 

"  In  this  place.  Great  King,  in  the  future,  a  unique  and 
mighty  thiipa  will  be  erected  in  honour  of  the  Buddha,  the 
Exalted  One.    [102]  This  is  a  prognostication  of  it." 

"  I  myself  will  build  it.  Sir." 

"  Not  so.  Great  King,  you  have  much  work  other  than  this, 
but  your  descendant,^  the  King  named  Dutthagamani  Abhaya, 
will  have  it  erected. 

105.  The  King  then  replied,  "  If  my  descendant.  Sir,  will 
build  it,  it  is  as  good  as  done  by  me,"  and  he  had  a  stone  pillar 
twelve  cubits  high  brought  to  him,  and  having  the  words, 
*'  Let  Dutthagamani  Abhaya,  the  descendant  of  Devanampi- 
yatissa,  build  a  thiipa  at  this  spot,"  inscribed,  he  set  it  up  there, 
venerated  the  place  and  asked  the  Elder,  "  Is  the  Dispensation, 
Sir,  now  established  in  the  Island  of  Tambapanni  ?  " 

"  The  Dispensation,  Great  King,  is  established,  but  its  roots 
have  not  yet  descended  deep." 

"  When,  Sir,  will  the  roots  have  descended  ?  " 
"  When,  Great  King,  a  youth  born  in  the  Island  of  Tam- 
bapanni, of  parents  belonging  to  the  Island  of  Tambapanni, 
enters  the  Order  in  the  Island  of  Tambapanni,  learns  the 
Vinaya  in  the  Island  of  Tambapanni  itself  and  teaches  it  in 
the  Island  of  Tambapanni,  then  indeed,  will  the  roots  of  the 
Dispensation  have  descended."  ^ 
"  But,  is  there.  Sir,  such  a  monk  ?  " 

"  There  is.  Great  King,  the  monk  named  Maha-Arittha  who 
is  capable  of  carrying  out  this  task." 

"  What,  Sir,  should  be  done  by  me  in  this  matter  ?  " 

"  Great  King,  it  behoves  you  to  build  a  pavilion." 

"So  be  it,"  said  the  King,  and  at  the  spot  where  Megha- 

vannabhaya  the  minister  was  to  build  a  pari  vena,  ^  by  means 

of  his  royal  powers,  he  caused  the   erection   of   a  pavilion 

resembling  that  built  by  the  great  King  Ajatasattu  at  the  time 


Succession  of  Teachers  "     91 

of  the  Great  Convocation  ;  and  engaging  a  complete  orchestra, 
each  one  to  display  his  own  art,  he  arrived  at  the  Thuparama 
surrounded  by  many  thousands  of  men,  thinking,  "  I  will  see 
the  roots  of  the  Dispensation  descend.'' 

106.  And  at  this  time  68,000  monks  assembled  at  the 
Thiiparama.  A  seat  facing  the  south  was  made  ready  for  the 
Great  Elder  Mahinda,  [103]  and  the  preacher's  seat  facing 
the  north  was  prepared  for  the  Elder  Maha-Arittha.  There- 
upon the  Elder  Maha-Arittha,  requested  by  the  Elder  Mahinda, 
sat  in  the  preacher's  seat  which  he  deserved  for  his  merit  and 
assigned  to  him  by  order  of  precedence.  The  sixty-eight 
great  Elders  with  the  Elder  Mahinda  at  the  head  sat  down 
around  the  preacher's  seat.  The  Elder  Mattabhaya,  the  King's 
younger  brother,  taking  the  role  of  the  chief  in  office  ^  and 
thinking  of  learning  the  Vinaya  sat  down  with  500  monks, 
likewise,  surrounding  the  preacher's  seat  of  the  Elder  Maha- 
Arittha.  The  remaining  monks,  and  the  people  together  with 
the  King  sat  down  in  the  seats  that  each  one  of  them  was 
assigned.  Thereupon,  the  Elder  Maha-Arittha  preached  the 
occasion  of  the  Vinaya  with  the  words, ^  "  And  at  that  time  the 
Buddha,  the  Exalted  One  was  living  at  Veraiija  at  the  foot 
of  the  Nalerupucimanda."  When  the  occasion  of  the  Vinaya 
was  preached  by  the  venerable  Elder  Arittha  the  sky  resounded 
with  loud  peals  of  thunder,  lightning  flashed  out  of  season, 
the  deities  shouted  applause  and  the  great  earth  shook  to  the 
ocean-limits.  Whilst  many  wondrous  happenings  were  thus 
taking  place,  on  the  Invitation  day,  the  first  day  of  the  month 
of  Kattika,  within  the  precincts  of  the  Thiiparama  Monastery 
the  Venerable  Arittha,  surrounded  by  sixty-eight  great  Elders 
who  were  canker-waned  and  were  each  a  leader  of  a  group, 
with  the  great  Elder  Mahinda  at  their  head,  and  also  sur- 
rounded by  68,000  other  monks,  proclaimed  the  Vinaya  Pitaka 
which  reveals  the  Teacher's  quality  of  benevolence  and  dispels 
the  bodily  and  verbal  transgressions  of  those  who  act  in 
accordance  with  the  admonition  of  the  Teacher.  He  preached 
it  and  remaining  till  the  end  of  his  life,  he  taught  it  to  many 
and  established  it  in  the  hearts  of  many  and  passed  away  in 
the  element  of  perfect  Nibbana  with  no  material  substrate 

92  Inception  of  Discipline 

remaining.  And  they  indeed,  in  that  assembly  with  the  Great 
Mahinda  at  their  head  : 

[104]  The  sixty-eight  great  Elders,  disciples  of  the  King 
of  the  Dhamma,  each  one  the  leader  of  a  separate  group, 
who  had  reached  pre-eminence  were  gathered  together. 

They  who  had  destroyed  their  cankers,  gained  mastery 
over  themselves,  were  endowed  with  the  threefold  higher 
knowledge,  skilled  in  psychic  phenomena,  and  had  realized 
the  highest  end  gave  admonition  to  the  King. 

Showing  him  the  light  and  illuminating  this  earth,  the 
great  sages  flamed  forth  like  columns  of  fire  and  were 

After  their  passing  away  in  perfect  Nibbana,  others  too, 
the  pupils  of  those  Elders,  Tissadatta,  Kalasumana,  Dighasu- 
mana,  and  others  as  well  as  the  co-resident-pupils  of  the  Elder 
Maha-Arittha  and  the  co-resident  pupils  of  those  co-resident 
pupils — the  successive  generation  of  teachers  thus  mentioned 
above,^  have  handed  down  this  Vinaya  Pitaka  to  the  present 
day.*  Therefore  it  is  said  :  Starting  from  the  time  of  the  Third 
Convocation,  it  was  first  brought  to  this  Island  by  Mahinda 
and  others  ;  learning  it  under  Mahinda  it  was,  for  a  short  period, 
handed  down  by  the  Elder  Arittha  and  others,  and  from  that 
time  to  the  present  day  it  was  handed  down  by  the  succession 
of  teachers  who  were  their  successive  generations  of  co-resident 

107.  Where  was  it  established  ?  It  should  be  known  that  it 
was  established  among  individuals  who  were  intent  on  training 
and  were  endowed  with  great  mindfulness,  courage,  and 
endeavour,  were  modest  and  scrupulous,  by  whom  it  is  retained 
to  perfection  both  as  regards  the  text  and  as  regards  its  meaning, 
like  oil  poured  into  a  crystal  vessel,  even  a  drop  of  which  does 
not  flow  out.  Therefore,  in  order  to  establish  the  Vinaya,  a 
monk  who  is  intent  on  training  should  consider  the  advantages 
arising  from  the  learning  of  the  Vinaya  and  the  complete 
study  of  the  Vinaya.  Here  are  the  advantages  arising  from 
learning  the  Vinaya  :  A  person  who  is  proficient  in  Vinaya- 
learning  stands  in  the  relationship  of  a  father  or  mother  to 
clansmen  who  have  gained  faith  in  the  Dispensation  ;    for  on 

Succession  of  Teachers  93 

them  depend  their  ordination  and  higher  ordination,  the  dis- 
charge of  the  major  and  minor  obUgations  and  their  skill  in 
good  conduct  and  resort  (for  alms).  Besides,  on  account  of  his 
Vinaya-learning  his  code  of  moral  precepts  will  be  well  guarded 
and  protected,  he  becomes  an  arbiter  to  those  who  by  nature 
are  scrupulous,^  he  goes  about  amidst  the  assembly  of  monks 
with  confidence  and  checks  firmly  his  adversaries  in  accordance 
with  the  Dhamma.  [106]  He  is  faring  along  for  the  persistence 
of  the  Good  Teaching.  Therefore  has  the  Exalted  One  said  ^ : 
"  These  O  monks,  are  the  five  advantages  accruing  to  a  person 
adept  in  the  Vinaya  :  His  own  code  of  moral  precepts  is  well 
guarded  and  protected  and  so  on  and  finally  he  is  faring  along 
for  the  persistence  of  the  Good  Teaching."  And  besides, 
whatever  good  qualities  which  have  restraint  as  their  basis 
that  have  been  declared  by  the  Exalted  One,  a  person  adept 
in  the  Vinaya  is  heir  to  them,  on  account  of  the  fact  that  these 
qualities  are  based  on  the  Vinaya.  And  so  it  has  been  declared 
by  the  Exalted  One  ^ :  "  Vinaya  leads  to  restraint  and  restraint 
to  absence  of  remorse,  the  absence  of  remorse  leads  to  delight, 
and  delight  to  joy,  joy  leads  to  impassibility  and  impassibility 
to  ease,  ease  leads  to  concentration  and  concentration  to 
knowledge  and  insight  with  correct  perspective,  knowledge  and 
insight  with  correct  perspective  leads  to  revulsion  and  revulsion 
to  detachment,  detachment  leads  to  emancipation,  emancipa- 
tion to  knowledge  and  insight  into  emancipation,  knowledge 
and  insight  into  emancipation  leads  to  perfect  Nibbana  free 
from  the  material  substrata.  Discussion,  deliberation,  intensive 
study  and  lending  attentive  ear  are  for  this  purpose,  namely, 
the  emancipation  of  mind  without  the  material  substrata." 
Therefore,  one  should  strive  hard  for  learning  the  Vinaya. 

In  so  far  as  whatever  tabulation  has  been  laid  down  for  the 
purpose  of  the  exposition  of  the  Vinaya,  therein  as  *  : 

By  whom  it  was  said,  when,  for  what  reason,  held  by 

whom,  handed  down  by  whom,  where  it  was  established  : 

having  thus  explained  this  procedure, 
the  meaning  of  the  above  stanza  has  been  so  far  explained.  The 
account  of  the  External  Story  connected  with  the  Vinaya  has 
been  fully  explained  as  intended. 

Here  ends  the  Account  of  the  External  Story. 

94  Inception  of  Discipline 


The  Pali  Texts  referred  to  are  the  editions  of  the  Pali  Text  Society.  The 
references  to  the  text  and  translation  of  this  edition  are  by  paragraph  numbers 
and  when  the  P.T.S.  edition  is  referred  to,  the  page  number  is  followed  by 
the  letters  P.T.S. 

A.  Anguttara  Nikaya 

AA.  Anguttara  Nikaya  Atthakatha  (Manorathapurani) 

AGI  Cunningham's  Ancient  Geography  of  India 

ASC  Archaeological  Survey  of  Ceylon 

Bdhgh.  Buddhaghosa 

BI  Buddhist  India 

CJSc  The  Ceylon  Journal  of  Science 

Cp.  Cariyapitaka 

Cvg.  Cullavagga  Vinaya  (Vin.  ii) 

D.  Digha  Nikaya 

DA.  Digha  Nikaya  Atthakatha,  see  Sum. 

desid.  desiderative 

Dh,  Dhammapada 

DhA.  Dhammapada  Atthakatha 

Dhs.  Dhammasangani 

DhsA.  Dhammasangani  Atthakatha  (Althasalini) 

DPPN  The  Dictionary  of  Pali  Proper  Names 

Dpv.  Dipavamsa 

Divy.  Divyavadana 

EHBC  The  Early  History  of  Buddhism  in  Ceylon 

It.  Itivuttaka 

J  A.  Jataka  Atthakatha 

JCBRAS  Journal  of  the  Ceylon  Branch  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society 

JPTS  Journal  of  the  Pali  Text  Society 

Kh.  Khuddakapatha 

KhA.  Khuddakapatha  Atthakatha  (Paramatthajotika) 

Kvu.  Kathavatthu 

M.  Majjhima  Nikaya 

MA.  Majjhima  Nikaya  Atthakatha  (Papaiicasudani) 

Mhv.  Mahavamsa 

Mvg.  Mahavagga  Vinaya  (Vin.  i) 

Miln.  Milinda  Paiiha 

Pj .  Paramatthaj  otika 

PLC  The  Pali  Literature  of  Ceylon 

P.T.S.  The  Pali  Text  Society 

PTS  The  Pali  Text  Society's  Pali-English  Dictionary 

Pv.  Petavatthu 

S.  Samyutta  Nikaya 

SA.  Sarhyutta  Nikaya  Atthakatha  (Saratthappakasini) 

SBB  Sacred  Books  of  the  Buddhists 

SBE  Sacred  Books  of  the  East 

Sinh.  Sinhalese 

Smp.  Samantapasadika 

Sn.  Sutta  Nipata 

SnA.  Sutta  Nipata  Atthakatha  (Paramatthajotika) 

St.  stanza 

subst.  substantive 

Sum.  Sumangalavilasni,  see  DA. 

Th.  1  Theragatha 

Th.  2  Therigatha 

Thup.  Thupavamsa 

UCR  The  University  of  Ceylon  Review 

Notes  to  the  Translation  95 

Ud.  Udana 

Vibh.  Vibhanga 

VibhA.  Vibhanga  Attbakatha  (Sammohavinodani) 

Vin.  Vinaya  Pitaka,  Vols,  i-v 

Vism.  Visuddhimagga 

Yam.  Yamaka 


[The  references  to  Smp.  in  these  notes  are  by  paragraph  numbers.] 

I.  1  Pubbacariya  were  the  exponents  of  the  Vinaya  who  preceded  Bdhgh. 
and  for  whom  he  had  the  highest  regard.  The  reference  here  may  be 
to  the  succession  of  teachers  commencing  with  Upali  (Smp.  63)  and  the 
other  early  teachers  of  Ceylon  whose  tradition  remained  unbroken 
up  to  the  time  of  Bdhgh.  (cp.  ajjapi  tu  abbhocchinno  pubbacariya- 
vinicchayo — Pj.  i,  11).  The  Porana,  often  quoted  in  Smp.,  the  Sihala- 
atthakatha  (stt.  10  ff.)  and  the  Tradition  of  the  Elders  (st.  11)  are  evidently 
to  be  included  among  the  pubbacariya.  See  EHBC,  2 1  fE. ,  and  PLC,  92,  n.  i. 

2  The  highest  claims  are  made  exclusively  for  the  Vinaya  in  Smp., 
but  not  in  Vinaya  Cullavagga,  xi ;  cp.  vinayo  nama  sasanassa  ayu, 
vinaye  thite  sasanam  thitam  hoti.  "  The  Vinaya  is  the  very  life  of  the 
Dispensation  of  the  Enlightened  One,  so  long  as  the  Vinaya  endures,  the 
Dispensation  endures  "  ;  vide  Smp.  3,  13.  This  affords  a  contrast  to  the 
Buddha's  own  statement  which  makes  no  distinction  between  the  Dhamma 
and  the  Vinaya  in  this  respect :  Yo  vo  Ananda  maya  dhammo  ca  vinayo 
ca  desito  paiinatto  so  vo  mam'accayena  sattha.  "  O  Ananda,  the  Doctrine 
and  the  Discipline  I  have  declared  to  you  and  laid  down  before  you 
(respectively)  that  itself  will  be  your  Teacher  after  my  demise  "  (D.  ii,  154, 
also  quoted  at  Smp.  3).  This,  however,  is  preceded  by  the  statement 
"  As  long  as  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  endure  so  long  will  the  Sacred- 
word  be  such  that  its  Teacher  has  not  passed  into  oblivion." 

^  Lit.  "  The  Great  Minster,"  the  seat  of  Theravada  Buddhism  in 
Ceylon,  s.v.  DPPN.  Also  see  C.  W.  Nicholas,  JCBRAS,  New  Series,  vi. 
The  Historical  Topography  of  Ancient  and  Medieval  Ceylon,  pp.  129  ff. 

*  The  allusion  is  to  the  Sihala-atthakatha,  traditionally  ascribed  to 
Mahinda,  which  went  out  of  use  after  the  writing  of  the  Pali  Commentaries. 
The  most  important  of  these  are  mentioned  in  the  next  stanza  in  their 
order  of  importance,  while  there  were  others  like  the  Andhaka,  Sankhepa, 
and  Vinaya  Atthakatha  in  addition  to  several  others  of  lesser  importance 
dealing  with  various  sections  of  the  Canon.  The  Maha  Attakatha  is  also 
called  the  Mula  Atthakatha,  "  The  Basic  Commentary  "  ;  while  the 
Andhaka,  probably  originating  from  the  Andhra  Country  in  the  Deccan, 
is  generally  cited  to  point  out  its  erroneous  interpretations.  Vide 
PLC,  91  ff.,  EHBC.  10  ff.,  s.v.  DPPN. 

5  The  colophon  of  the  Smp.  says  that  Bdhgh.  studied  the  three 
Sinhalese  Commentaries,  Maha  Atthakatha,  Mahapaccariya,  and  Kurundi 
under  an  Elder  called  Buddhamitta  (Smp.  1415,  P.T.S.  ed.),  who  is  to 
be  identified  as  the  above.  The  first  part  of  Buddhamitta's  name  is 
evidently  used  with  the  honorific  suffix  -siri ;  cp.  the  Pali  usage  in  Kanha- 
sirivhaya  for  Asita — Sn.  689,  Jambusirivhaya  dipa  for  Jambudipa — 
Smp.  35.  Buddhamitta  may  have  found  Bdhgh.  to  be  an  excellent  pupil 
when  he  taught  him  the  Sihala-atthakatha  so  that  he  was  compelled  to 
make  this  special  request  of  him.  This  type  of  request  by  a  senior  Elder 
or  a  veteran  scholar  is  a  special  feature  of  the  literary  tradition  of  Ceylon 
and  may  be  but  an  expression  of  a  mere  formality. 

^  Lit.  "  The  Great  Commentary  "  belonging  to  the  Mahavihara  ;  also 
vide  EHBC,  11. 

'  Lit.  "  The  Great  Raft  ",  so  called  because  it  is  said  to  have  been 
compiled  on  a  raft ;    vide  EHBC,  12. 

96  Inception  of  Discipline 

*  So  named  as  it  was  compiled  at  Kurundivelu  Vihara  in  Ceylon  ;  vide 
PLC,  92  ;  EHBC,  12.  Mhv.  xlii,  15,  refers  to  a  Kurunda  Monastery  in 
Aggabodhi  I's  reign,  and  it  may  probably  be  the  same,  but  different 
from  Kurundavasoka  Vihara  built  by  Khallatanaga  ;  Mhv.  xxxiii,  32, 
S.V.,  DPPN. 

"  The  Theravada  (as  opposed  to  the  Acariyavada,  "  The  Tradition  of 
the  Teachers,"  i.e.  heresy),  was  held  in  high  esteem  and  was  the  absolute 
authority.  See  st.  14.  It  traces  its  acariyaparampara,  "  Succession  of 
Teachers  "  to  Upali,  the  first  of  the  Vinayadharas.    See  Smp.  63. 

1"  The  Sakyaputtiya  samana,  "  Ascetics  of  the  Sakyan  Order  "  ;  i.e. 
the  Sangha. 

*^  This  may  even  include  the  commentaries  of  Canonical  antiquity 
such  as  the  Niddesas,  etc.,  but  essentially  the  works  recognized  as  Com- 
mentaries extant  in  Bdhgh.'s  day  are  meant  here.  Bdhgh.  generously 
dismisses  the  wrong  interpretations  as  clerical  errors — pamadalekha. 

^2  Sikkha  also  may  refer  to  the  sikkhapadani,  the  precepts  embodied 
in  the  Vinaya  Code. 

^'  i.e.  different  from  the  language  of  the  Texts. 

^*  The  terms  sutta  and  suttanta  are  used  indiscriminately  as  may  be 
seen  from  this  stanza  and  Smp.  30.  The  longer  suttas,  however,  are 
usually  given  the  name  suttanta,  and  often  the  term  sutta  refers  to 
a  type  of  discourse  as  given  in  the  Navanga  division,  (Smp.  31),  while 
generally  speaking,  individual  suttas  and  groups  of  suttas  are  called 
suttantas.  The  teachers  versed  in  the  suttas,  i.e.  implying  the  Sutta 
Pitaka,  are  called  Suttantika. 

2.  ^  i.e.  Tena  samayena  Buddho  bhagava  Veranjayam  viharati.      See 
Smp.  2,  n.  2. 

2  The  opening  words  of  Parajikapali,  Vin.  iii,  i. 

3  Vin.  ii,  284  ff. 

3.  1  The  Sinhalese  month  of  Vesak.    See  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  2,  n.  3. 

^  The  Malla  Country  was  divided  into  two  separate  provinces  with 
capitals  at  Kusinara  and  Pava  respectively,  situated  not  very  far  from 
each  other,  and  the  two  branches  of  Mallas  were  looked  upon  as  two 
distinct  groups.  They  were  separate  claimants  to  Buddha's  relics — 
D.  ii,  i65.  Malla,  though  small,  was  included  in  the  sixteen  Mahajana- 
padas.  See  also  Rhys  Davids,  BI,  26  ;  Cunningham's  Ancient  Geography 
of  India  (AGI),  493  ff.,  497  f.,  712. 

3  Dhammacakkappavattana  Sutta,  Vin.  i,  10  ff.,  S.v,  420  ff. 

*  The  last  disciple  converted  by  the  Buddha  shortly  before  the 
Parinibbana,  D.  ii,  148  ff. 

^  See  Mhv.  Tika  i,  142,  for  explanation. 

*  Better  known  as  Buddhapabbajita  and  different  from  the  earlier 

'  D.  ii,  162  ;   Vin.  ii,  284. 
8  Not  at  Vin.  ii,  XI. 
»  D.  ii,  154. 

10  S.  ii,  221. 

11  See  also  Etadaggapali  A.  i,  23  fif.,  where  he  is  described  as  the  highest 
among  those  disciples  of  the  Buddha  who  inculcate  punctiliousness. 

12  The  six  branches  of  higher  knowledge  or  supernormal  insight  are 
enumerated  at  D.  iii,  281,  and  elsewhere  in  the  Canon  as  : 

iddhividha  :   psychic  powers, 
dibbasota  :   clairaudience, 

cetopariyaiiana  :  knowledge  of  others'  thoughts, 
pubbe  nivasanussati  :  recollection  of  past  lives, 
dibbacakkhu  :   divine  eye, 

asavakkhayafiana  :    knowledge  leading  to  the  destruction  of  the 

Notes  to  the  Translation  97 

*3  They  consist  of  the  four  jhanas,  the  four  ayatanas  and  saniiavedayita- 
nirodha  and  are  enumerated  at  D.  iii,  265,  etc.  ;    jhana  s.v.,  PTS. 
1*  S.  ii,  198. 

1  This  and  the  subsequent  quotations  are  from  the  Vinaya  Cullavagga 
account  of  the  First  Council ;  Vin.  ii,  284  flf. 

2  This  refers  to  the  section  commencing  with  para.  2  at  Vin.  ii,  284. 
»  ibid.,  285,  para.  1. 

*  The  traditional  explanation  of  pure  here  is  "  before  "  and  not 
"  formerly  "  ;  and  the  trsl.  then  should  read:  Let  us,  friends,  rehearse 
the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  before  what  is  contrary  to  the  Dhamma  and 
the  Vinaya  shine  forth  and  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  are  disregarded, 
before  those  who  hold  views  contrary  to  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya 
hold  sway  while  those  who  profess  the  Dhamma  and  the  Vinaya  become 
powerless.  See  also  Vin.  ii,  trsl.  (The  Book  of  the  Discipline,  5  ;  SBB  xx, 
p.  394),  which  agrees  with  the  traditional  interpretation.  To  my  mind 
pure  here  is  a  simple  adverb  of  time  meaning  "  in  the  past  "  ;  and  besides, 
pure  .  .  .  dippati  and  pure  .  .  ,  patibahiyati  look  more  like  the  historic 
present  rather  than  having  the  conditional  meaning  as  forced  by  the 
traditional  interpretation.   Smp.  is  silent  on  this. 

^  Their  awakening  of  wisdom  is  spontaneous  ;  cp.  aiiiia  aradhita  maya, 
etc.,  and  the  spontaneous  utterances  of  Theras  and  Therls  in  Th.  1  and 
Th.  2.  Khinasavas  are  of  two  categories  :  sukkhavipassaka  and  samatha- 
yanika.  The  latter  category  develop  jhanapadakavidassana  making 
use  of  the  jhanas  as  a  basis  for  the  attainment  of  analytic  insight  whereas 
the  former  can  dispense  with  the  jhanas. 

*  Vide  Etadaggapali,  A.  i,  23  ff. 
'  Vin.  ii,  285. 

^  A  sekha  (subst.  from  sikkhati,  desid.  of  root  sak  "  to  be  able  ") 
is  a  trainee  on  the  path  to  Arahatship,  i.e.  he  is  one  among  the  first 
seven  categories  of  the  attha  ariyapuggala  ;  an  asekha  is  one  who  requires 
no  further  training  as  he  has  become  an  Arahant.  He  is  described  as 
katakicca,  as  opposed  to  sa-karaniya,  "  one  whose  task  is  yet  unaccom- 

2  Sutta  and  Geyya  are  the  first  two  ahgas  in  the  Navanga  division 
explained  at  Smp.  31. 

3  Vin.  ii,  285. 

*  These  are  the  four  agati,  the  wrong  courses  of  action. 

1  cp.  Vin.  ii,  285. 

2  Capital  of  Magadha,  s.v.,   DPPN,   vide  Rhys  Davids,   BI,   36  f. 
Cunningham,  AGI,  535. 

3  The  observance  of  the  Vassa  was  an  institution  common  to  all  ascetic 
sects  in  India.  The  rainy  months  from  Asalhi  to  Kattika  (see  Geiger, 
Mhv.  trsl.,  2,  n.  3)  were  spent  in  quiet  contemplation  in  peaceful 
surroundings.  See  Vin.  i,  137  ff .  The  Book  of  the  Discipline  4,  SBB  xiv  ; 
Dutt,  Early  Buddhist  Monachism.    See  also  Smp.  7,  n.  2. 

*  When  the  subject  is  of  a  more  important  nature  it  becomes  fiatti- 
catuttha,  where  the  natti  gains  formal  ratification  after  the  resolution 
has  been  passed  thrice  by  unanimous  assent. 

^  See  Vin.  ii,  285  :  Atha  kho  ayasma  Mahakassapo  sahgham  liapesi  .  .  . 
etc.  dealing  with  the  First  Council. 

1  i.e.  to  pay  homage  to  the  remains  of  the  Tathagata  and  perform 
the  ceremonies  connected  with  the  cremation  and  other  funeral  obsequies. 

98  Inception  of  Discipline 

2  Two  days  are  prescribed  for  the  vassupanayika  :  (1)  purimika,  the 
day  after  the  Asajhi  full  moon,  and  (2)  pacchimika,  a  lunar  month  later  ; 
Vin.  i,  137.  Here  the  former  is  meant,  i.e.  exactly  two  months  after  the 

8.  1  Capital  of  Kosala,  s.v.,  DPPN,  vide  BI,  25,  40  ;   AGI,  467  ff. 

2  His  love  for  the  Tathagata  prompted  Ananda  to  visit  His  residence 
which  he  left  together  with  the  Buddha  when  He  undertook  His  last 
memorable  journey. 

3  Ananda  himself  was  quite  advanced  in  years,  and  the  lack  of  his 
normal  exercise  when  he  personally  attended  on  the  Buddha  may  have 
affected  his  health. 

*  The  name  of  the  messenger  was  Todeyyaputta  :  vide  Subha  Sutta, 
D.  i,  204  ff. 

6  D.i,  204-210. 

9.  ^  Vin.  ii,  286.    The  details  that  precede  this  paragraph  are  not  found 
in  the  Cullavagga  account. 

10.  ^  The  Sattapanni  Cave  named  after  a  sattapanni  tree  {Aristonia 
scholaris)  growing  nearby,  was  situated  on  the  slope  of  Vebhara  Hill, 
one  of  the  five  main  peaks  on  the  range  of  mountains  skirting  the  hill- 
girt  city  of  Rajagaha.  See  AGI,  531,  where  Cunningham  identifies  it 
as  the  present  Son  Bhandar  Cave,  s.v.,  DPPN. 

2  The  divine  architect,  Tvastr  of  Vedic  mythology.  Vide  J.  Dowson, 
A  Classical  Dictionary  of  Hindu  Mythology,  s.v.  Visvakarman. 

^  Lakkhi  or  Lacchi,  Skr.  Laksmi,  the  goddess  of  Prosperity  ;  Dowson, 
ibid.,  s.v.  Laksmi. 

*'  The  highest  god  of  the  Hindu  pantheon  ;  Dowson,  ibid.,  s.v. 

^  Prescribed  by  the  Vinaya  as  permissible. 

11.  1  Vin.  ii,  286,  para.  2. 

2  D.ii,  144. 

3  Not  in  Vin.  ii,  XI  ;  cp.  the  parable  of  the  lute,  Vin.  i,  182. 

12.  1  There  are  various  accretions  in  subsequent  texts  regarding  this 
incident.  The  Chinese  sources  have  greatly  enlarged  the  story,  while  some 
of  the  bhanakas  say  that  it  was  through  the  key-hole  that  Ananda 
came  in  !    See  Mhv.  iii,  29  (and  Tika,  i,  148),  Jotipathena  va. 

13.  ^  See  Smp.  1,  n.  2.  Even  as  early  as  the  time  of  the  finalizing  of  the 
Cullavagga  account  of  the  Council,  the  Vinaya  appears  to  have  been 
considered  more  important  than  the  Dhamma  though  it  is  not  explicitly 
stated  there.  This  seems  to  be  a  special  development  in  the  Theravada 
with  its  emphasis  on  patipatti,  and  whenever  pariyatti  gains  precedence 
over  patipatti,  a  period  of  decay  in  the  Sasana  is  generally  reflected  as 
may  be  seen  from  its  subsequent  history  in  Ceylon.  Vide  W.  Rahula, 
History  of  Buddhism  in  Ceylon,  158  fif. 

2  This  apparently  is  different  from  dhuraggaha,  Smp.  106,  n.  1  ; 
cp.  Mhv.  iii,  30  (Tika,  i,  148),  dhurandhare. 

3  A.i,25. 

*  Vin.  ii,  286,  para.  3. 

^  Mahakassapa  uses  the  appellative  avuso,  "  friends,"  as  he  is  the 
most  senior  Elder,  while  Upali,  though  himself  a  very  senior  Elder, 
addresses  the  assembly  as  bhante,  "  Sirs,"  as  there  were  others  senior 
to  him  present. 

«  Not  at  Vin.  ii,  XI. 

Notes  to  the  Translation  99 

14.  ^  Vin.  ii,  286.  para.  3. 

2  See  Vin.  iii,  1  £f.  Lit.  Loss  or  Defeat ;  the  four  grave  offences  which 
merit  immediate  expulsion  from  the  Order  are  enumerated  in  the  uddana 
verse  at  the  end  of  the  Parajikakanda  at  Vin.  iii,  109,  as  : 

Methunadinnadanaii  ca  manussaviggah'uttari 

parajikani  cattari  chejjavatthu  asamsaya  : 
"  Sexual  intercourse,  thieving,  murder,  and  false  claims  to  transcendental 
attainments  are  the  four  Defeats  which  undoubtedly  lead  to  expulsion." 

3  Vesali,  the  capital  of  the  Vajjian  Confederacy,  a  city  of  considerable 
importance  to  be  reckoned  among  the  six  great  cities.  See  Maha- 
parinibbana  Sutta,  D.  ii,  146.  Also  vide  BI,  40 ;  AGI,  507  ff. ;  s.v.,  DPPN. 

*  Vin. iii,  1  Iff. 

6  Vide  E.  J.  Thomas,  History  of  Buddhist  Thought,  16  ff.,  for  a  brief 
introduction  to  the  Vinaya  rules  mentioned  here.  All  of  them  are  dealt 
with  in  the  Sutta  Vibhahga,  Vin.  iii,  iv.  See  also  I.  B.  Horner,  Book  of 
the  Discipline  1  (SBB,  x).  Introduction. 

«  These  rules  are  appended  at  the  end  of  the  Bhikkhuni  Vibhanga 
and  form  a  part  of  the  Pacittiyapali ;  Vin.  iv,  211  ff. 

7  The  Maha  Vibhanga  or  Bhikkhu  Vibhanga  and  Bhikkhuni  Vibhanga 
together  comprising  Parajika  and  Pacittiya,  the  Mahavagga  and  CuUa- 
vagga  forming  the  Kiiandhaka  and  lastly  the  Pari  vara. 

15.  1  Vin.  ii,  287. 

2  Not  at  Vin.  ii,  XL 

3  From  here  again  at  Vin.  ii,  287. 

*  D.i,  Iff. 

5  Situated  to  the  north  of  Rajagaha  one  yojana  away.  The  ruins  of 
the  subsequent  Buddhist  University  destroyed  during  the  Moslem 
invasions  are  now  excavated  and  preserved.    See  AGI,  536  ff. 

*  Vin.  ii  omits  this  question  and  answer. 
7  D.i,47ff. 

^  There  is  nothing  in  common  with  the  Cullavagga  account  after 
this  except  Smp.  18. 

*  Here  is  an  attempt  to  include  the  Abhidhamma  Pitaka  under  the 
Dhamma  rehearsed  by  Ananda  at  the  First  Council.  The  account  here 
repeats  the  words  of  Vin.  ii,  XI,  but  attempts  to  read  a  new  meaning 
into  the  term  Dhamma.  Perhaps  the  special  division  of  the  entire  teaching 
of  the  Buddha  into  five  Nikayas  (Smp.  30)  defining  the  Khuddaka 
Nikaya  as  :  "  The  rest  of  the  sayings  of  the  Buddha  including  the  entire 
Vinaya  Pitaka,  the  Abhidhamma  Pitaka,  the  fifteen  divisions  com- 
mencing with  Khuddakapatha  enumerated  earlier  (Smp.  20)  leaving 
aside  the  four  Nikayas  ;  "  was  intended  to  include  the  Abhidhamma 
Pitaka  under  Dhamma.  Bdhgh.  specifically  states  that  Upali  explained 
the  Vinaya  found  in  the  Khuddaka  Nikaya  and  Ananda,  the  remaining 
sections  of  the  Khuddaka  Nikaya,  and  therefore  necessarily  including 
the  Abhidhamma.  This  division  has  some  historical  basis,  but  where  the 
Pali  tradition  is  concerned  it  completely  went  out  of  use  in  due  course, 
though  some  schools  of  the  Sarvastivadi  group  refer  to  the  Khuddaka 
as  a  miscellaneous  Pitaka  (not  a  Nikaya)  giving  it  more  or  less  the  status 
of  the  Vinaya  Pitaka  or  the  Abhidhamma  Pitaka,  while  they  insist 
on  the  division  of  the  Sutta  into  four  Agamas  and  not  five.  Elsewhere 
Bdhgh.  recognizes  the  tradition  of  the  Four  Agamas  (Sum.  i,  2  st.)  which 
is  also  reflected  in  Dp  v.  iv,  16  : 

Vaggapannasakam  nama  samyuttaii  ca  nipatakam 
agamapitakam  nama  akamsu  suttasammatam  : 
"  (They  divided  into)  Vaggas  (groups — D.),  Pannasakas  (groups  of  fifties 
— M.),  Samyuttas  (kindred  topics — S.),  and  Nipatas  (sections — A.)  and 
compiled  the  Pitaka  of  Agamas  designated  as  Sutta."    Perhaps  here  too. 

100  Inception  of  Discipline 

he  unwittingly  reproduces  the  tradition  in  which  the  Khuddaka  has  no 
real  status. 

16.       1  cp.  Ud.  56. 

18.  ^  This  explanation  too  makes  room  for  the  inclusion  of  the  Abhi- 
dhamma  Pitaka  under  Dhamma. 

2  Somewhat  parallel  to  the  statement  at  Vin.  ii,  285,  but  not  identical. 
See  Smp.  4. 

19.  1  Dh.  153-4  ;  cp.  Th.  1,  183cd-4c. 

2  Vin.  i,  2,  also  Ud.  1. 

3  D.ii,  156. 

20.  ^  Bdhgh. ,  on  the  one  hand,  recognizes  that  many  sayings  of  the  Buddha 
had  escaped  the  attention  of  the  Sangitikarakas,  and,  on  the  other, 
that  many  additions  to  the  collections  were  made  at  a  date  subsequent 
to  that  of  the  Council. 

2  Here  the  extant  Khuddaka  collection  is  given  with  no  reference  to 
the  statement  at  Smp.  30  :  What  is  the  Khuddakanikaya  ?  The  rest  of 
the  sayings  of  the  Buddha  including  the  entire  Vinaya  Pitaka,  the 
Abhidhamma  Pitaka,  and  the  fifteen  divisions  commencing  with  the 
Khuddakapatha  enumerated  earlier,  leaving  aside  the  four  Nikayas. 
The  Dighabhanakas,  however,  include  the  Khuddaka  Nikaya  under  the 
Abhidhamma.  The  whole  problem  has  been  carefully  analysed  by 
J.  Dhirasekera  in  UCR,  xv,  3-4,  in  his  paper  :  Buddhaghosa  and  the 
Tradition  of  the  First  Council. 

21.  1  See  I.  B.  Horner,  Book  of  the  Discipline,  1,  xi  £f.  (SBB,  x). 

2  Enumerated  earlier  at  Smp.  14. 

3  The  tabulated  summary  of  Vinaya  rules. 

*  i.e.  additional  enactments  or  supplementary  rules. 

23.  1  S.v,  80  :   Bojjhanga  Sutta. 

2  M.  i,  20  :   Bhayabherava  Sutta. 

3  Sn.  553c  ;  Sela  Sutta. 

4  Vin.  i,  68  ;  cp.  Vin.  i,  64  ;  D.  iii,  267  ;  M.  i,  472. 

5  Vv.i,9,  1. 
8  Dhs.97. 

'  D.ii,  186. 

8  Dhs.27. 

9  cp.  Dhs.  184. 

10  Dhs.  17  ;  23. 

11  cp.  Dhs.  185  ;  225. 

24.  1  A.  i,  189  :  Kalama  Sutta. 

2  M.  i,  127  ;  Kakacupama  Sutta. 

3  Threefold  training  (tisso  sikkha),  threefold  avoidance  (tini  pahanani) 
and  fourfold  profundity  (catubbidho  gambhirabhavo)  are  discussed  below 
at  Smp.  26. 

25.  1  The  cpd.  samvarasamvara  =  samvara  +  samvara,  like  phalaphala. 

2  Vide  D.  i,  12  ff.  and  trsl.  (Dialogues  of  the  Buddha,  i,  SBB).  A  brief 
summary  of  the  sixty-two  views  is  found  in  E.  J.  Thomas'  History  of 
Buddhist  Thought,  74  £f.  Also  see  B.  M.  Barua,  Pre-Buddhistic  Systems 
of  Indian  Philosophy. 

26.  1  This  is  different  from  Catupatisambhida,  the  fourfold  analytic  insight 
discussed  at  Smp.  29. 

27.  1  Vibh.294ff. 
2  Vibh.294ff. 

Notes  to  the  Translation  loi 

28.  1  M.i,  133f.  ;  Alagaddupama  Sutta. 

2  The  division  into  nine  Angas  is  enumerated  here.    See  explanation 
atSmp.  31. 
8  M.i,  134. 

29.  1  Vin.  iv,  170  ff. 

2  M.  i,  130  :  Alagaddupama  Sutta. 

3  A.ii,85ff. 

*  M.i,  133. 
5  A.ii,80. 

30.  1  S.  iii,  137. 

2  AtSmp.  20. 

3  See  Smp.  15,  n.  9. 

31.  ^  All  these  are  given  as  examples  of  Sutta,  as  representative  of  a  type 
of  discourse  coming  under  this  particular  description.  They  cannot  be 
classified  under  a  precise  division  as  pitaka,  nikaya,  vagga,  khandhaka, 
or  bhanavara.  The  texts  mentioned  here  are  (1)  Vin.  iii,  iv  ;  (2)  Culla 
and  Maha  Niddesas  forming  the  eleventh  book  of  the  Khuddaka  Nikaya 
(according  to  the  Ceylon  division)  ;  (3)  Vin.  i,  ii ;  (4)  Vin,  v  ;  (5)  Sn. 
Nos.  16,  13,  37,  and  52  respectively,  representing  no  uniform  class  of 
teaching  except  that  the  entire  Vinaya  Pitaka  is  included.  The  better 
known  suttantas  of  the  Digha  and  Majjhima  Nikayas  find  no  mention 
here,  though  individual  pieces  from  a  "  Nipata  of  Suttas  "  (Sn.)  are 
included  here.  Judging  from  these  examples  and  those  that  follow  for 
the  other  eight  Ahgas,  it  appears  that  the  real  significance  of  the  early 
Navahga  Division,  whose  existence  is  echoed  even  in  the  words  of  the 
Tathagata  (M.  i,  133  ;  A.  ii,  103,  etc.)  has  been  lost  by  the  time  Bdhgh. 
began  to  record  the  Theravada  commentarial  tradition.  The  more  precise 
division  into  Pitakas  and  other  subdivisions  has  ousted  all  the  other 
divisions  and  classifications. 

2  The  opening  chapter  of  S.  Geyya  (from  root  gai  "  to  sing  "),  judging 
from  the  explanation  given  here,  seems  to  represent  the  "  akhyana-type  " 
containing  stanzas  interspersed  with  narrative  prose.  Unless  there 
is  an  early  confusion  as  to  what  geyya  should  be,  the  explanation  here 
seems  to  be  highly  inadequate.  If  some  discrimination  is  made  against 
the  narrative  prose,  restricting  Canonical  status  to  the  stanzas  only, 
there  is  some  justification  for  the  explanation. 

3  The  phrase,  "  not  included  in  the  other  eight  Angas,"  further  points 
to  the  Commentator's  lack  of  familiarity  with  this  ninefold  classification. 

*  There  is  perfect  justification  for  Dh.,  Th.  1,  and  Th.  2  to  be  designated 
as  gatha,  but  the  criterion  for  judging  whether  a  particular  piece  in  Sn. 
is  sutta  or  gatha  is  highly  nebulous,  except  perhaps  if  Bdhgh.  is  taken 
very  literally,  when  the  Vatthugatha  of  Nalaka  and  Rahula  Suttas  and 
the  whole  of  the  Parayana  Vagga  together  with  the  Vatthugatha  and 
the  epilogue  are  alone  considered  as  gatha.  This  appears  to  be  highly 
unsatisfactory  and  is  perhaps  far  from  what  Bdhgh.  meant.  There 
seems  to  be  no  clear  line  of  demarcation  between  sutta  and  gatha,  except 
that  prose  is  excluded  from  gatha. 

^  The  extant  collections,  perhaps  unknown  during  the  life-time  of  the 
Buddha,  and  probably  finalized  centuries  later  are  conveniently  identified 
with  the  Angas  bearing  the  same  names.  There  are  many  udanas  not 
only  of  the  Buddha  but  also  of  his  disciples  and  lay  disciples,  scattered 
all  over  the  Pali  Canon  outside  this  meagre  collection  of  eighty-two 
suttantas.  So  also  are  the  quotations  from  Buddha's  words  found  repeated 
in  other  discourses  often  prefixed  with  the  statement,  "  For  it  has  been 
said  ..."  (and  sometimes  with  no  such  introduction),  which  have  failed 
to  find  a  place  in  the  Itivuttaka  collection  of  112  suttantas. 

102  Inception  of  Discipline 

•  As  in  the  case  of  the  Udana  and  the  Itivuttaka  there  is  no  justifica- 
tion for  equating  the  Anga  called  Jataka  with  the  extant  Jataka  collection 
numbering  about  550  stories.  Firstly,  the  stories  themselves  have  no 
Canonical  status,  which  is  reserved  for  the  Jatakapali,  the  stanzas,  only. 
Secondly,  there  is  no  reason  why  Jatakas  of  Canonical  antiquity  such  as 
those  incorporated  in  other  suttantas,  e.g.  Kutadanta  and  Mahagovinda 
Suttas  in  D.,  should  be  excluded.  The  definition  given  here  is  highly 

'  The  example  given  here  is  not  a  suttanta  by  itself  but  a  short  dis- 
course incorporated  in  the  Mahaparinibbana  Sutta  (D.  ii,  145).  Entire 
suttantas  are  hard  to  find  though  examples  for  abbhutadhamma  are 
plentiful  in  the  Canon. 

8  M.  i,  299  fif.  ;  M.  i,  292  fi.  ;  M.  i,  46  ff.  ;  D.  ii,  263  ff.  ;  M.  iii,  99  ff.  ; 
M.  iii,  115  £f.,  respectively. 

^  Two  of  the  examples  given  have  the  title  Vedalla  and  the  explanation 
is  based  on  the  word  veda  which  is  very  faithfully  rendered  as  "  wisdom  " 
though  one  would  rather  prefer  "  ecstacy  "  or  "  exhilarating  joy  "  for  it  ; 
cp.  vedajata.  It  seems  rather  strange  that  the  list  of  twelve  Angas  at 
Mahavyutpatti  62,  has  substituted  Vedalla  with  Vaipulya.  This  is  a  clear 
indication  that  the  Mahayanists  had  already  lost  the  significance  of  the 
term  and  found  it  necessary  to  substitute  it  with  a  more  familiar  term. 
For  the  Theravadins,  at  least,  the  memory  of  the  term  remained,  and  by 
the  time  of  the  Commentarial  epoch  attempts  were  made  to  revive 
meanings  of  unfamiliar  terms  in  the  light  of  the  then-current  tradition. 
Hence  a  curious  secondary  derivative  of  veda  (whether  it  be  wisdom  or 
ecstacy)  is  conceived  of  whereas  even  the  method  of  subtle  analysis  found 
in  the  six  suttas  quoted  as  examples  has  not  touched  a  familiar  chord. 
To  my  mind  vedalla  means  "subtle  analysis"  coming  from  an  older 
vaidarya  from  vi  and  root  df  "to  tear  apart  "  ;  hence,  "  analyse  or 
break  down  into  fundamentals."  Hence  Vedalla  should  be  rendered  as 
"  Analyses  ". 

32.       1  Th.  1,  1024. 

2  The  fuller  reading  favoured  by  Burmese  Texts  :  atthi  antarapatti, 
"  there  are  secondary  conditions  of  guilt,"  atthi  apatti,  "  there  are  the 
offences,"  atthi  anapatti,  "  there  are  the  no-offences,"  makes  better  sense, 
but  the  pattern  of  the  Vinaya  rules  in  the  Sutta  Vibhahga  to  which  the 
description  applies,  does  not  include  apatti  here,  whereas  it  is  found  along 
with  the  rule  itself.  After  padabhajaniya  comes  antarapatti  followed 
by  anapatti. 

^  The  threefold  category  of  offence  pertaining  to  each  ancillary  Vinaya 
rule  covered  by  antarapatti  is  stated  in  the  Vinaya  ;  e.g.  Pacittiya  36 
on  anatirittabhojana  at  Vin.  iv,  84  :  Pavarite  pavaritasanni  anatirittena 
khadaniyena  va  bhojaniyena  va  abhihatthum  pavareti  apatti  pacitti- 
yassa  ;  pavarite  vematiko  .  .  .  apatti  dukkatassa  ;  pavarite  apavarita- 
sailiil  .  .  .  anapatti.  The  tikapariccheda  is  to  be  seen  in  the  three  con- 
ditions pavaritasaniii,  vematiko,  and  apavaritasaiini.  This  is  the  general 
pattern  of  the  threefold  delimiting  factors  or  determining  factors.  Follow- 
ing the  above  rule  is  given  the  ancillary  rule  about  yamakalika,  etc., 
which  is  followed  by  apavarite  pavaritasanni  apatti  dukkatassa,  apavarite 
vematiko  apatti  dukkatassa,  apavarite  apavaritasaiiiii  anapatti.  Here 
too  the  tikapariccheda  is  observable.  Next  follow  various  conditions  of 
anapatti.  Each  of  these  categories  comes  under  any  one  or  more  of  the 
three  dvaras,  kaya,  vaci,  and  mano,  and  it  is  not  necessary  for  all  the 
three  dvaras  to  function  with  regard  to  every  offence. 

34.  1  Vin.  iii,  1. 

35.  1  ibid. 

Notes  to  the  Translation  103 

2  cp.  Smp.  63  ff.  ;  Dpv.  iv,  v ;  Mhv.  v,  104  ff.  ;  Vin.  v,  2  f.  See  also 
Smp.  63,  n.  1. 

36.  ^  Co-resident  pupil.  The  two  pairs  of  teacher-pupil  relationship  in 
Buddhist  monastic  life  are  (a)  acariya,  "  teacher "  and  antevasika, 
"  resident-pupil,"  and  {b)  upajjhaya,  "  preceptor  "  and  saddhiviharika, 
"  co-resident  pupil."  The  terms  acariya  and  upajjhaya  are  explained 
later  at  Smp.  48.  See  also  Vin.  i,  44  ff. 

38.  ^  See  the  account  of  the  Second  Council  at  Vinaya  Cullavagga  XII 
(Vin,  ii,  294  £f.).  From  here  onwards  the  Smp.  version,  though  it  stops 
short  with  the  episode  of  the  bronze  bowl  is  a  slight  expansion  of  the 
account  in  the  Vinaya. 

2  See  Mhv.  iv,  9  ff.  and  Tika  i,  156  f. 

3  Uposatha  (cp.  Vedic  upavasatha,  the  eve  of  the  Soma  sacrifice), 
the  weekly  sacred  day  even  in  pre-Buddhist  times.  Buddhists  reckoned 
it  from  the  phases  of  the  moon,  the  new  moon,  the  full  moon,  and  each 
of  the  quarter  moons.  The  day  was  generally  set  apart  for  expounding 
the  Dhamma  by  the  bhikkhus  and  for  observing  the  uposatha  vows  by 
the  laymen.  The  patimokkha  was  recited  by  the  monks  on  the  new 
moon  (catuddasi)  and  the  full  moon  (pannarasi)  during  which  every 
member  present  confessed  to  the  transgressions  he  had  committed.  See 
Vin.  i,  101  ff.,  I.  B.  Horner,  The  Book  of  the  Discipline,  1  (SBB,  xiv), 
Introduction,  also  s.v.,  PTS. 

*  Sima,  the  limits  of  the  parish  defined  at  Vin.  i,  106  ff.  The  bhikkhus 
living  within  a  sima,  usually  delimited  by  a  natural  barrier,  such  as  a 
forest,  mountain  range,  or  river,  assembled  together  for  their  uposatha 
meetings  and  each  group  within  this  boundary  was  considered  an  inde- 
pendent unit.  The  special  enclosure  for  any  formal  act  of  the  Order 
is  also  called  sima.    See  I.  B.  Horner,  ibid. 

^  Susunaga.  See  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  xl  ff.,  and  the  tables  at  xli  and 
xlvi.   See  Mhv.  iv,  1-8. 

*  "  A  square  copper  coin  weighing  about  146  grains,  and  guaranteed 
as  to  weight  and  fitness  by  punch  marks  made  by  private  individuals." 
Rhys  Davids,  BI,  100  ff.  ;  Ancient  Measures  of  Ceylon,  Miln.  trsl.  i,  239  ; 
s.v.,  PTS. 

'  A  small  coin  of  very  low  value  (masaka,  lit.  a  little  bean)  made  of 
copper,  wood,  or  lac  ;   DhA.  i,  318  ;   s.v.,  PTS. 

8  The  whole  account  at  Vin.  ii,  294  ff.  is  implied  here  and  the  sentence 
beginning  with  "  At  this  rehearsal  of  the  Vinaya  .  .  ."  bears  a  close 
resemblance  to  the  concluding  statement  at  Vin.  ii,  307.  Mhv.  iv,  14  ff. 
continues  the  story  in  great  detail. 

9  At  Vin.  ii,  XII. 

1"  See  Vin.  ii,  306  ff.  The  ten  indulgences  were  pronounced  unlawful 
by  voting  against  them  citing  the  Vinaya  rules  which  were  violated,  thus  : 

Sihgilonakappa  involves  the  Pacittiya  offence  connected  with  the 
hoarding  of  food,  Vin.  iv,  86-7. 

Dvahgulakappa  involves  the  Pacittiya  offence  regarding  the  eating 
of  food  outside  prescribed  hours,  Vin.  iv,  85-6. 

Gamantarakappa  involves  the  Pacittiya  offence  of  eating  a  fresh  meal 
again  which  is  not  the  leavings  of  a  meal,  Vin.  iv,  81-3. 

Avasakappa  involves  a  Dukkata  offence  of  transgressing  the  Vinaya 
rule  that  two  Uposatha  halls  within  the  same  avasa  cannot  be  permitted, 
Vin.  i,  107. 

Anumatikappa  involves  a  Dukkata  offence  for  transgressing  the  Vinaya 
rule  on  Vaggakamma,  Vin.  i,  318. 

In  Acinnakappa,  some  precedents  are  accepted  while  others  are  not. 

Amathitakappa  involves  the  same  Pacittiya  offence  as  Gamantara- 

104  Inception  of  Discipline 

Jalogikappa  involves  a  Pacittiya  offence  of  indulging  in  spirits  and 
liquors,  Vin.  iv,  108-110. 

Adasaka-nisidana  involves  a  Pacittiya  offence  pertaining  to  the  use  of 
rugs  larger  than  those  of  prescribed  dimensions,  Vin.  iv,  170-1. 

Jatarupapatiggahana  is  a  Nissaggiya-pacittiya  offence  involving  the 
acceptance  of  gold  and  silver,  Vin.  iii,  236  ff. 

11  The  Cullavagga  account  ends  with  the  judgment  passed  on  the  ten 
indulgences  and  refers  to  the  whole  Council  as  the  Recital  of  the  Vinaya 
at  which  700  monks,  neither  less  nor  more  were  present  ;  Vin.  ii,  307. 
The  First  Council  too  is  called  a  Recital  of  the  Vinaya  at  Vin,  ii,  292, 
There  is  no  separate  mention  here  of  a  rehearsal  of  the  Dhamma  and  the 
Vinaya  afresh,  though  this  silence  by  itself  provides  no  clue  as  to  the 
proceedings  of  the  Council  after  the  ten  indulgences  were  decided  on. 
The  concluding  stanzas  of  Vin.  ii  are  evidently  later  additions  and  the 
reference  to  the  Rehearsal  there  has  no  bearing  on  the  actual  account. 

12  Dpv.  iv,  49cd-51,  and  Mhv.  iv,  56  ff. 

39.  1  The  six  deva  worlds  pertaining  to  the  sensuous  plane  are  enumerated 
as  :  Catummaharajika,  Tavatimsa,  Yama,  Tusita,  Nimmanarati,  and 
Paranimmitavasavatti , 

2  Lit,  "  take  conception  in." 

3  "  Sacred  formulae,"  also  "  charms,  hymns,  incantations  ",  etc.  Vide 
Smp.  42. 

40.  1  Lit.  "  passed  away  in  Nibbana,"  cp.  khinasnehapadipa  va,  Smp,  38; 
nibbanti  dhlra  yathayam  padipo,  Sn,  235, 

42,  1  This  is  the  stereotyped  formula  describing  the  accomplishments  of 
a  learned  brahmin,  as  explained  at  DA.  i,  247,  etc.  by  Bdhgh, 

2  i,e,  in  his  normal  course  of  studies, 

3  Yam.ii,  1. 

43,  1  Kh.No.3. 

2  Evidently  it  is  considered  discourteous  to  mention  one's  teacher's 
name  in  his  presence.  As  a  rule,  even  at  the  present  day,  the  teacher  is 
never  addressed  by  his  name,  nor  is  his  name  mentioned  in  his  presence  ; 
cp.  Miln.  14  f.  for  a  similar  instance.  Also  at  Vin,  i,  92,  Ananda  refuses  to 
mention  Mahakassapa's  name  on  account  of  the  esteem  in  which  he  held 
him,  "  garu  me  thero," 

44,  1  See  Mhv,  v,  19  ff,  and  Dpv.  vii  for  parallels  to  Smp.  44-62.  The 
tradition  that  he  killed  all  his  brothers  but  one  is  not  supported  by  the 
edicts  of  Asoka  which  make  reference  to  his  brothers,  e.g.  RE,  v.  Also 
vide  B.  M,  Barua,  Asoka  and  his  Inscriptions,  i,  35  ff.  The  next  state- 
ment regarding  his  consecration  has  confirmation  in  all  the  dated  edicts 
of  Asoka.  P.  H.  L,  Eggermont,  The  Chronology  of  the  Reign  of  Asoka 
Moriya,  69  ff .  has  attempted  to  establish  that  Asoka  underwent  a  second 
consecration  after  his  conversion  to  Buddhism  at  the  end  of  the  vassa 
after  the  completion  of  the  seventh  year  of  his  reign,  i.e,  eighth  regnal 
year,  in  order  to  celebrate  the  event  ;   ibid.,  42,  n.  3. 

2  Fi(i(g  Geiger,  Mhv,  trsl.  xxii  £f.  ;   Eggermont,  ibid,,  4  fif, 

3  Carrying  poles, 

*  Lake  situated  in  the  Himavat  with  ever  cool  water  ;  an-ava-tap-ta, 
"  never  heated  up," 

^  PTS  suggests  that  this  is  the  same  as  the  naga-lata-rukkha  or  naga- 
rukkha,  "  the  iron-wood  tree,"  out  of  which  wood  the  Buddha's  tooth- 
stick  was  made,  DhA,  ii,  211.  The  description  given  above  does  not 
seem  to  agree  with  the  rough,  hard,  and  sap-free  wood  known  as  the 
iron-wood.    Sinh.  nd. 

Notes  to  the  Translation  105 

"  The  home  of  the  "  Six-tusked  "  (chad-danta)  elephant,  and  one  of 
the  seven  great  lakes  of  the  Himavat. 
'  A  wagon-load. 

45.  1  S.V.,  DPPN. 

2  See  Lakkhana  Sutta,  D.  iii,  142  fE. 
'  cp.  the  animisalocanapuja,  J  A,  i,  77. 

46.  ^  The  Brahmagiri  Edict  i,  the  Rupnath  and  Maski  Edicts  refer  to 
his  conversion  and  progress  in  the  Sasana,  but  they  are  themselves  not 
dated  by  Asoka,  unlike  the  majority  of  his  other  edicts.  For  reasons  given 
by  Hultzsch,  Corpus  Inscriptionum  Indicarum,  xliv,  Eggermont  (ibid.,  68) 
concludes  :  "  So  on  the  date  of  the  Minor  Rock  Edicts  there  is  only  this 
certainty  that  they  were  engraved  before  the  Rock  Edicts,  i.e.  the  annus 
ante  quern  of  the  Minor  Rock  Edicts  is  the  1 1th  expired  year  of  Asoka's 
reign.  So  the  Minor  Rock  Inscriptions  must  have  been  engraved  in  the 
10th  year  of  Asoka's  reign  or  before."  Also  vide  ibid.  69  ff.,  180  ff.,  for  his 
full  discussion  on  the  date  of  Asoka's  conversion  and  a  summary  of  the 
chronology  of  Asoka's  reign.  Smp.  is  found  to  be  in  support  of  other 
evidence  as  regards  the  date  of  Asoka's  conversion. 

2  The  balcony-window  probably  with  a  trellis  work. 

47.  ^  Asoka's  accession  to  the  throne  and  Nigrodha's  birth  are  more 
or  less  simultaneous,  and  on  the  evidence  of  Smp.,  Asoka's  conversion 
took  place  in  the  eighth  year  of  his  reign.  Northern  Buddhist  accounts 
state  that  it  was  the  Elder  Upagupta  who  converted  Asoka. 

2  Lit.  a  hall,  Mhv.  v,  42,  has  gharakam. 

'  For  want  of  a  better  word  the  Pali  phrase  is  translated  literally.  The 
English  "  mistress  "  has  deteriorated  very  badly  semantically  ! 

48.  1  See  Smp.  47  beginning. 

2  See  Mhv.  v,  49  ff. 

3  J,  No.  173  ;    JA,  ii,  235. 

*  Dh.  21  ff. 
5  Dh.  2 lab. 

*  i.e.  converted  them  as  ordinary  lay-disciples  (upasaka)  with  no 
pretensions  to  spiritual  attainments ;  puthujjana,  "  common  man, 

49.  1  The  four  elementary  needs  of  a  bhikkhu  :  robes,  food  as  alms, 
lodgings,  and  medicines  ;  see  Vin.  i,  58  f . 

2  See  Smp.  31-2. 

3  The  word  navakamma  usually  signifies  khandaphullapatisankharana, 
"  renovations,"  as  at  Smp.  10,  but  in  this  context  it  definitely  means 
new  works  or  new  undertakings. 

50.  1  S.V.,  DPPN. 

51.  ^  Asoka's  uterine  brother  according  to  Smp.  44,  56. 

52.  1  Apostle  to  Mahisamandala,  see  Smp.  64. 

2  Apostle  to  Kasmira-Gandhara,  see  Smp.  64. 

'  The  special  enclosure  meant  for  the  ceremony.  See  also  Smp.  38,  n.  3. 

*  See  Smp.  26,  n.  1. 

5  cp.  Mhv.  V,  209.    Vide  Eggermont,  ibid.,  180  ff. 

53.  1  See  Mhv.  v,  212-227  ;  also  Smp.  71,  n.  2.  Can  he  be  Kassapagotta's 
brother  ? 

2  Bhikkhacaravatta  probably  refers  to  the  third  dhutanga  the  pinda- 
patikanga,  and  may  include  dhutangas  4  and  7  as  well.  Vide  Vism.  66  ff., 
but  Mhv.  V,  217  merely  refers  to  it  as  pindaya  caram. 

io6  Inception  of  Discipline 

54.  1  There  is  no  parallel  passage  corresponding  to  Smp.  54,  beginning,  to 
this  place,  in  the  Mhv.  account.  The  narrative  continues  from  here  at 
Mhv.  V,  228. 

2  See  Smp.  38,  n.  2. 

3  S.V.,  PTS.  The  "  Invitation  "  ceremony  performed  at  the  termination 
of  the  Vassa.  See  Smp.  6,  n.  2,  also  I.  B.  Horner,  The  Book  of  the  Discipline 
4  (SBB),  Introduction. 

*  Sanghakamma,  "  a  formal  act  performed  by  the  Order  of  Bhikkhus 
in  solemn  conclave  "  and  generally  sanctioned  as  iiattidutiya  or  iiatti- 
catuttha,  the  resolution  gaining  formal  ratification  by  unanimous  assent 
and  preceded  by  one  or  three  announcements  respectively.  See  Vin.  i,  123, 
and  the  explanation  in  trsl.  SBE,  xxii  and  SBB,  xiv. 

^  Ganakamma  apparently  is  restricted  to  a  smaller  group  "  chapter  " 
originally  consisting  of  ten  or  more  for  an  upasampada  ceremony  (Vin.  i, 
58)  and  later  modified  to  five,  a  vinayadhara  bhikkhu  and  four  others 
(Vin.  i,  197).  The  two  groups  sangha  and  gana,  and  puggala  (Vin.  ii,  170) 
are  in  descending  numerical  order.  In  Vinaya  terminology  ganakamma 
does  not  play  a  significant  part. 

55.  ^  Mhv.  V,  233  says  "  further  up  the  Ganges  ". 

2  With  four  fires  kindled  in  the  four  directions  and  the  noonday  sun 

3  See  Mhv.  V,  236  ff. 

*  Mhv.  omits  this  conversation. 

56.  ^  The  two  episodes  that  follow  are  placed  earlier  in  Mhv.  See  Mhv.  v, 

2  The  emphasis  at  Mhv.  v,  155,  is  different  : 

Miga  pi  evam  kilanti  araiiiie  tinagocara 

na  kilissanti  kim  bhikkhu  sukhaharaviharino. 
G«iger  renders  it  as,  "  Even  the  gazelles  sport  thus  joyously,  who  feed 
on  grass  in  the  wild.    Wherefore  are  not  the  bhikkhus  joyous  and  gay, 
who  have  their  food  and  dwelling  in  comfort  ?  "   I  do  not  agree  with  the 
reading  in  T.  kiva  nama  kilikam,  "  how  much  sport  indeed." 

3  Probably  the  same  as  Yonakadhammarakkhita  who  was  despatched 
as  the  missionary  to  Aparanta  (see  Smp.  68),  and  not  Mahadhamma- 
rakkhita  who  was  sent  to  Maharattha.  For  Yona  vide  Smp,  64,  n.  3  ; 
Mhv.  trsl.,  85,  n.  5  ;  194,  n.  3,  with  references.  Mhv.  v,  161,  has  Maha- 

4  Mhv.v,  171. 

^  Named  Sumana.  See  Mhv,  v,  169  f . 

57.  ^  See  Mhv,  v,  241,  to  the  end  of  the  chapter  which  is  more  or  less  a 
summary  of  Smp.  57-62. 

58.  *  Forbidden  to  monks  and  nuns  ;   cp,  Vin,  i,  191  ;   iv,  338  f,,  etc. 
2  Used  as  rug,  etc.  ;  cp.  Vin.  i,  192  ff. 

59.  ^  Not  at  Mhv.  v  ;  cp.  Queen  Maya's  dream  of  a  white  elephant  before 
she  conceived  the  Bodhisatta,  JA.  i,  50. 

2  This  episode  too  is  missing  in  Mhv. 

61.  ^  A.  iii,  415.    No  parallel  in  Mhv.  v  from  here  to  end  of  Smp.  61. 

2  J.  No,  319;  JA.iii,64ff. 

3  J.  St.  580;  JA,iii,64ff. 

4  J,  St,  581;  JA,iii,64ff,,cp.v,264. 

62.  ^  The  term  samayam  means  "  philosophy  or  system  of  philosophy  ", 
but  Mhv.  V,  265,  is  more  specific  in  referring  to  it  as  sambuddhasamayam, 
"  the  teaching  of  the  Perfectly  Enlightened  One,"  while  Dpv.  vii,  53, 
merely  uses  the  word  sasana.    Samaya  can  equally  refer  to  the  outside 

Notes  to  the  Translation  107 

systems  of  philosophy,  especially  in  the  context  of  the  King  being  able 
to  recognize  the  titthiyas  on  account  of  his  already  having  studied  the 
"  samaya  "  under  Moggaliputta  Tissa. 

2  cp.  D.  i,  12  ff.,  for  a  complete  list  of  these  theories.  Also  see  introduc- 
tion to  the  Brahmajala  Sutta  in  Dialogues  of  the  Buddha,  i  (SEE). 

3  SeeSmp.  62,  n.  1. 

*  Asoka's  statement,  "  Whosoever  monk  or  nun  will  divide  the  Sangha 
shall  be  made  to  wear  white  garments  and  compelled  to  live  in  a  non- 
monastic  dwelhng,"  in  the  Minor  Pillar  Edicts  of  Sarnath,  Kosambi, 
and  Saiici  affords  a  close  parallel  to  this.  The  Saiici  version  further 
prefaces  it  with  the  words,  "  The  Sangha  of  monks  and  nuns  has  been 
united  to  remain  so  to  the  time  of  my  children  and  grandchildren  and 
as  long  as  the  sun  and  the  moon  endure."  The  uposatha  (see  Smp.  62,  n.  6) 
was  one  of  the  criteria  for  the  unity  of  the  Sangha  (Sanghasamaggi) 
and  this  has  been  brought  about,  according  to  our  sources,  after  a  lapse 
of  seven  years,  as  a  result  of  Asoka's  endeavours.  Also  see,  A  Reference 
to  the  Third  Council  in  Asoka's  Edicts  ?  UCR,  xvii,  3-4. 

^  "  The  analytical  system."  Pali  tradition  refers  to  early  Buddhism 
by  this  term  and  it  should  not  be  confused  with  the  later  school  of 
Buddhism  which  was  designated  by  the  same  name, 

*  The  uposatha  is.  an  essential  feature  in  the  unity  of  the  Sangha  ; 
hence  the  great  emphasis  laid  on  it.  See  also  Smp.  38,  n.  2  and  n.  4  above. 

63.  ^  Dpv.  iv  and  v  record  several  traditions  of  the  acariyaparampara 
which  have  been  carefully  analysed  by  Eggermont,  ibid.,  4  ff.  See  also 
Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  xlvii  ff.,  and  the  chronological  table  at  p.  l. 

2  Vin.v,2. 

3  This  refers  to  the  time  when  the  Porana  tradition  became  crystallized. 
This  is  the  source  material  for  the  traditions  recorded  in  Smp.  as  well 
as  the  Chronicles  right  down  to  the  works  of  the  later  Vamsa-literature. 
The  Atthakatha  Mahavamsa,  no  longer  extant,  can  be  presumed  to 
have  contained  all  this  information.  Vide  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  x  f.,  and 
PLC,  etc.  Also  see  EHBC,  87,  for  a  discussion  of  the  phrase  yava  aj jatana. 
Adikaram  has  shown  that  the  list  of  teachers  does  not  include  any  thera 
after  the  first  century  a.c. 

*  "  The  Ancients."  See  PLC,  92  n.,  EHBC,  16  ff.  The  Parivara  too 
contains  the  identical  list  of  theras  (Vin.  v,  2  f.),  but  it  appears  to  be  quite 
out  of  place  there,  and  is  probably  an  interpolation.  Both  Smp.  and 
Parivara  lists  go  back  to  the  same  Porana  tradition. 

^  i.e.  Vinaya  Pitaka. 

64.  1  See  Dpv.  viii,  Mhv.  xii  regarding  the  missions  described  at  Smp,  64  fl. 

2  Cunningham,  The  Bhilsa  Topes,  289,  refers  to  an  inscription,  sapurisa 
Mogaliputasa  on  a  relic  casket  from  Tope  No.  2  of  the  Safici  group  which 
contained  the  relics  of  Moggaliputta  Tissa.  See  also  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  xx. 

2  Mahinda's  acariya  at  the  higher  ordination,  Smp.  52. 

*  See  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  82  ff,  footnotes,  for  the  place-names.  Also 
s,vv,  DPPN  and  in  Cunningham's  AGI. 

^  Mahinda's  acariya  at  the  ordination,  Smp.  52. 

*  D.  R.  Bhandarkar,  Asoka,  identifies  this  as  a  Greek  settlement 
within  the  Empire  near  the  north-west  frontier  between  the  Kophen 
and  the  Indus  where  the  Shahbazgarhi  Edicts  were  located.  He  explains 
the  name  as  being  derived  from  Old  Iranian  Yauna  through  Old  Aryan 
Yavana,  the  lonians  being  the  first  people  of  Hellenic  origin  known 
to  the  Indo-Iranians  and  that  all  Greeks  were  known  by  that  name 
subsequently.  He  dates  this  Ionian  colony  to  pre-Alexandrian  times. 
It  is,  however,  quite  possible  that  the  term  Yonakaloka  meant  the 
Hellenic  Kingdoms  beyond  the  north-west  border,  particularly  the  terri- 
tories of  Antiochos  Theos  of  Syria,  Ptolemy  Philadelphos  of  Egypt, 

io8  Inception  of  Discipline 

Antigonas  Gonatas  of  Macedon,  Magas  of  Cyrene  and  Alexander  of 
Epirus  all  of  whom  are  mentioned  in  RE,  xiii.  There  is  every  possibility 
that  Asoka's  dhamma-vijaya  extended  far  beyond  his  immediate  neigh- 
bours in  the  north-west,  i.e.  the  Bactrian  provinces  of  Arachosia  and 
Kabul  (see  Mhv.  xxix,  39 — Yonanagara  Alasanda),  as  in  the  case  of  the 
south.  See  also  D.  R.  Bhandarkar,  Asoka,  161  fE.,  where  he  adduces 
various  reasons  for  the  influence  of  Buddhism  over  Western  Asia,  and 
poses  the  question  :  Can  there  be  the  slightest  doubt  that  the  spread  of 
Buddhism  to  Western  Asia  was  due  to  Asoka's  missionary  activities  ? 

'  Dpv.  viii,  10,  reads, 

Kassapagotto  ca  yo  thero  Majjhimo  Dundubhissaro 
Sahadevo  Mulakadevo  Himavante  yakkhaganam  pasadayum, 
agreeing  with  Smp.  71  though  there  is  a  slight  discrepancy  in  the  exact 
spelling  of  the  names.  Cunningham,  The  Bhilsa  Topes,  119  ff.,  287  ff., 
316-17,  refers  to  inscriptions  on  relic  urns  which  mention  the  names 
of  Majjhima,  Kassapagotta,  and  Dundubhissara  (Dadabhisara  in  the 
inscription,  Durabhisara  Dpv.  Oldenberg's  ed.).  See  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  xx. 
Cunningham  identifies  Dadabhisara  with  the  district  and  not  the  Elder. 

8  Anujanami  bhikkhave  sabbapaccantimesu  janapadesu  vinayadhara- 
paficamena  ganena  upasampadam,  Vin.  i,  197. 

65.  ^  The  Aravala  episode  cp.  Mhv.  xii,  9  ff.  ;  cp.  also  the  Marayuddha, 

2  Lit.  created  a  rain  called  hail-rain. 

3  Lit.  smoke  him  out. 
«  Mhv.  xii,  16-18. 

^  Mhv.  xii,  21,  gives  the  yakkha's  name  as  Pandaka  and  his  wife's 
Harita.  All  of  them  attained  sotapattiphala. 
6  Mhv.  xii,  22-3ab. 
'  S.  iv,  172  ff .  ;  A.ii,  llOff. 
*  cp.  Dpv.  viii,  4. 

66.  1  SeeGeiger,  Mhv.trsl.84,n.  5. 

2  M.iii,  178  ff.  ;  A.i,  138ff. 

3  cp.  Dpv.  viii,  5  ;  Mhv.  xii,  29. 

67.  1  See  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  84,  n.  7. 

2  S.  ii.  178  ff.,  187  ff.  ;  iii,  149  ff..  151  ff. 
'  cp.  Dpv.  viii,  6  ;  Mhv.  xii,  31. 

68.  ^  Within  Asoka's  Empire.  See  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  85,  n.  1. 
2  A.iv,  128  ff. 

^  cp.  Dpv.  viii,  7  ;  Mhv.  xii,  34. 

69.  ^  The  Maharastra. 

2  J.  No.  544;  ',219ff. 
8  cp.  Dpv.  viii,  8  ;  Mhv.  xii,  37. 

70.  ^  See  Smp.  64,  n.  4.  There  is  sufficient  corroborative  evidence  to  estab- 
lish the  historicity  of  some  at  least  of  these  missions  though  not  all  of 
them  are  in  that  happy  position.  The  contents  of  RE,  xiii,  should  be  taken 
in  conjunction  with  this  tradition.    See  also  Smp.  64,  n.  6. 

2  A.ii,  24. 

3  cp.  Dpv.  viii,  9  ;  Mhv.  xii,  39. 

71.  1  See  Smp.  64,  n.  6. 

2  The  name  is  given  as  Kasapagota  Hemavatacariya,  Kotiputa  Kasa- 
pagota  Hemavatacariya,  and  Gotiputa  Kasapagota  in  three  relic  urn 
inscriptions.  See  Cunningham,  Bhilsa  Topes,  119  ff.,  287  ff.,  316-17. 
Cunningham  takes  Kotiputa  and  Gotiputa  as  two  distinct  Elders,  not 
taking  into  account  the  change  of  g  >  k  in  north-western  Pkr.  dialects. 

Notes  to  the  Translation  109 

'  Dpv.  viii,  10  and  Mhv.  Tika  i,  317,  give  his  name  as  Mulakadeva. 

*  Dpv.,  loc.  cit.  (Oldenberg's  ed.)  gives  his  name  as  Durabhisara,  v.l. 
Dundubhissara,  Mhv.  Tika  i,  317,  Dundubhissaratthera,  and  relic  urn 
inscription,  Dadabhisara. 

^  Dpv.  loc.  cit.,  Sahadeva.    Also  see  v.  11. 

«  Vin.i,  10ff..S.v,420fE. 

'  cp.  Dpv.  viii,  10  ;  Mhv.  xii,  41. 

72.  1  See  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  86,  n.  2. 

2  i.e.  adhiggahita,  "  taken  possession  of,  possessed." 

3  D.i,  Iff. 

*  cp.  Dpv.  viii,  1 1  ;  Mhv.  xii,  44  ff. 

73.  ^  The  fact  that  a  lengthy  independent  account  of  the  mission  to  Ceylon 
is  given  in  all  the  Pali  sources,  by  reason  of  its  importance  from  the 
Ceylon  point  of  view,  does  not  necessarily  imply  that  Moggaliputta  had 
nothing  to  do  with  the  mission  though  no  reference  is  made  to  him  in  the 
fuller  account.  In  fact,  every  one  of  the  missions  is  described  with  an 
independent  introduction  with  no  particular  reference  to  the  Council  nor 
to  Moggaliputta  Tissa  after  making,  at  the  outset,  the  general  statement 
that  Moggaliputta  Tissa  requested  each  group  of  monks  to  go  to  their 
assigned  country.  The  statement  that  several  monks  at  Asokarama 
reminded  Mahinda  that  it  was  the  time  to  establish  the  Sasana  in  Ceylon 
(Dpv.  xii,  7  ff.)  and  requested  him  to  go,  should  be  taken  along  with 
Dpv.  viii,  1  ff.  A  short  delay  is  inevitable  prior  to  undertaking  a  journey 
of  this  nature  as  elaborate  preparations  were  necessary  for  the  despatch 
of  each  of  the  missions,  and  in  the  case  of  a  journey  overseas  it  is  to  be 
expected  all  the  more.  By  taking  Dpv.  xii,  7  ff.  with  no  reference  to 
Dpv.  viii,  1  ff.  one  would  naturally  fall  into  the  error  of  dissociating  the 
Ceylon  mission  from  Moggaliputta  Tissa,  as  Eggermont  36  ff.  has  done, 
as  it  presents  a  completely  different  picture.  Smp.  records  here  the  request 
of  both  Moggaliputta  Tissa  and  the  Order  of  monks.  Also  see  Mhv.  xiii,  1 . 

2  According  to  Mhv.  he  reigned  for  sixty  years  (307-247  B.C.)  and 
was  responsible  for  the  laying  out  of  the  Mahameghavana  which  came 
to  play  an  important  part  in  the  history  of  the  Sasana  in  Ceylon.  He 
ascended  the  throne  in  the  fourteenth  year  of  Candagutta's  reign  in 
India.    Devanampiyatissa  was  his  second  son. 

3  i.e.  the  message  of  the  Dhamma. 

*  There  seems  to  be  a  good  deal  of  confusion  regarding  the  location 
of  this  district,  but  the  details  here  appear  to  be  correct  ;  also  vide  DPPN 
s.v.  There  is  nothing  at  Mhv.  xiii,  5,  to  justify  Geiger 's  identification  of 
it  as  "  a  vihara  in  Ujjeni  "  (Mhv.  trsl.  88,  n.  3),  as  the  stanza  that  follows 
refers  to  Mahinda  next  going  to  Vedisa  which  is  actually  situated  between 
Kosambi  and  Ujjeni.  Hence  Dakkhinagiri  has  to  be  located  beyond 
Rajagaha  on  the  way  to  Vedisa.  Probably  a  trade  route  from  Pataliputta 
through  Rajagaha  and  Dakkhinagiri  connected  the  great  southern  trade 
route  to  Patitthana  which  ran  through  Vedisa,  Ujjeni  and  Mahissatl. 
Mahinda  and  his  companions  naturally  followed  this  route  and  arrived 
at  Vedisa.  According  to  Pj .  II,  136  it  is  the  hilly  district  south  of  Rajagaha. 

^  Vedisa  also  called  "the  Forest  City"  (Sn.  1011),  is  identified  as 
Bhilsa  in  Gwalior  State,  See  Cunningham,  The  Bhilsa  Topes,  and  Geiger, 
Mhv.  trsl.  88,  n.  4. 

74.  1  Asoka  was  Viceroy  at  Avanti  during  his  father  Bindusara's  reign. 
Its  capital  was  Ujjeni  not  far  from  modern  Ujjain  in  Gwalior  State.  See 
Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.,  29,  n.  1. 

2  Dpv.  vi,  16,  and  Mhv.  xiii,  9,  do  not  give  the  name  of  the  setthi, 
but  mention  the  daughter's  name  as  Devi,  as  given  below.  Note  the 
verb  aggahesi,  "  seized,"  in  the  text. 

no  Inception  of  Discipline 

*  This  is  consistent  with  the  statement  at  Smp.  52  that  at  the  time 
of  Mahinda's  ordination  at  the  age  of  twenty,  the  King  was  in  the  sixth 
year  after  consecration. 

*  The  second  consecration  of  Devanampiyatissa  is  often  looked  upon 
as  a  "  Buddhist  "  consecration.  Eggermont,  The  Chronology  of  the 
Reign  of  Asoka  Moriya,  25  if.,  attempts  to  prove,  on  the  evidence  from 
Dpv.  that  Asoka  celebrated  his  conversion  to  Buddhism  by  undergoing 
a  second  consecration.  The  interpolated  stanza  Dpv.  vi,  24,  according 
to  him  "  suggests  that  the  whole  story  of  the  conversion  is  a  commentary 
on  the  second  anointment  of  Asoka  ".  He  next  concludes,  "  This  view 
has  the  advantage  of  making  it  conceivable  why  Asoka  sent  the  necessaries 
for  a  second  anointment  to  King  Devanampiya  Tissa  .  .  .  (whose)  .  .  . 
double  coronation  is  analogous  to  Asoka's."    See  also  Smp.  78,  n.  7. 

^  The  festival  of  the  Jetthamulanakkhatta  (see  Smp.  77)  or  the 
Anuradhajetthanakkhatta,  according  to  Dpv.  xi,  44,  was  celebrated  as  a 
public  holiday.  The  King's  celebration  of  the  festival  took  the  form  of  a 
deer-hunt,  but  Mahinda  purposely  avoids  mentioning  it  as  he  would  be  a 
party  to  the  contemplated  panavadha  of  the  King  if  it  forms  a  part  of  his 
resolution  of  will. 

*  This  was  the  earlier  name  of  Mihintale  which  was  changed  to  Cetiya- 
pabbata  or  Cetiyagiri  after  Devanampiyatissa's  construction  of  dwellings 
for  monks  there.  See  Smp.  75.  Mihintale  is  situated  8  miles  to  the  east 
of  Anuradhapura.  See  C.  W.  Nicholas,  JCBRAS,  New  Series,  vi,  1959. 
The  Historical  Topography  of  Ancient  and  Medieval  Ceylon. 

'  The  name  of  the  month  is  given  here  as  Jetthamula,  "  the  commence- 
ment of  Jettha,"  though  the  usual  name  for  the  month  following  Vesakha 
it  Jettha  (Sinh.  month  of  Poson,  now  reckoned  as  May- June).  Also 
cp.  Mhv.  xiii,  14. 

8  cp.  Dpv.  xii,  12-13,  38-9. 

"  The  grandson  of  Mahinda's  mother,  Devi's  sister.   Mhv.  xiii,  16. 

75.  ^  S.V.,  DPPN.  See  also  C.  Godage's  monograph  :  The  Place  of  Indra  in 
Early  Buddhism,  UCR,  iii,  1. 

2  See  Mhv.  xiii,  15  ;   Dpv.  xii,  17  ff.,  29  f. 

3  Dpv.  xii,  20,  byakatam  c'assa  nagassa  ;  Mhv.  xiii,  15,  Sambud- 
dhenapi  vyakato. 

*  The  stanzas  are  almost  identical  with  Dpv.  xii,  35-7  ;  cp.  Dpv.  xii, 
14;  Mhv.  xiii,  6  fE. 

*  The  reading  at  Dpv.  xii,  35,  Vedisagiriye  (for  -girimhi)  ramme 
makes  better  sense.  The  translations,  "  in  Vedisagiri  in  Rajagaha," 
or  "  in  Vedisagiri  and  in  Rajagaha,"  would  both  be  wrong  in  the  context. 
The  older  reading  ramme  in  Dpv.  fits  in  beautifully  with  the  Anustubh 
^loka  metre  of  these  verses  in  addition  to  giving  the  correct  meaning.  Or 
should  Rajagaha  here  be  taken  as  "  royal  mansion  "  ? 

*  Dpv.  xii,  37,  41,  have  Missakakutamhi  for  kutamhi.  The  name 
Missaka  there  serves  the  purpose  of  a  gloss  as  it  cannot  be  included  in  the 
metre.  Mhv.  xiii,  20,  has  Silakuta.  See  footnote  in  text,  and  Smp,  77,  n.  1. 

'  All  this  embellishment  is  missing  at  Mhv.  xiii,  19  f. 

76.  ^  Regarding  problems  of  chronology  see  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  xxii  ff, 
with  references,  G.  C.  Mendis,  UCR,  v,  1  (1947)  ;  Eggermont,  chapter  II  ; 
S.  Paranavitana,  UCR,  xviii,  3-4  (1960). 

2  cp.  Dpv.  xi,  8  a.,  Mhv.  iv,  1  £E.   See  tables,  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  xii,  xlvi. 

'  Lit.  "  Abhaya  the  Crook  ".  Smp.  consistently  uses  the  name  Pakun- 
daka  but  Dpv.  gives  both  Pakunda  xi,  1  ff.  (or  Pakundaka  xi,  12,  etc.), 
and  Panduka  x,  9,  while  Mhv.  has  only  Panduka.  The  earlier  sobriquet 
may  have  been  subsequently  changed  to  a  less  pungent  one,  after  his 
consecration,  and,  in  the  Mhv.  he  has  become  "  Abhaya  the  Pale  "  (fair- 
skinned  ?). 

Notes  to  the  Translation  iii 

*  Pakundakabhaya  reigned  for  seventeen  years  without  being  con- 
secrated, and  the  previous  one  year  refers  to  the  Vijaya-Panduvasadeva 
inter-regnum.  The  consecration  perhaps  brought  about  the  change  in 
the  name  from  Pakundaka  to  Panduka  ! 

77.  ^  The  small  tableland  below  the  stony  peak  Silakuta  at  Cetiyapabbata 
(Mhv.  xiii,  20  ;  Dpv.  xvii,  14,  give  Silakuta  among  other  names  as  else- 
where. See  Smp.  75,  n.  6) .  Could  it  have  been  earlier  known  as  Silakuta  ? 
The  plateau  below  was  named  as  Ambatthala,  "  the  Mango  Plateau," 
after  the  riddle  of  the  Mango  tree  (Smp.  80) .  King  Mahadathika  Mahanaga 
(66-78  A.c.)  built  the  Ambatthala  thupa  there,  on  the  ruins  of  which  now 
stands  a  cetiya  of  more  recent  date.  See  also  C.  W.  Nicholas,  JCBRAS, 
New  Series,  vi,  p.  163  f. 

2  cp.  Bimbisara's  reflexion  at  J  A,  i,  66,  on  seeing  the  Bodhisatta 

*  Mhv.  xiv,  8. 

78.  1  Situated  about  two  yojanas  south-east  of  Anuradhapura.  Later 
Saddhatissa  (77-59  b.c.)  built  the  Cetavihara  there.  C.  W.  Nicholas, 
ibid.,  157,  suggests  that  this  hill  may  be  the  present  Gatalagam-kanda. 

2  Dpv.  xi,  15  ;  cp.  xi,  16-17  ;  Mhv.  xi,  10-13. 
'  Terminalia  Arjuna. 

*  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  (xi,  30)  takes  vaddhamanam  as  an  epithet  of 
kumarikam  and  gives  a  colourful  but  erroneous  translation  "  a  maiden 
in  the  flower  of  her  youth  ".   See  Mhv.  Tika,  i,  304. 

*  Mhv.  xi,  30,  has  sankhaii  ca  nandiyavattam,  "  a  spiral  shell  winding 
in  auspicious  wise,"  Geiger.    Also  see  Mhv.  trsl.  80,  n.  1. 

*  It  is  usually  a  very  young  girl  of  Khattiya  clan  who  does  the  anointing. 
See  Mhv.  Tika,  i,  305  fE.,  for  more  details  on  the  abhiseka. 

'  The  Smp.  account  has  the  requisite  number  of  items  (sixteen)  men- 
tioned in  traditional  lists  in  addition  to  the  five  insignia  of  royalty. 
The  gifts  sent  by  Tissa  appear  to  be  of  immense  value  and  share  the  nature 
of  an  extravagant  expression  of  his  friendship  with  Asoka.  A  gift  of  such 
magnificient  proportions,  as  a  token  of  friendship,  is  unthinkable  except 
in  terms  of  tribute  paid  in  kind  by  a  bhoja-raja  to  his  cakkavatti.  It  is  all 
the  more  striking  when  the  five  ensigns  of  royalty  required  for  use  on 
ceremonial  occasions  and  the  sixteen  requisites  for  a  consecration  are 
sent  in  return,  though  nominally  Asoka's  gift  in  return  was  the  gift  of  the 
Dhamma.  However,  there  is  no  evidence  to  indicate  that  Tissa  accepted 
Asoka's  suzerainty.  Besides,  it  may  be  on  the  suggestion  of  his  artful 
ministers,  who  were  perhaps  schooled  in  Canakya's  tradition,  (cp.  saha- 
maccehi  mantetva,  Mhv.  xi,  27),  that  the  five  ensigns  of  royalty  and 
articles  needed  for  a  consecration  were  chosen  as  a  return  gift  after 
Asoka  himself  on  his  own  had  conferred  upon  the  members  of  the  embassy 
various  high  honours  (Mhv.  xi,  25-6  ;  also  see  Mhv.  Tika,  i,  302  ff.). 
The  only  influence  of  Asoka  over  Ceylon  was  his  "  Conquest  by  the 
Dhamma  "  of  the  Island  as  were  the  other  border  kingdoms  won  to  the 
Faith  as  mentioned  in  his  RE,  xiii.  The  argument  that  Tissa  underwent 
a  second  consecration  to  celebrate  his  acceptance  of  Buddhism  (Smp.  74, 
n.  4)  appears  weak  in  the  light  of  the  typical  brahmanical  anointment 
as  seen  from  the  articles  used  at  the  consecration.  It  is  difficult  to  explain 
why  Tissa  submitted  himself  to  this  second  consecration,  and  further 
investigation  is  necessary  to  establish  whether  Tissa  even  nominally 
accepted  Asoka's  suzerainty,  but  one  thing  is  certain,  that  Asoka  may 
have  looked  upon  Tissa  as  a  very  useful  friend  and  ally  from  a  strategic 
point  of  view,  with  the  independent  Dravida  Kingdoms  of  Colas,  Pandyas, 
Keralaputras,  and  others  situated  between  his  southern  borders  and 

8  Dpv.  xi,  1-4  ;  xvii,  83-86  ;   cp.  Mhv.  xi,  28-32. 

112  Inception  of  Discipline 

»  Dpv.  xii,  5-6  ;   cp.  Mhv.  xi,  34-5. 

1°  See  Asoka's  Brahmagiri  Edict  i,  RQpnath  and  Maski  Edicts,  which 
are  now  dated  as  having  been  issued  in  the  tenth  regnal  year,  in  which 
he  says  that  he  has  been  a  lay  disciple  for  two  and  a  half  years  and  so  on. 
Also  vide  A  Reference  to  the  Third  Council  in  Asoka's  Edicts  ?,  UCR, 
xvii,  3-4. 

^^  See  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  xix. 

79.  ^  Mhv.  xi,  40,  refers  to  his  first  consecration  as  having  taken  place 
on  the  first  day  of  the  bright  half  of  Maggasira  while  Dpv.  xi,  14,  refers 
to  it  in  a  different  way  :  "  under  the  asterism  of  Asajhi  in  the  second 
winter  month  ;  "  but  in  both  cases  it  fell  five  months  before  the  uposatha 
day  of  Vesakha.  See  also  Eggermont,  31  ff. ;  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  xxxi  ff., 
who  have  attempted  to  fix  the  exact  date  with  various  kinds  of  data. 

2  See  last  st.  at  Smp.  78. 

3  Dpv.  xii,  52  ;    cp.  Mhv.  xiv,  10. 

*  Mahinda  awaited  the  arrival  of  the  King's  followers  to  reveal  the 
presence  of  the  rest  of  his  party  lest  the  King  be  frightened  at  the  sight 
of  too  many  unfamiliar  figures. 

^  Dpv.  xii,  56  ;   cp.  Mhv.  xiv,  14. 

80.  ^  For  Smp.  80-3,  cp.  Mhv.  xiv,  15  to  end  of  chapter. 

81.  ^  M.  i,  175  ff.,  see  also  Dpv.  xii,  57  :    "  suttantam  Hatthipadam." 

2  It  is  rather  significant  that  the  King  knew  that  it  was  not  permissible 
for  monks  to  eat  after  midday.  One  who  is  totally  unacquainted  with  the 
daily  life  of  bhikkhus  would  not  have  known  it.  It  is  very  unlikely 
that  he  would  have  learned  all  this  from  his  envoys  who  had  returned 
from  Asoka's  court  but  recently.  Also  at  Smp.  87  the  King  realizes  that 
the  Thera  is  eager  to  have  a  cetiya  built  when  he  merely  mentions  that 
Buddha's  bodily  relics  remain.  These  and  several  other  stray  references 
in  the  Pali  accounts  which  their  monastic  authors  have  failed  to  suppress, 
point  to  the  fact  that  Buddhism  was  not  unknown  in  Ceylon  prior  to 
its  official  introduction  by  Mahinda.  See  EHBC,  46  ff.  for  further  data. 
It  is  unsatisfactory  to  explain  this  minor  detail  as  an  anachronism. 

3  Vin.  iv,  85. 

*  Vikala  is  defined  at  Vin.  iv,  86. 
^  i.e.  anagamiphala. 

82.  1  Jhana,  s.v.,  PTS.  See  references  where  the  jhanas  are  discussed 
fully  as  regards  theory  and  practice. 

2  cp.  the  description  at  the  end  of  the  preaching  of  the  Dhammacakka, 
Vin.  i,  11  ff. 

3  A.  i,  64  ff. 

83.  ^  A  cetiya  in  Anuradhapura,  untraced  to  date  in  the  ruins,  though 
popularly  identified  with  the  ruins  now  known  as  the  Padhanacetiya. 
It  is  tentatively  located  in  the  map  attached  to  Memoir  I  of  the  Archaeo- 
logical Survey  of  Ceylon,  along  the  ancient  road  from  the  eastern  gate 
of  the  city  to  Mihintale,  slightly  south-east  of  Nakha  Vehera  and  between 
Malvatu  Oya  (Kadambanadi)  and  the  Halpanu  Ala  (D.  T.  Devendra). 

2  Included  in  the  dasasikkhapada,  Kh.  No.  2. 

3  The  word  in  the  text  is  tattika,  and  is  explained  at  Smp.  357  (P.T.S.)  : 
talapannehi  va  vakehi  va  katatattika,  i.e.  woven  from  palm-leaf  or 
fibrous  bark. 

4  S.v,  414  ff. 

^  Hatthisala,  not  identified. 

«  See  Smp.  102,  n.  2. 

'  M.  iii,  178  ff.  ;  A.  i,  138  ff. 

8  See  Mhv.  xv,  1  £f.  for  parallels  to  Smp.  from  here. 

Notes  to  the  Translation  113 

»  The  park  situated  outside  the  southern  wall  of  the  city  and  extending 
as  far  as  the  Mahameghavana.  It  is  bounded  on  the  west  by  the  Abhaya- 
vapi  and  on  the  east  by  the  Kadambanadi.  The  Thuparama  and  the 
Mahathupa  are  situated  within  this  park.  It  was  renamed  Jotivana  after 
the  conversions  effected  there  by  Mahinda.  See  Smp.  84,  Mhv.  xv,  202. 
See  also  C.  W.  Nicholas,  Historical  Topography  of  Ancient  and  Medieval 
Ceylon,  JCBRAS,  1959,  New  Series,  vi,  127  ff. 

i»  S.  iv,  172  ff.  ;  A.  ii,  110  fE.,  but  Dpv.  xiii,  13,  Mhv.  xv,  4  differ, 
and  mention  the  Balapanditasuttanta,  M.  iii,  163  ;  S.  ii,  23  £f.  ;  A.  i,  101  ff. 

84.  1  Lit.  The  Grove  of  the  Mighty  Rain  Cloud.  It  was  laid  out  by  Mutasiva 
and  named  so  on  account  of  an  unseasonal  downpour  at  the  time  of  the 
selection  of  the  site  ;  Mhv.  xi,  2  f.  It  lay  further  south  of  the  Nanda- 
navana  (Smp.  83,  n.  9).  The  Mahavihara  was  founded  there  by  Devanam- 
piyatissa.  In  dedicating  the  Mahameghavana  to  the  Sangha  it  was 
renamed  Tissarama  ;  Dpv.  xiii,  33,  For  a  full  description  of  the  dedication 
see  Dpv.  xiii,  18  ff.,  and  for  the  religious  edifices  built  there,  Mhv.  xv. 
See  also  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  77,  n.  1,  and  C.  W.  Nicholas,  ibid. 

2  cp.  the  full  description  of  a  saruppa  senasana  at  Vin.  i,  39.  The 
account  of  the  dedication  of  Veluvana  by  Bimbisara  has  been  freely 
drawn  upon,  and  is  faithfully  rendered  into  verse,  with  additions,  in 
describing  the  dedication  of  the  Mahameghavana  at  Dpv.  xiii,  18  ff.  ; 
and  Mhv.  xv,  17,  actually  cites  the  acceptance  of  the  Veluvanarama. 

3  Mhv.  XV,  10,  adds  that  the  cetiya  built  at  the  spot  where  the  Elders 
turned  back  was  called  the  Nivattacetiya.  Also  see  C.  W.  Nicholas, 
ibid.,  p.  137. 

4  Vin.  i,  39. 

^  So  also  in  the  description  of  the  acceptance  of  the  Veluvana  at 
JA,  i,  85. 

«  S.  ii,  178  ff.,  187  ff. 

'  A.  iv,  128  ff. 

Mhv.  XV,  195  ff.  states  that  on  the  fifth  day,  i.e.  the  day  after  he  preached 
the  Anamataggiya,  the  Thera  preached  the  Khaj  janiya  Suttanta,  probably 
the  Siha  Suttanta  of  the  Khajjaniya  Vagga  ;  S.  iii,  86  ff.  (See  Geiger, 
Mhv.  trsl..  Ill,  n.  4)  ;  that  on  the  sixth  day,  the  Gomayapindi  Sutta, 
S.  iii,  143  ff.,  and  on  the  seventh  day,  the  Dhammacakkappavattana, 
Vin.  i,  10  ff.  In  the  first  of  the  two  independent  accounts  in  Dpv.  com- 
mencing at  xiv,  8,  the  suttas  that  are  said  to  have  been  preached  by 
Mahinda  at  the  Nandanavana  are  Aggikkhandha  and  Asivisupama,  and 
in  the  second  account  at  xiv,  41  ff.,  Asivisupama,  Anamataggiya,  Cariya- 
pitaka,  Gomayapindi,  and  Dhammacakka  which  "  he  preached  repeatedly 
there  itself  in  the  Great  Nandana,  and  for  seven  days  he  preached  with 
this  suttanta  ". 

85.  ^  There  are  several  discourses  called  Appamada  Sutta  and  it  is  not 
easy  to  say  which  one  was  referred  to  as  Maha-appamada  Sutta.  Vide 
Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  31,  n.  3  ;  s.v,,  DPPN.  Smp.  fails  to  mention  that  the 
Dhammacakkappavattana  was  preached  on  the  seventh  day  at  the 
Nandanavana.  See  previous  note.  Smp.  and  Mhv.  xvi,  3  agree  as  regards 
Maha-appamada  Sutta  but  not  Dpv.  xiv,  53  which  mentions  Mahasamaya 

2  Same  as  Cetiyapabbata  or  Missakapabbata  (Mihintale).  See  Smp.  74, 
n.  6. 

86.  ^  There  are  two  Aritthas  if  we  are  to  accept  the  sequence  of  the  narra- 
tive in  Smp.  and  the  chronicles.  See  also  Adikaram,  EHBC,  53  f.  Both 
Dpv.  and  Mhv.  refer  to  the  minister  (Maha)  Arittha  as  Devanampiyatissa's 
first  envoy  to  the  imperial  court  of  Pataliputta  (Dpv.  xi,  29  ff.  ;  Mhv.  xi, 
20  ff.).  Mhv.  further  refers  to  him  as  the  King's  nephew.  Both  chronicles 
again  refer  to  him  as  Maha  Arittha,  the  King's  nephew  (Dpv.  xiv,  68  ff.  ; 

114  Inception  of  Discipline 

Mhv,  xvi,  10  ff.)  in  describing  his  entry  into  the  Order  with  fifty-five 
others  who  are  described  as  his  "  brothers  ".  It  is,  however,  rather  curious 
to  note  that  Smp.  omits  the  epithet  Maha  and  refers  to  him  as  Arittha 
here,  though  one  of  the  two  Aritthas  is  again  referred  to  as  Maha-Arittha 
later  on  (Smp.  105,  106).  Further,  he  is  not  called  the  King's  nephew 
at  Smp.  86  and  the  King  addresses  him  and  his  fifty-five  brothers  as 
bhane,  "  my  men  ",  instead  of  the  usual  tata,  "  my  dears,"  as  one  would 
expect ;  see  Smp.  95  where  he  addresses  the  other  Arittha  as  tata. 
The  name  of  the  second  envoy  who  was  despatched  to  bring  Sanghamitta 
and  the  Bodhi  tree  is  consistently  given  as  Arittha  and  not  as  Maha- 
Arittha  in  all  three  sources  :  Dpv.  xv,  82  ff.,  Arittho  nama  khattiyo  ; 
Mhv.  xvii,  1  ff.,  the  minister  Arittha,  the  King's  nephew  ;  Smp.  95,  the 
King's  nephew.  On  the  evidence  of  Mhv.  and  Dpv.  Adikaram's  contention 
(ibid.),  that  the  two  ministers  named  Arittha  were  brothers  and  that  the 
older  of  the  two  was  called  Maha-Arittha  and  the  younger  plain  Arittha 
may  be  accepted  though  the  indirect  evidence  from  the  Smp.  seems  to 
make  the  issue  highly  complicated.  In  Smp.  Arittha  (1)  was  no  relation 
of  the  King,  while  the  reference  to  Maha-Arittha  as  a  mere  bhikkhu 
at  Smp.  105,  when  his  name  is  suggested  as  a  suitable  candidate  to  receive 
the  Vinaya  and  teach  it  in  Ceylon,  is  intended  to  point  to  the  more  junior 
of  the  two  Aritthas  in  the  Sasana.  He  is,  however,  referred  to  as  an  Elder 
in  the  next  section.  Arittha  (1)  was  already  an  arahant  according  to  the 
last  sentence  of  Smp.  86.  See  note  4  below.  All  three  sources  agree 
that  the  envoy  sent  to  bring  Sanghamitta  was  the  King's  nephew,  who 
later  entered  the  Order  with  500  others  and  (not  a  mere  fifty-five  !)  in 
keeping  with  his  royal  status.  Further,  in  two  instances  in  Mhv.  (xviii,  13  ; 
xix,  12)  it  is  the  second  Arittha  who  is  referred  to  as  Maha-Arittha, 
while  all  other  references  either  clearly  point  to  Arittha  (1)  as  Maha- 
Arittha  or  can  be  interpreted  as  such.  Evidently,  the  earlier  chronicle 
Dpv.  (and  Smp.)  recognized  the  fact  that  there  were  two  Aritthas  while 
the  author  of  Mhv.  has  forgotten  the  sequence  of  events  in  the  narrative 
and  confused  one  Arittha  with  the  other.  The  two  names  cannot  refer 
to  one  and  the  same  individual  if  the  above  sequence  is  correct,  but  if  not, 
the  second  envoy  has  to  be  identified  with  the  first.  If  that  be  so,  the 
suggestion  that  the  story  of  the  arrival  of  Sanghamitta  with  the  Bodhi 
tree  and  that  of  Mahinda  refer  to  the  first  propagation  of  Buddhism  in 
Ceylon  (Eggermont,  56  ff.)  will  have  to  be  taken  seriously  into  con- 
sideration. On  the  other  hand,  from  the  evidence  of  Smp.  there  is 
nothing  to  prevent  one  from  identifying  Arittha  (2)  with  Maha-Arittha 
on  the  ground  (1)  that  he  alone  was  the  King's  nephew,  (2)  he  was  not  a 
bhikkhu  of  long  experience,  and  (3)  that  the  important  office  of  custodian- 
ship of  the  Vinaya  is  best  entrusted  to  one  connected  with  the  royal  family. 
Buddhaghosa  appears  to  have  been  convinced  that  Arittha  (2)  was 
Maha-Arittha  though  nowhere  does  he  explicitly  state  so.  The  evidence 
from  Smp.  is  of  an  inferential  nature  and  may  be  even  termed  an  argument 
from  silence  while  the  positive  information  in  Dpv.  and  Mhv.,  in  spite  of 
the  two  discrepancies  referred  to  above  in  the  latter,  appears  to  indicate 
that  Arittha  (1)  was  Maha-Arittha. 

2  On  the  Missakapabbata.  The  ruins  of  some  of  these  cells,  some 
partly  restored,  are  to  be  seen  to  the  present  day.  The  Kantakacetiya 
too  is  partly  renovated  by  the  Ceylon  Archaeological  Department.  All 
this  lies  on  a  plateau  further  south-west  of  Ambatthala.  See  Smp.  77,  n.  1. 

3  The  ten  sons  of  Mutasiva  of  whom  Devanampiyatissa  was  the  second. 
See  list  at  Dpv.  xi,  6  ;  viii,  75,  and  Smp.  94,  n.  7. 

*  Dpv.  xiv,  80  ;  Mhv.  xvi,  17  also  agree  with  the  number  sixty-two. 
The  number  of  monks  was  sixty-three  and  Bhanduka  is  earlier  referred 
to  as  an  agataphala  (Smp.  81,  n.  5),  while  Sumana  was  yet  a  novice 
as  may  be  seen  from  Smp.  87. 

Notes  to  the  Translation  115 

87.  ^  See  Dpv.  xv,  1  ff.,  Mhv.  xvii,  1  ff.  which  take  up  the  narrative  from 
here  to  end  of  Smp.  89. 

2  The  three  sentences  beginning  with  this  are  missing  at  Mhv.  See 
Dpv.  XV,  2-3. 

3  The  King  already  knows  what  a  thupa  is  and  that  rehcs  are  enshrined 
in  thupas.    See  Smp.  80,  n.  2. 

*  Situated  outside  the  eastern  gate  of  the  city,  probably  beyond  the 
Kadambanadi,  with  the  road  to  Cetiyapabbata  passing  through  it,  and 
also  extending  further  south  to  the  eastern  boundaries  of  the  Nandanavana 
and  the  Mahameghavana. 

^  Mhv.  xvii,  12  refers  to  the  bowl  relic  as  well. 
"  See  Smp.  75. 

88.  1  The  Culamani  Cetiya,  cp.  Mhv.  xvii,  20  ;    s.v.,  DPPN. 

89.  ^  Those  who  wish  to  get  wet  get  wet,  while  others  who  do  not  wish 
so  remain  dry  "  like  water  not  adhering  to  a  lotus  leaf  ".   See  JA,  i,  88. 

2  cp.  Dpv.  XV,  20, 

Catumasam  komudiyam  divasam  punnarattiya 

agato  ca  mahaviro  gajakumbhe  patitthito. 
"  And  the  great  hero  (i.e.  the  relic)  arrived  on  the  day  of  full  moon  of  the 
month  of  Kattika  and  established  (lit.)  himself  on  the  frontal  of  the 
elephant."    See  next  note. 

3  Catumasini  punnama  is  the  full  moon  day  of  Kattika  commencing 
on  the  Uposatha  day  of  Asalhi,  and  marks  the  end  of  the  later  period 
for  keeping  Vassa,  and  thus  the  end  of  the  fourth  month  of  the  Rains- 
period,  usually  in  the  phrase  komudi  catumasini  (Miss  I.  B.  Horner). 

*  Pandukabhaya  built  at  this  site,  a  shrine  dedicated  to  the  cult  of 
the  yakkha  Maheja  (Mhv.  x,  90).  Perhaps  Geiger  is  correct  in  translating 
Mahejjaghara  as  the  House  of  the  Great  Sacrifice  :  mahd  +  ij  (from 
root  yaj-)  +  ya.  The  reading  at  Mhv.  xvii,  30,  is  the  same  as  here,  while 
there  are  many  variants  which  are  corruptions  due  to  the  term  becoming 
unfamiliar  quite  early.  See  also  JPTS,  1903,  p.  46  ;  JCBRAS,  xxxi, 
p.  306  f.  ;  s.v.,  DPPN. 

^  i.e.  where  the  Thuparama  was  to  be  built. 

90.  1  For  Smp.  90-2,  cp.  Dpv.  xv,  34-64  ;   Mhv.  xv,  56-159. 

92.  1  Is  it  an  echo  of  Mandativ  off  the  Jaffna  Peninsula  ? 
2  Belonging  to  this  kappa. 

93.  1  cp.  Mhv.  xvii.  32  ff. 

2  Mhv.  xvii,  34,  is  different, 

Attano  khandhasamake  thane  thapanam  icchati, 
"  Wishes  to  place  it  at  a  height  on  an  equal  level  with  its  shoulders." 

^  Built  by  Pandukabhaya  (Mhv.  x,  88)  ;  its  modern  name  is  Abhaya- 
vava  or  Basavak-kulama. 

*  Thup.  50.   Also  see  S.  Paranavitana,  The  Stupa  in  Ceylon. 
5  See  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  119,  n.  3. 

^  The  miracle  of  the  double  which  consists  of  projecting  the  identical 
double  image  of  the  Buddha.    Vide  DhA.  iii,  206  ff. 
7  See  J  A,  iv,  264  ff.,  s.v.,  DPPN. 

*  cp.  Mhv.  xvii,  50. 

»  Mhv.  xvii,  56  ;    cp.  Divy.  79,  469. 

94.  ^  See  Mhv.  i,  Dpv.  i-ii. 

2  Mahodara  and  Culodara  :    Mhv.  i,  45  ;    Dpv.  ii,  7, 

^  The  Ruvanvali  Dagoba,  built  by  Dutthagamani  and  completed  by 

Saddhatissa.  See  Mhv.  xxviii,  2  ff.  ;  Dpv.  xix,  10  ;  xx,  1  ff.  ;  Thup.  66  ff.  ; 

C.  W.  Nicholas,  ibid.,  134  ff.  ;   s.v..  DPPN,  Mahathupa. 

ii6  Inception  of  Discipline 

*'  In  Badulla,  capital  of  the  Uva.  There  is  no  reference  to  it  in  Dpv.  and 
Mhv.  in  this  connexion, 

^  Built  by  Saddhatissa,  Mhv.  xxxiii,  10.  Vide  Mhv.  trsl.  8,  n.  1.  See 
C.  W.  Nicholas,  ibid.,  24  ff. 

*  The  places  mentioned  at  Dpv.  ii,  53  ff.  are  Kalyani,  the  sites  of  the 
Dighavapicetiya,  the  Bodhi  tree  at  Mahameghavana,  and  the  Megha- 
vanarama,  and  those  at  Mhv.  i,  71  ff.  are  Kalyani,  Sumanakuta,  the  foot 
of  the  Sumanakuta  (later  called  Divaguha),  DIghavapi,  and  the  sites  of 
the  Mahameghavanarama,  the  Mahabodhi,  the  Mahathupa,  the  Thupa- 
rama,  and  the  Silacetiya  (the  core  of  the  Abhayagiri — Dpv.  xix,  16  ?), 
while  Smp.  mentions  three  of  the  places  common  to  both  lists  and  Maha- 
cetiya  (-thtipa)  and  Thuparama  in  common  with  the  Mhv.  list,  and 
Mutiyarigana  Cetiya  is  not  found  in  either  of  the  above. 

'  Mhv.  xvii,  57,  refers  to  him  as  Mattabhaya,  the  King's  younger 
brother  as  distinct  from  his  elder  brother  Abhaya  who  appears  at  the 
head  of  the  list  of  ten  brothers  with  two  Tissas,  Devanampiya  and  Sura 
as  second  and  ninth,  and  Mattabhaya  comes  fifth  in  the  list.  This  is  no 
other  than  Mattabhaya  as  he  is  referred  to  later  by  that  name  at  Smp.  106 
as  having  been  the  dhuraggaha  at  Maha  Arittha's  Vinaya  Recital.  See 
also  Smp.  86,  n.  3. 

*  Also  called  Cetavigama,  Mhv.  xvii,  59,  a  village  situated  to  the  south 
of  the  city. 

*  Other  places  mentioned  at  Mhv.  xvii,  59  f.  are  Viharabija,  Galla- 
kapitha  and  Upatissagama.  Dvaramandala  was  a  village  near  the  Cetiya- 
pabbata,  Mhv.  xxiii,  23.  There  is  at  present  a  village  called  Dora- 
mandoluwa  in  the  Anuradhapura  District.  See  also  W.  Rahula,  ibid.,  p.  22. 

95..       1  SeeVin.  ii,  271  ff. 
2  See  Smp.  102. 
^  See  Smp.  86,  n.  1. 

*  A  seaport  in  North  Ceylon,  probably  Sambilturai  near  Kankesanturai 
in  Nagadipa  (Jaffna  Peninsula).  See  H.  W.  Codrington,  JCBRAS,  1923. 
It  appears  to  have  been  the  principal  port  of  the  Anuradhapura  Kingdom, 
especially  in  its  intercourse  with  the  countries  in  the  Bay  of  Bengal.  The 
earlier  port  of  Mahatittha  on  the  north-west  carried  on  trade  with  the 
countries  on  the  western  seaboard  of  India  and  the  lands  on  the  Arabian 
Sea.  It  was  often  used  by  invaders  from  the  Malabar  Coast,  e.g.  Bhalluka — 
Mhv.  XXV,  79,  seven  Damila  usurpers — Mhv.  xxxiii,  39.  See  also  Mhv.  xi, 
23,  38.  Jambukola  was  five  days'  journey  from  Anuradhapura  and  seven 
days'  voyage  to  Patahputta  (Mhv.  Tika,  i,  303).  See  C.  W.  Nicholas, 
ibid.,  83  ;   s.v.,  DPPN. 

96.  1  Additional  line  :   And  thus  he  informed  her,  "  Your  brother  the  Elder 
Mahinda  has  sent  me  here."  See  footnote  in  text. 

97.  1  cp.  Mhv.  xvii,  46  ff. 

2  A  dry  measure  made  of  wood  for  measuring  corn,  etc.  Four  alhakas 
=  one  dona.    See  Rhys  Davids,  Ancient  Measures  of  Ceylon. 

3  i.e.  from  Pataliputta  to  Gaya.    See  Cunningham,  AGI,  521  ff. 

98.  ^  Probably  a  reference  to  his  bhoja-rajano,  "  feudatory  kings." 

2  The  eight  cardinal  points. 

3  It  is  perhaps  due  to  the  fact  that  the  Bodhi  tree  is  a  cutting  (and  not 
a  seedling)  that  it  has  not  grown  to  the  usual  gigantic  proportions  of  other 
Bo  trees  to  be  seen  in  India  and  Ceylon.  In  spite  of  its  age  of  nearly 
2,200  years  it  is  a  dwarf  among  Bo  trees.    See  also  Smp.  103,  n.  1. 

99.  1  The  last  day  of  the  Vassa.    See  Smp.  54,  n.  3. 

2  i.e.  Assayuja,  Sept. -Oct.    The  Sinh.  month  of  Vap. 

3  S.V..  DPPN. 

Notes  to  the  Translation  117 

100.  ^  Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  128,  translates  it  as,  "  eighteen  persons  from 
royal  families  and  eight  from  families  of  ministers  .  .  .  etc.,"  though  the 
text  does  not  indicate  it.    See  also  Smp.  102,  n.  3. 

2  "  The  Hyena  Tribe  " — Geiger,  Mhv.  trsl.  128,  n.  2.  According  to 
him  both  names  Taraccha  and  "  Kulinga  ",  Mhv.  xix,  2,  are  of  totemistic 
origin.  These  two  names  appear  quite  out  of  place  both  in  the  shorter  list 
of  seven  groups  in  Smp.  and  the  longer  list  in  Mhv.  which  adds  weavers, 
potters,  families  representative  of  all  the  trade-guilds,  nagas,  and  yakkhas. 
Mhv.,  in  addition  to  changing  Kalihga  to  Kulinga,  replaces  kutumbikakula 
with  setthikila.  Taraccha  appearing  after  gopa  may  suggest  that  the 
name  stood  for  some  occupation  (hunters  ?)  while  Kulinga,  if  the  Mhv. 
rendering  is  correct,  can  mean  "  fowlers  "  who  hunt  with  the  kulinga 
or  kulinka  bird,  like  those  who  hunt  with  the  falcon,  a  bird  of  the  same 
family  as  the  sparrow-hawk  (kulinka) . 

3  All  Smp  MSS.  and  printed  editions  agree  on  the  reading  Kalihga. 

*  Not  to  be  confused  with  the  Vindhya  mountains  which  lie  further 

5  Identified  with  modern  Tamluk,  then  situated  on  the  Ganges  estuary. 

101.  ^  November-December,  Sinh.  month  of  Unduvap. 

2  A  winged  mythical  creature,  deadly  foe  of  serpents,  cp.  garuda. 

102.  ^  Also  called  Samuddapannasala,  Mhv.  xix,  26,  with  v.  11.  Samudda- 
sannasala,  "  Hall  by  the  Sea,"  Samuddasanasala,  "  the  Hall  by  the  Sea 
where  it  Reposed,"  and  explained  in  the  next  stanza,  "  The  edifice  that 
was  erected  there  to  commemorate  the  miracle  (referred  to  in  the  text, 
both  Smp.  and  Mhv.)  came  to  be  known  here  (in  Ceylon)  as  the  Samudda- 
pannasala." But  according  to  Smp.  the  Samuddasala  was  outside  Anura- 
dhapura.  Thup.  53  agrees  with  Smp.  If  the  Mhv.  tradition  is  correct,  it 
should  refer  to  another  edifice  and  not  to  this  one.  See  also  C.  W.  Nicholas, 
ibid.,  p.  83. 

2  i.e.  five  flowers  with  laja,  "  Dalbergia  arboria  "  as  the  fifth  in  the 
usual  phrase  laja-paiicamani  pupphani,  s.v.  PTS  laja.  The  traditional 
Sinhalese  explanation  of  laja  is  puffed  paddy. 

^  Smp.  100  speaks  of  eighteen  families  of  royal  clan  and  eight  each 
of  six  other  groups  while  Mhv.  xix,  1  ff.  has  a  few  more  additions.  See 
Smp.  100,  n.  1.  It  is  difficult  to  explain  the  number  sixteen,  given  also 
at  Mhv.  xix,  31,  and  lower  down  in  this  section  in  Smp.  Probably  the 
two  numbers  reflect  two  different  traditions,  the  smaller  number  repre- 
senting the  earlier  one.  Mhv.  xix,  67,  which  refers  to  the  eight  setthi 
families  only,  presents  still  another  problem. 

*  As  Asoka  himself  did.   See  Smp.  99,  100. 

103.  1  Rohini  is  the  ninth  asterism  corresponding  to  the  constellation 
Tauri  with  its  five  stars.  From  the  above  description  it  is  to  be  inferred 
that  the  Great  Bodhi  was  planted  together  with  the  vase.  This  perhaps 
may  be  another  explanation  of  its  stunted  growth.    See  Smp.  98,  n.  3. 

2  See  Smp.  97,  99. 

3  Mhv.  consistently  gives  the  name  as  Tivakka.  This  village  was 
situated  along  the  road  to  Jambukola — Mhv.  xix,  37. 

*  In  all  other  Pali  sources  the  name  occurs  as  Issarasamanarama, 
"  The  Monastery  for  Monks  from  the  Nobility,"  and  not  Issaranimmana, 
"  Built  by  the  King  (or  Chieftains),"  Mhv.  xx,  14  f.,  also  explains  the  two 
names  Issarasamanarama  and  Vessagiri.  It  is  identified  by  S.  Parana- 
vitana,  CJSc  (Sec.  G),  Vol.  ii,  182,  as  the  monastery  now  popularly  known 
as  the  Vessagiri3^a  though  the  set  of  ruins  on  the  banks  of  the  Tissavapi 
(Tisavava)  which  Geiger  too  has  mentioned  in  Mhv.  trsl.  133,  n.  2,  at 
present  bears  the  name  Isurumuniya.  Popular  identifications  of  places  in 
Anuradhapura  are  often  liable  to  error  in  view  of  the  jungle  tide  that 

Il8  Inception  of  Discipline 

swept  over  the  city  for  over  six  centuries  prior  to  the  commencement  of 
restoration  work  in  1890.  Parana vitana  identifies  the  Issarasamana 
Vihara  (also  called  Kassapagiri)  from  lithic  records  of  the  sixth  century 
A.c.  in  situ  (Vessagiriya  Inscriptions  Nos.  606-609).  He  also  refers  to 
rock  inscriptions  of  about  the  first  century  a.c,  found  at  Vessagiriya 
which  refer  to  the  place  as  Isiramana,  "  Hermits'  Delight  "  which  he 
thinks  represents  the  earlier  name  whose  learned  but  inaccurate  restora- 
tion in  the  Chronicles  is  Issarasamana,  while  modem  Isurumuni  is  a 
natural  development  of  the  former.  There,  however,  is  still  a  possibility 
of  the  popular  identification  being  correct  if  the  sixth  century  inscription 
followed  those  of  the  first  century  in  interpreting  Isiramana  as  Issara- 
samana for  the  term  Isiramana  is  certainly  a  more  elegant  cpd.  in  Pali 
than  Issarasamana  and  the  Chroniclers  would  certainly  have  preferred  it 
if  it  was  known  to  them.  The  sixth  century  inscription  is  more  reliable 
as  the  term  Isiramana  may  have  been  an  epithet  and  not  a  name.  He 
next  attempts  to  identify  the  other  set  of  ruins,  now  known  as  Isuru- 
muniya,  as  an  ancient  Megha-giri-vihara  (Artibus  Asiae,  Vol.  xvi,  1953, 
pp.  181  1).    See  also  C.  W.  Nicholas,  ibid.,  148. 

^  Modern  Kataragama  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Manik-gariga. 

*  Not  identified  (Handungama  ?). 
'  See  Smp.  86,  n.  1. 

104.  ^  See  Mhv.  xxvii,  with  Geiger's  notes  and  references  in  trsl.,  C.  W. 
Nicholas,  ibid.,  133  f.,  s.v.  DPPN.  The  reference  at  Mhv.  xv,  205,  attri- 
buting a  Lohapasada  to  Devanampiyatissa,  also  at  Mhv.  Tika,  ii,  364, 
has  led  most  secondary  sources  to  state  that  this  king  built  the  first 
Lohapasada  which  was  rebuilt  several  times  afterwards  after  the  many 
vicissitudes  it  underwent. 

2  Lit.  The  Mango  Courtyard,  not  identified  ;   s.v.  DPPN. 

3  Lit.  grandson.  Mhv.  xv,  169  also  calls  him  natta,  but  explains 
the  relationship  as  Devanampiyatissa's  brother  Mahanaga's  great-great- 

105.  1  See  EHBC,  56. 

2  Parivena,  perhaps  in  the  later  meaning  of  College.  Meghavannabhaya 
was  the  faithful  minister  of  King  Mahasena  (a.c.  325-352)  who  rebelled 
against  him  for  destroying  the  Mahavihara  but  was  later  reconciled  when 
the  King  undertook  to  restore  it.  Mhv.  xxxvii,  29,  refers  to  several 
parivenas  built  by  Meghavannabhaya.  In  addition  to  the  parivenas 
of  his  minister,  the  King  built  several  edifices  at  the  Mahavihara  ;  see 
Mhv.  xxxvii,  17  ff. 

106.  *  Lit.  "  he  who  has  taken  the  yoke  upon  himself,"  i.e.  the  responsibility 
of  handing  down  the  Vinaya  tradition. 

2  Vin.  iii,  1. 

3  See  the  Account  of  the  Succession  of  Teachers,  Smp.  63,  for  the 
full  list. 

*  The  list  of  Teachers  is  not  brought  up  to  date  to  the  time  of  Bdhgh., 
but  stops  short  at  a  point  where  the  Porana  tradition  and  other  sources 
of  the  Pali  Commentaries,  like  the  Sihala-atthakatha  were  finalized. 
See  Smp.  63,  n.  3,  and  the  Introduction. 

107.  1  Lit.  well-conducted. 

2  cp.  A.  V,  2  ;   312. 

3  Vin.  V,  164. 

*  See  Smp.  2. 

Index  I 


The  numbers  refer  to  paragraphs.  The  Index  of  Proper  Names  is  appended 
at  the  end  of  this  Index.  The  letter  n  after  a  number  indicates  that  there  is 
a  note  on  it  in  the  paragraph  referred  to.  See  the  Index  to  the  Pali  Text  for 
untranslated  Pali  words. 

abiding,  the  ninefold  successive  modes 

ablutions,  47 

act(s),  bodily  and  verbal,  21,  106  ; 
misguided,  56,  57 

Act  of  the  Chapter,  54n ;  of  the 
Order,  6n,  38,  54n 

action,  consequent,  61 

adaptability,   25 

admonition(s),  24,  27  (sasana)  ;  48, 
85  (ovada)  ;   106  (anusitthi) 

aeon,  1,  45 

aggregates,  19,  28,  83,  107 

alms,  38,41.46,  48,  53,  74 

analysis,  formal,  25 

Analysis  (Vedalla,  the  Anga),  3 In 

Anga(s),  the,  16,  31.  38,  49;  the 
Nine,  4,  33,  49 

annihilationists,  62 

application,  unitary  and  multiple,  32 

approval,  13  ;   see  also  sanction 

Arahant,  see  arahanta,  Pali  Index  ; 
dry-visioned,  4n  ;  see  also  canker- 

Arahatship,  11,  12,  43,  47,  52,  86,  103 

army,  the  fourfold,  50 

artisans,  10 

ascetic,  48,  61  ;  naked,  46  ;  white- 
robed  wandering,  46 

Asoka's  campaigns,  44  ;  consecra- 
tion, 44,  46,  52,  53.  56,  74  ;  con- 
version, 48  ;  revenue,  54  ;  super- 
natural royal  powers,  44  ;  Asoka 
disrobes  heretics,  62  ;  ruler  of 
Ujjain,  47 

asseveration,  act  of,  98 

attainment (s),  1.  29,  94,  102  ;  trans- 
cendental, 3n  ;  see  also  cessation 

authority,  25 

avoidance.  24.  26,  27  ;  the  threefold, 

awakened.  1 

bamboo  shoots,  the  three,  78 
banyan  tree,  47 

Baskets  and,  the  Three.  4,  \Q  passim  ; 

see  pitaka,  tipitaka  ff.,  Pali  Index 
bathing  mantle.  92 
behaviour,  repeated  wrong,  48. 
being,  a  pure,  42 
belt.  83.  91 

Birth  Stories  (Jataka.  the  Anga).  3 In 
body  and  speech,  the  disciplining  of, 

bondage,  to  release  from,  65,  66 
border  (country,  district),  55,  64,  89 
bowl,  48,  83,  88  ;  bowl  and  robe,  8,  9, 

12,  43,  47,  56,  87 
Brahma,  see  Proper  Names  ;    brah- 

mas,    45 ;    cpdd.    of   brahma,    see 

Proper  Names  and  Pali  Index 
Brahmanism,  46 
brahmin(s),  41,  42,  46,  48 
brahmin  youth,  8,  15,  42 
brothers,  the  killing  of  (Asoka's),  44  ; 

the  royal  family  including  the  ten 

(Devanampiyatissa's),  86  ;   the  ten 

sons  of  (Kala)  Asoka,  76 
burden,  to  lay  aside,  38 

calamity,  39 

campaigns,  Asoka's,  see  Asoka 
candala  (chieftain),  47  ;  village,  47 
cankers,  1,  11,  106;    cankerless,  11, 

38  ;  canker-waned,  4,  28,  36-8,  40, 

49,  50,  79,  106  ;  the  destruction  of, 

carpets,  29 

carriage,  58  ;   see  chariot 
casuists,  62 
causal  modes.  19 
cause.  27 
caves,  86 
cell,  9,  43 
censure,  55 
cessation,  28  ;  the  attainment  of,  94, 

Chapter,  the,  54.  55  ;  of  five,  64 
chapters,  the  arrangement  into,  30,  33 
character,  traits  of,  25 
characteristics,  own,  23 



Inception  of  Discipline 

charge,  to  place  in,  13,  15 

chariot,  81-3,  85  ;  see  carriage 

chief  in  office,  37,  106 

circumambulate,  43,  98 

circumstances,  adapted  to,  25 

cloisters,  see  cankama,  Pali  Index. 

clouds,  snowy,  97,  99,  103 

collar-bone,  87,  88.  93,  97 

collection,  see  compilation,  -s,  16 

command,  the  wheel  of,  10 

commentary,  2,  43  ;  commentaries, 

compilation,  14  passim  ;  see  sangaha 
and  sangiti  (recital),  Pali  Index 

composure,  41,  46 

comprehension,  26 

concentration.  1,  26,  29,  107 

condition(s),  23  ;  of  innocence,  32  ; 
secondary,  of  guilt,  32  ;  pile  of,  25  ; 
transcendental,  23 

conduct,  virtuous,  72 

confusion  of  mind,  29 

connotation.  21-3 

consecration;  articles  required  for 
the,  78 ;  Asoka's,  see  Asoka  ; 
Devanampiyatissa's,  74,  79  ;  of  the 
Great  Bodhi,  98,  99  ;  of  the  young 
Bodhi  trees,  103 

constructions,  new,  49n 

contact,  23 

convent,  95 

conversion,  Asoka's,  see  Asoka  ;  of 
the  Border  Kingdoms,  64  ff.  ;  of 
Ceylon,  73  fi.  ;  Devanampiya- 
tissa's, 81 

convert,  to,  67-72,  75.  86 

(Convocation)  of  the  Elders  (Therika) , 
33  ;  pertaining  to  the  Five  Hun- 
dred, 33  ;  pertaining  to  the  One 
Thousand,  62 ;  of  the  Seven 
Hundred,  38 

Convocations,  33  ff.,  38  ff..  62  ff. 

Convocation (s),  the,  38,  52.  53  ;  the 
(first),  5  ;  the  First,  20  ;  the  First 
Great.  2,  3,  33,  34  ;  of  the  Five 
Hundred,  the  Section  Dealing  with, 
2n  ;  the  Great,  105  ;  the  Second, 
38,  40 ;  Section  dealing  with  the. 
(i.e.,  the  first),  6n  ;  the  Third,  35. 
37.  62,  63,  64.  106 

convocation  hall,  12  ;  see  dhamma- 

corollaries,  14,  2 In 

couch  (of  the  brahmin  youth).  42  ; 
high  and  comfortable,  83 

course,  the  wrong,  5n 

court,  ladies  of  the,  83,  95,  96,  103 

criticism,  hostile,  5 

day,  to  the  present,  63n.  65,  106 

death,  connected  with  in-breathing 
and  out-breathing,  56 

dedication,  festival  of,  49  ;  water  of, 

deer-hunt,  56.  77 

defilements,  the  stains  of,  1 .  26.  28 

deity  (deities).  47  passim  ;  assembly 
of.  82  ;  king  of,  87,  88  ;  lord  of. 
75.  87.  88  ;  of  the  realm  of  Brahma, 
98  ;  terrestrial,  82  ;  world  of,  39, 
89  ;  see  divinity  and  deva,  devata, 
in  Pali  Index. 

delight,  31,  107 

delusion,  5 

deportment  in  movements,  47,  48 

desire,  5 

destitutes,  to  live  as,  87 

detachment,  107 

Dhamma,  see  Pali  Index  and  Proper 
Names  ;  the  fundamental  tenets  of 
the.  23  ;  the  realization  of  the,  65 
passim  ;  Units  of  the,  16,  32,  33, 
38,  49  ;  the  Wheel  of  the,  3n.  10.  71 

digits,  two.  38 

diligence,  11,  19.48.53 

disciple(s),  13,  77-9,  90.  106  ;  the  lay, 
73,  74 

Discipline,  1  ;  adept  in  the  purport 
of,  21  ;  amenable  to,  22  ;  the 
Basket  of,  18 ;  see  vinaya  and 
cpdd.,  Pali  Index  ;  the  Code  of,  1 

discourse(s).  1,  5,  24,  25.  27.  31,  48, 
61,  65  ff.,  81-3;  see  sutta  ff., 
katha  and  desana,  Pali  Index  ; 
doctrinal,  65  ;   on  transciency,  8 

Discourse  (Sutta,  the  Ahga),  3 In 

Dispensation,  1,  3  passim ;  see 
sasana,  Pali  Index  ;  the  heir  of  the. 
50,  51  ;  the  mainstay  of  the,  In  ; 
the  roots  of  the,  105 ;  of  the 
Buddha,  13.  39,  46,  48,  50.  98  ;  of 
the  Lord  of  Ten  Powers.  50  ;  of 
the  Teacher,  53  ;  the  Ninefold,  4 

dispositions,  divers,  25 

dispute.  38,  40,  55,  60,  92 

distraction,  11 

districts,  border,  see  border 

divan,  42  passim  ;  see  pallanka,  Pali 

divinity,  tutelary,  77,  101 

Doctrine,  the  Analytical,  62  ;  see 
Vibhajjavada,  Proper  Names 

dogma,  philosophical,  39,  54 

dona  measure,  97n 

doubt,  58,  60 

General  Index 


dream  (Asoka's),  59 
duty  done,  38 
dyad,  32 

earthquake.  60,  84,  89.  94,  99,  103, 
104,  106  ;  see  mahabhumicala  and 
pathavikampana,  Pali  Index 

ease,  107 

eel-wrigglers,  62 

efifort,  11 

ego, 25 

Elder(s),  1-12  passim  ;  see  thera,  Pali 
Index  ;  (Mahinda)  52,  55,  64,  73-7 
79-87,  90,  93-5.  103-7  ;  (Mogga- 
liputta).  37,  43,  50-2,  55,  58-64  ; 
leader  of  a  group,  98  ;  leading,  in 
the  Sangha,  3,  74  ;  the  sixty-eight 
Great,  106  ;  the  Tradition  of  the, 
1,  52 

Elder  (-nun),  51,  95  passim  ;  (Sahgha- 
mitta)  95,  96,  101,  103 

element,  component,  19 ;  of  Nib- 
bana,  3.  17,  106 

elephant,  the  state,  83,  87-9 

elephant's  frontal,  89 

elephants'  stall,  83,  93 

emancipation,  1,  107  ;  knowledge  and 
insight  into,  107  ;  the  taste  of,  17  ; 
of  mind,  107 

Enlightenment,  the  Perfect,  17  ;  the 
eye  of,  75,  90-2 

end,  the  highest,  106 

eternalists,  62  ;  the  qualified,  62 

ethics,  popular,  25 

etymology,  42 

evil,  57,  61 

evil-conduct,  29 

exegesis,  protracted,  1 

exercises,  preliminary,  43 

exertion,  11 

existence,  theory  of ,  (1)  conscious.  62  ; 
(2)  non-conscious.  62  ;  (3)  neither 
conscious  nor  non-conscious.  62 

existence  to  existence,  1 

expediency,  21-3 

expert,  4  passim  ;  see  etadagga,  Pali 

exposition,  1,  2,  26,  27  ;  method  of.  1 

Expositions.  31  ;  (Veyyakarana.  the 
Anga).  see  Pali  Index 

eye-tooth,  82,  88 

factions,  3 
Factors,  16 
faculties,  46 

failure,  24,  28,  29 

families,  eight,  of  ministers,  100; 
eighteen  of  royal  clan,  lOOn ;  six- 
teen noble.  102n 

fan  inlaid  with  ivory,  10,  13-15 

fear,  a  factor  among  the  four  wrong 
courses,  5 

festival,  74,  93  ;  see  dedication 

festivities,  77  ;  sacred,  7n 

fifties,  groups  of,  33 

finiteness,  theory  of,  62 

fire,  the  sacrificial,  55 

fires,  the  five,  55n 

floor-carpets,  83 

flowers  of  the  five  colours,  83,  102n 

food,  when  permissible,  81 

food  and  raiment,  54 

form,  the  arising  of,  23 

friends  who  had  not  seen  each  other, 

fruits,  attained  the,  81  ;  of  the  Bodhi 
tree,  99,  103  ;  of  the  First  Stage, 
65;  of  the  path,  69-71  ;  ofStream- 
Entrantship,  43, 83 

gain  and  honour,  39,  54 

garments,  29,  78  ;  to  wave  aloft,  98  ; 
white,  62  ;  yellow  patch-work,  65. 

gate-keeper  (Devanampiyatissa  as). 

gaze,  the  offering  of,  45 

Gems,  the  Triad  of,  1,  74 

gifts,  to  Asoka  from  Devanampiya- 
tissa, 78  ;  of  Asoka  to  D..  78  ;  see 
dhammapannakara,  Pali  Index 

glossaries.  42 

goblins.  72 

gold  and  silver,  the  acceptance  of,  38 

Great  Being,  characteristics  (32)  of, 
45  ;  the  minor  marks  (80)  of,  45 

group,  leader  of,  106 


habitation,  human,  76 

habits,  good  moral.  72 

hail-storm,  65 

hall  (of  justice),  54  ;  of  meditation.  56 ; 

of  tonsure,  47,  86 
halo,  45 

heresy,  propounders  of,  38 
heresies,  the  refutation  of,  25 
heretical  schools,  the  criticism  of,  9  ; 

sects,  outside.  46  ;    theories.  62  ; 

the  sixty-two.  25n  ;   teachers  born 

of  the  brahmin  caste.  46 


Inception  of  Discipline 

heretics,  9,  39,  54,  55,  62 
hide,  the  piece  of,  58 
humours,  8 

see  chajabhiiina  ;  penetrative,  27  ; 
the  threefold,  4n,  29,  62,  106  ;  and 
insight,  107  ;  of  others'  minds,  79 

ignorance,  1 

ill-will,  a  factor  among  the  four  wrong 

courses,  5 
immortality,  48 
impassibility,  107 
impermanence,  40 
individual,  undesirable,  6 
indolence,  48 
Indulgences,  the  Ten,  38 
infinitude,  the  theory  of,  62 
influence,    37,    see    anubhava,    Pali 

injunctions,  21  ;    authoritative,  25  ; 

the  exposition  of,  25 
insight,  analytic,  4,  29,  38-40,  42,  52, 

62  ;    in  gradual  order,   103  ;    of  a 

learner,   5  ;    of  one  perfected,   5  ; 

the  fourfold,  29 
insight  into  the  Dhamma,  66  ;    into 

emancipation,  1 
instruction,  17,  48  ;    understood  the, 

intention(s),  22,  57,  61 
intercourse,  sexual,  14 
intoxicants,  drinking  of,  72 
Invitation,  the  (ceremony),  54n,  55  ; 

day,  87,  99n,  106 
Island,  the  (i.e.  Lanka),  63,  75-7,  84, 

94,  102,  103,  106 

Jataka,  the  Anga,  3 In 

joy,  48,  89,  98,  102,  107  ;  and  fervour, 

50,  89,  98,  99 
Joy,  the  Stanza  of,  19 
Joy,  the  Utterance  of  (Udana,  the 

Anga),  3 In 
judgment(s),  1,  39 


kindred  topics,  33  ;  sections,  33 
King,  the  (Asoka),  44-6,  48-62,  74, 
87,    88,    96-101  ;     (Devanampiya- 
tissa),  75,  77-87,  89,  93-5,  102-6 
kings,  consecrated,  98n 
kinsmen,  61,  73  ;  the  question  on,  80 
knowledge,  27  ;    analytical,  1,  4,  27, 
29,  38-40,  42,  52,  62  ;    the  higher, 
3n,  29,  55,  60,  82  ;    see  abhififia, 
Pali  Index  ;  higher,  the  sixfold,  35  ; 

labour,  10 

language  of  the  Island,  In 

lay-devotee,  47 

Learner,  5n,  1 1  ;  the  analytic  insight 
of  a,  5  ;  conditions  pertaining  to  a, 

Learning,  4,  13,  24,  28,  29  ;  the 
divisions  of,  28,  29  ;  men  of,  1  ; 
the  three  modes  of,  28  ;  of  the 
Three  Pitakas,  62  ;  of  the  Vinaya, 
13,  107 

legacy,  36 

life,  the  higher,  1  ;  the  destruction  of, 

lineage,  36  ;  the  protector  of  the,  3 

lion-window,  46n-8 

liquor,  unfermented,  the  indulgence 
in,  38 

lists,  of  contents,  33  ;  stanzas  con- 
taining, 33 

lore,  traditional,  42 

lotus-shower,  89n 

love,  23,  48,  65 

lust,  25 


mango,  ripe,  104 
mango-tree,  the  riddle  of,  80 
Marvellous  Phenomena,   31n  ;     (Ab- 

bhutadhamma,  the  Anga),  see  Pali 

mastery,  40,  106 
mat,  83n 

Matika,  2ln,  see  Pali  Index 
meal,  to  subsist  on  one,  a  day,  72 
meaning,  22,  26,  27  ;    differentiated, 

means,  the  diversity  of,  21 
medicaments,  53 
medicines,  54 
meditation,  topics  of,  43 
mendicants,  religious,  46 
merit,  11,  45,  48,  78,  106  ;    the  field 

of,  1  ;  flow  of,  1 
meritorious  deed,  27 
Message,  83  ;  see  sasana,  Pali  Index 
metrical  compositions,  32 
mind,  pacified,  47,  48  ;  concentrated, 

82  ;   the  emancipation  of,  107 
mindfulness  as  to  the  body,  1 1 

General  Index 


ministrations,  8 

minor  marks,  eighty,  45 

miracle,  50,  60,  61,  93,  94,  98,  99, 
102.  103,  106;  see  also  twin- 

misdeeds,  21,  25 

missions,  the  despatch  of,  64  ff. 

monastery,  the  first,  84 

monastery,  monasteries,  see  vihara, 
Pali  Index 

monasteries  of  Rajagaha,  9,  10 

monk(s),  1,  4-10 passim  ;  seebhikkhu 
and  samana,  Pali  Index  ;  the 
assembly  of,  11,  13,  55,  57.  107; 
the  Order  of.  see  Sangha  and 
bhikkhusahgha,  Pali  Index  ;  at- 
tendant, 8  ;   overseas,  1 

morality,  1,  26  ;  see  also  sila,  Pali 

moral  precepts,  the  aggregate  {or  the 
code)  of,  28,  83,  107  ;  eightfold. 
49  ;   the  five,  48  ;    see  precepts 

moral  training,  1,  24,  26,  27,  107 

mutability,  28 


Naga  King(s),  44,  45,  65  ;    the  two, 

uncle  and  nephew,  94 
Naga  Kingdom,  the  offering  of,  101 
Name    and    Form,    the    distinction 

between,  25 
Nibbana,  see  nibbana  f.  and  parini- 

bbana  ff.,  Pali  Index  ;  of  this  Ufe. 

the  theory  of,  62 
Nikaya(s),  15.  16,  30,  38  ;    the  five, 

15,  16.  63  ;  the  four,  15 
Nissaggiyapacittiya,  14 
Non-Returner,  36,  37 
novice,     43,     47,     48,     73    passim ; 

(Sumana),  73,  74,  82,  87-9,  96,  99, 

nun,  50,  52  ;  see  also  Elder(-nun) 


object,  visual  and  auditory,  23 

objective,  22 

obligations,  major  and  minor,  107 

oblivion,  3 

obstacles,  1 

occasion,  2,   14,  15,  34.  35  ;    of  the 

Vinaya,  106 
offence(s),  14,  25  ;  the  demarcation  of 

the  threefold  delimiting  factors  of, 

office,  chief  in,  37,  106 

Omniscience,  19 

Once-Returner,  36,  37 

Order,  the.  1,  6,  13,  15,  38,  49,  52, 
54,  62,  78,  97,  98,  104  ;  of  monks, 
see  bhikkhusangha,  Pali  Index  ;  to 
admit  into  the,  see  pabbajeti,  Pali 
Index  ;  to  enter  the,  see  pabbajati, 
Pali  Index 

ordination,  42,  43,  48,  51,  54,  107  ; 
aspirant  for.  81  ;  the  higher.  48. 
52.  64,  107  ;  of  womenfolk,  95 

Pacittiya,  14 

paddy,  a  heap  of,  93 

palace,  inner  apartments  of  the,  46, 

palanquin,  58,  78 
Parajika,  14,  2 In,  34 
parasol  of  state,  45,  48,  78,  87-9,  103 
partridge,  61 
past,  in  the.  In 
path,  developed  the,  28  ;    the  fruits 

of  the,  69-72  ;   skilled  in  the,  63 
Patidesaniya,  14 
Patimokkha,  20,  2 In 
pavihon,  10.  83.  105 
pearl,  eight  varieties  of,  78 
perfected,  the  man,  23 
perfection,  5 
person,  the,  14,  15,  34 
phantoms,  72 
phenomena,   of  excellence,   23,   27  ; 

psychic,  106 
phonology,  42 
pillar,  stone,  105 
Pitakas,  the  Three,  4,  38,  40,  43,  44, 

52,   62,   63  ;     see  tipitaka  ff.   and 

pitaka,  Pali  Index 
pleasures,  sensual,  3 
Porana,  63n.  74.  75 
postures.  1 1  passim  ;    see  iriyapatha, 

Pali  Index 
potentialities,  latent,  47 
power,  psychic,  40,  49,  65-7,  72,  74, 

79,  89,  106  ;  and  see  cpdd.  of  iddhi, 

Pali  Index 
powers,  royal,  44,  105  ;   supernatural 

(or  potency),  12,  44,  45.  47,  49,  56, 

78,  91-3,  97,  102  ;    see  anubhava, 

Pali  Index 
practices,  manifold  distinctive  modes 

of,  21 
praise  and  blame,  15 
precedence,  the  order  of,  106 
precedent,     to    follow     (the     indul- 
gence). 38 


Inception  of  Discipline 

preceptor,  43,  47,  48.  52,  73 
precepts,  28,  48,  49,  72  ;    see  moral 

precepts  (sila),  the  ten,  95 
pre-eminent,  13 
pregnancy,  47 
principles,  48 
profundity,  24,  26,  27  ;   the  fourfold, 

26n,  27 
pupils,    resident,    52,    59,    63,    106; 

co-resident,  36n-8,  64,  106 
purgative  in  milk,  8 


qualifications,  sufficing,  55  ;  inherent 

sufficing,  51 
Queens,     the     two     (Devanampiya- 

tissa's),  85 
questions,  the  settlement  of,  14 


Rains-residence,  6n,  7n,  8,  43,  85-7 

raw-flesh,  the  smell  of,  1 1 

rays,    the   glorious,    101,    102;     six- 

hued,  97,  99,  102,  103 
reality,  in  accordance  with,  25 
realization,  27  ;   unequivocal,  27  ;   of 

the   Dhamma,   65,    67,    72,    82-4, 

recital,   see  sangiti  and  cpdd.,   Pali 

Recital,  the  Second,  38,  39 
Recitation  (Geyya,  the  Anga),  31n  ; 

see  Pali  Index 
recluse,  41,  42,  46  ;    shaven-headed, 

65,  77 
Recluse,  the  Great,  3 
reflexion,  17 
refuge,  to  seek,  78 
Refuges  (The  Three),  48,  65,  72,  78, 

81,  82,  87 
regions,  the  six  heavenly,  39n 
rehearsal,  see  sangaha,  Pali  Index 
Rehearsal,  the  Third,  64 
release,  28 
relic(s),  87-9,  93.  94,  97  ;   the  casket 

of,  89  ;  the  ceremony  in  honour  of. 

93,  94  ;  pay  homage  to,  7 
remissness  of  conduct,  21,  25 
remorse,  the  absence  of,  107 
repairs,  8  ;    of  dilapidations,  9,  10 
repetitions,  33 
reproach,  28 
requisites,  28,  51,  53,  87  ;    the  four, 

49n,  54  ;  the  giver  of,  50,  51 

resort  (for  alms),  107 

restraint,  25,  107 

revulsion,  107 

ritual.  42 

robe(s),  43,  56,  83  ;    the  outer,  83  ; 

upper,    56 ;     yellow,    54,   94,   95 ; 

aglow  with  the  yellow,  65,  79  ;   to 

arrange  over  one  shoulder,  13,  15  ; 

to  wear  yellow  (i.e.  heretics),  54 
royal  grounds  (rajavatthu),  102 
royalty,  ensigns  of,  78 
ruddy-deer,  77 
rugs,  lOn,  38 
rule,  14  ;  -s,  rigid,  21 
rulers,  the  succession  of,  76 

Sacred-word,  3 

sacrifice,  50,  51 

sage(s),  69,  70,  106  ;  breeze  hallowed 
by,  65, 79 ;  sinless  (naga),  63, 65, 74, 

Sage  of  great  stability,  1 

salt  in  horn  (the  indulgence) ,  38 

sanction,  38 

Sanghadisesa,  14 

saplings  (the  three  bamboo-),  78; 
Bodhi-tree,  103 

Saviour,  50  ;   see  World 

screens,  an  enclosure  of,  62 

seat,  preacher's  10,  13-15,  106; 
president's,  10,  14 

Sekhiya,  14 

self -controlled,  47,  48 

seniority,  the  order  of,  12 

sensations,  23 

sense-data,  23 

senses,  controlled,  48  ;  guarded,  47, 

sentiment,  uniformity  in,  16,  17 

service,  50 

sima,  38n,  52n  ;   see  Pali  Index 

Sons  (of  the  Buddha),  In 

sooth-sayers,  83 

sovereignty  of  Jambudipa,  the  dedi- 
cation of  the,  99-101  ;  of  Tamba- 
panni,  the  dedication  of  the,  102 

speech,  see  body  and  speech 

stains  (of  the  Dispensation),  62 

Stanzas  (Gatha,  the  Ariga),  3 In,  see 
Pali  Index 

state,  immortal,  40  ;  -s,  waxed  great, 
immeasurable,  incomparable,  23 

statements,  incorrect,  1 

Stream-Entrant,  4,  36,  37,  43.  83 

striving.  11 

General  Index 


subject  (vatthu),  14,  15,  32,  34 

subjective,  22 

substratum,  free  from  the  material,  3, 

success,  24,  28,  29 
sun-worship,  55 
Sutta,    Suttanta,    see    Pali    Index ; 

versed  in  the,  1 
sword-bearers,  59 

tabulation,  2,  21,  32,  34,  107 

tanks  filled  with  medicaments,  53 

task  yet  unaccomplished,  5,11 

teacher,  42,  43,  47,  48,  52  (Pali, 
acariya)  ;  -s,  heretical,  see  heretics, 
fi.  ;  of  yore.  In  ;  the  succession  of, 
35,  37,  63,  106 

Teacher,  the  (Sattha),  see  Proper 

Teaching(s),  the,  1,  3-5,  55,  92,  94  ; 
see  also  sasana,  Pali  Index  (sa- 
maya),  62  ;  the  Exalted  Universal 
Monarch  of  the  Good,  45 ;  the 
Good,  1,  3,  38,  40,  63,  107  ;  of  the 
Master,  55 

teachings,  28  ;  adapted  to  circum- 
stances, 25 ;  the  exposition  of 
popular,  25  ;  necessitated  by  trans- 
gression, 25  ;  set  out  in  accordance 
with  reality,  25 

tendencies,  latent,  27 

terms,  the  analysis  of,  32 

Texts,  Sacred,  1,  14,  26;  and 
meaning,  107 

thought-process,  32 

Thus  Saids  (Itivuttaka,  the  Anga), 
31n  ;  see  Pali  Index 

tongue,  different.  In 

tooth  cleaner,  43,  44  ;  stick,  43 

tour,  missionary,  8 

tradition,  textual,  1 

training,  see  sikkha,  Pali  Index 

training,  the  methods  of.  In  ;  in- 
dividual intent  on,  107  ;  the  three- 
fold, 26 

transgressions,  25,  26  ;  physical  and 
verbal,  21,  106 

treasurer,  the  mode  of  learning  of  a, 

treasures  (Devanampiyatissa's) ,  78  ; 
of  the  Dhamma,  to  shower  upon, 

Treatises,  the  seven  (Abhidhamma), 

triad.  32 

truth,  the  absolute,  25  ;  ultimate,  25  ; 

he  who  had  visioned  the,  74 
Twin-miracle,  93,  97 


undertaking,  gigantic,  6 
upheavals  in  the  Dispensation,  55 
uposatha,    38n    passim ',      see    Pali 

Index ;    -hall,    104 ;    the  day  of 

the,  87,  99 
uprising,  frontier,  55 
Utterance,  mixed  prose  and  verse,  5n 

passim  ;  see  Recitation,  and  geyya, 

Pali  Index 

vase,  golden,  97-9,  103 
Viceroy  (Prince  Tissa),  51,  56 
views,  divergent,  62  ;    perverse,  25  ; 

wrong,  29  ;  see  also  heretical 
Vinaya  and  cpdd.,  see  Pali  Index  ; 
the  essential  rules  of  the    (abhi- 
vinaya),  23  ;    the  learning  of  the, 
13,   107  ;    the  legacy  of  the,  36  ; 
the  lineage  of  the,  36  ;   the  perfec- 
tion of  knowledge  in  the,  36,  37  ; 
the  retention  of  the,  13  ;  tradition, 
36  ;  in  the  Khuddakanikaya,  15n 
virtues,  1,  29;   transcendental,  48 
volition,  61 


water-snake,  the  simile  of  the,  28 

water-strainer,  90 

whey,  the  indulgence  in,  38 

will,  to,  61  ;  resolution  of,  42,  60, 
77,  82,  93,  95,  97  ;  the  five  great 
resolutions  of,  97  ;  determination 
of,  42,  95,  97 

wisdom,  1,26,  31 

wish,  the  express,  5 

womenfolk,  to  admit,  into  the  Order, 

World  of  Brahma,  see  Brahma, 
Proper  Names 

world  of  men,  39 

World,  the  Lord  of  the,  3  ;  the 
Saviour  of  the,  50  ;  the  Unveil- 
ing of  the,  50 

yellow-robe,  see  robe 


Inception  of  Discipline 

Index  II 

Abhaya  (1),  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon, 

Abhaya  (2),  king  of  Ceylon,  76 
Abhaya(3).kingof  Ojadipa,  90  ^ 
Abhaya    (4),    Devanampiyatissa's 
brother,  94n  ;    see  Mattabhaya 
Abhaya   (5),   see   Dutthagamani 

Abhayapura,  capital  of  Ojadipa,  90 
Abhaya vapi,  93n 
Abhidhammapitaka,  20,  24-6,  30,  31, 

Aggibrahma,  Asoka's  son-in-law,  51, 

Aggikkhandhupama    Suttanta,    68n, 

Ahoganga,  55n 
Ajatasattu,  10,  15,  76,  105 
Alakadeva,  missionary  to  the  Hima- 
layan region,  7  In 
Amaravati,  50n 
Ambalatthika,  15 
Ambangana,  104n 
Ambatthala,  77n 
Anamatagga,  -ggiya,  67,  84n  ;    -pari- 

yaya,  67n 
Ananda,  the  Elder,  3,  5,  7,  8,  11-13, 

15.  18,31,38 
Ahguttaranikaya,  15,  20,  30,  33 
Anotatta,  the  lake   (Anotattadaha) , 

44n,  78 
Anula,  the  Princess  (AnuladevI),  83, 

95,  96,  103 
Anuradhapura,  75,  83,  93,  102 
Anuruddha  (1),  the  Elder,  7,  8,  38 
Anuruddha  (2),  king  of  Magadha,  76 
Apadana,  20 
Apannakajataka,  31 
Aparanta,    64,   68n ;     -ka,    68;     see 

Western  Lands 
Appamadavagga,  48  ;    see  Diligence, 

the  Chapter  on 
Aravala  (1),  the  lake,  65 
Aravaja  (2),  the  Naga  King,  65n 
Arittha  (1),  63,  86n,  106  ;   see  Maha- 

Arittha  (2),  95,  96,  101.  103  ;  see  86n 
Asandhimitta,  Asoka's  Queen,  44 
Asivisopama  Suttanta.  65n,  83 
Asoka     (1),     44,     46-8,     51-3,     74, 
76,  78.  79.  87,  88,  97,  101  ;  see  also 
Dhammasoka,  the  Kingand  General 

Asoka  (2),  76  ;   see  Kalasoka 

Asoka  Monastery,  the  Great  (Asoka" 

mahavihara).  49,  55,  56.  62,  73 

see  the  next 
Asokarama,  48,  49,  50 
Ayupali,  the  nun,  52 

Bhadda,  Mahinda's  companion,  63  ; 

same  as  the  next 
Bhaddasala,  64,  74 
Bhagava,  see  Exalted  One 
Bhanduka,    the    lay    companion    of 

Mahinda,  73.  74 
Bhikkhunivibhahaga.  14 
Bindusara.  44.  46.  47.  76 
Bodhi,  the  Bodhi  Tree,  75,  93,  95. 

97.  103 
Bodhi,  the  young  Bodhi-trees.  103 
Bodhi,  the  Great.  94-104 
Brahma.  lOn,  39-42.  45,  51.  82,  98. 

99, 102 
Brahma,  the  abode  of,  10 
Brahma,  the  world  of,  39-42,  51.  82. 

99. 102 
Brahma,  the  deities  of  the  hosts  of,  98 
Brahmadatta,  the  brahmin  youth,  15 
Brahmajala,  15n,  20,  30.  72  ;   see  the 

Brahmajala  Suttanta,  72 
Buddha.  1.  2,  10.  11,  32.  34.  35.  45, 

54,  78,  79,  91,  104,  106;    see  also 

Enlightened  One. 
Buddha,  the  Dispensation  of  the.  13. 

39.  46.  48.  50.  98 
Buddha,  the  form  of  the,  97 
Buddha,  the  power  of  the.  90,  93 
Buddha,  the  word  of  the  [or  sayings 

of).  15,  16.   18.   19.  29-33,  39-41, 

43,  82 
Buddhas,    11,   45,  92,  93;    see  also 

Enlightened  One(s)   and  the  Pre- 
vious Enlightened  Ones 
Buddha-manta,  42 
Buddharakkhita,  Vinaya  teacher  of 

Ceylon,  63 
Buddhasiri,  the  Elder,  1 
Buddhavamsa,  20 

Candagutta,  76 
Candanagama.  103n 
Candavajji.  the  Elder,  40,  43 

Index  of  Proper  Names 


Cariyapitaka,  20 

Cetaka.  the  Elder,  8 

Cetaligama,  94n 

Cetiyagiri,  85-8  ;  see  the  next 

Cetiyapabbata,    75,    90,     103 ;      see 

Chaddanta  lake,  44n 
Chata(ka)     mountain     (Chatakapab- 

bata),  78n 
Cittapariyadana  Sutta,  20,  30 
Cittayamaka,  42n 
Culabhaya,  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon, 

Culadeva,  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon, 

Culahatthipadopama  Sutta,  81  n 
Culanaga,  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon, 

Culavedalla  Sutta,  31n 


Dhammapalita,    Vinaya    teacher    of 

Ceylon,  63 
Dhammarakkhita,  the  Yona,  56n,  64, 

Dhammasangani,  20 
Dhammasoka,  39  ;  see  Asoka  (1) 
Dhatukatha,  20 

DTgha,  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon,  63 
Dighanikaya,  8,  15,  20,  30,  33 
Dighasumana,     Vinaya     teacher     of 

Ceylon,  63,  106 
Dighavapicetiya,  94n 
Diligence,  the  Chapter  on,  48 
Dipavamsa,  78 
Divine    Messengers,     see     Devaduta 

Dundubhissara,    missionary    to    the 

Himalayan  region,  7 In 
Dutthagamani  Abhaya,  104,  105 
Dvaramandala.  94n 

Dakkhinagiri,    the    district     (-jana- 

pada),  73n 
Dasaka,  the  Elder,  35,  36,  63 
Death  (Maccu),  48 
Deva  (1),  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon, 

Deva  (2),  the  Alderman,  74 
Devaduta  Sutta  (nta),  66n,  83 
Devakutapabbata,  90 
Devanampiyatissa,  73-8,  87,  96,  102, 

105  ;     see   also  Tissa   (5)    and  the 

King,  in  the  General  Index 
Devatasamyutta,  30 
Devi,  Mahinda's  mother,  74 
Dhamma,  the,  1,  3-6,  9,  13,  15,  19. 

26,  28,  29,  32,  33,  35,  38,  49,  52,  54, 

55,   62,    78,   81,   90-2,    107  ;     the 

banner  of,    103  ;    the  compilation 

of,  10,  35  ;    discourse  on,  65,  83  ; 

the  eye  of  (insight  into),  66  ;    the 

gift  of  78  ;  the  King  of,  77,  79,  106  ; 

listening  to,  82  ;  the  nectar  of,  68  ; 

the  noble,    1  ;    preachers  of,   58  ; 

the  reahsation  of,  65,  67,  72,  82-4, 

90-2  ;     the    rehearsal    of,    5,    64  ; 

shower   of  the   treasures   of,    83  ; 

Units  of,  16,  32,  33,  38,  49  ;  versed 

in,  54  ;   wheel  of,  10. 
Dhamma,  the  Turning  of  the  Wheel 

of  the,  71 
Dhamma  and  Vinaya,  3,  16,  18,  33, 

43,  55  ;    the  compilation  of,  10 
Dhammacakkappavattana  Suttanta, 

Dhammapada,  20,  31,  48 
Dhammapali,  the  nun,  52 

Enlightened  One,  1,  3,  13,  102  ;  see 
Buddha  ;  the  functions  of,  3  ; 
the  Perfectly,  13,  45,  62,  75,  76, 
87,  89,  94,  102 

EnUghtened  Ones,  three  previous, 
93  ;   Perfectly,  90,  92,  95,  102 

Exalted  One,  2,  3,  5,  8-11,  14,  17, 
25,  29,  34-6,  38,  75,  76,  90-3,  95, 
97, 102, 104. 106, 107  ;  see  Bhagava. 

Fragrant  Chamber  (Gandhakuti),  8 

Gabled  Hall  (Kutagarasala).  38 

Gandamba,  93 

Gandhara,  see  Kasmira-Gandhara 

Ganges,  58,  59,  78,  100 

Gotama,  the  Recluse,  9 

Great  Wood  (Mahavana),  38 


Himalayas,  44,  65,  71  ;    the  districts 
bordering  the,  64,  71 

Iddhiya,  see  Itthiya 
Inda,  23  ;  see  also  Sakka 
Indagutta,  the  Elder,  49 
Issaranimmana  Monastery,  103n 


Inception  of  Discipline 

Itivuttaka,  20,  31 

Itthiya,   Mahinda's   companion,    63, 
64,  73-5 

Jambudipa,  35,  37.  39,  44,  48,  50, 

63,    75-7,    79.    87.    98-101  ;     see 

Jambukola.  95n,  101-3 
Jambusiri,  the   (is) land  of   (Jambu- 

sirivhaya     dipa),     35,     63  ;       see 

Jataka,20,  31 

Jayanta,  king  of  Mandadipa,  92 
Jeta  Grove.  8  ;  see  the  next 
Jetavana  Monastery,  8 
Jetthamula,    the    month.    74 ;     the 

asterism  (nakkhatta),  77 
Jivaka's  Mango  Grove  (-ambavana), 

Joti    Grove    (-vana),    Nandanavana 

renamed,  84 


Kacaragama,  103n 
Kakandakaputta,  see  Yasa 
Kakusandha,  the  Buddha,  90,  102 
Kala,  the  Naga  King,  45 
Kalakarama  Suttanta,  70n 
Kalasoka,  38,  76  ;  see  Asoka  (2) 
Kalasumana,     Vinaya     teacher     of 

Ceylon,  63,  106 
Kalinga,    the    natives    of    (Kalihga- 

kula),  100 
Kalyanicetiya,  94  n 
Kantakacetiya,  86n 
Kasmira-Gandhara,  64,  65 
Kassapa,  the  Buddha,  92.  102 
Kassapa,  the  Elder,  see  Mahakassapa 
Kassapagotta,     missionary     to    the 

Himalayan  region,  7 In 
Kathavatthu,  20,  62 
Kattika,  the  month.  87.  99 
Khandhaka,  14.  19,  20,  31 
Khattiya,  56,  68 

Khema,  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon,  63 
Khuddakanikaya.  15.  20n,  30,  33 
Khuddakapatha,  20,  31 
Khujjasobhita,     Ananda's      saddhi- 

viharika,  38 
Konagamana,  the  Buddha,  91,  102 
Kontiputtatissa,  the  Elder,  53 
Kurundi,   In 
Kusinara,  3n,  4 
Kutagarasala,  see  Gabled  Hall 

Lanka,  the  Island  of,  74,  83.  97,  98  ; 

see  also  Tambapanni  and  the  Island 

(General  Index) 
Lohapasada.  104n 
Lord  of  great  compassion.  1  ;   of  Ten 

Powers.  5  passim  ;   see  dasabala  in 

Pali  Index  ;    of  the  World.  3 
Lands,  the  Western,   64,   68n  ;    see 



Maccu,  see  Death 
Maggasira,  the  month.  101.  102 
Maha-appamada  Sutta.  85n 
Maha-arittha,  63,  86n.  105,  106  ;    see 

also  Arittha  (1) 
Maha-atthakatha,  In 
Mahabodhi,  see  Bodhi  and  Bodhi.  the 

Mahabrahma,  see  Tissa  (6) 
Mahacetiya,  94n,  97,  104 
Mahadeva  (1),  Mahinda's  acariya  at 

ordination     and      missionary     to 

Mahimsakamandala,  52n.  64n,  66 
Mahadeva    (2),    companion   of  Maj- 

jhima  (v.l..  Sahadeva),  7 In 
Mahadeva  (3),  Buddha  Kakusandha's 

disciple.  90 
Mahadeva  (4).  Asoka's  minister.  97 
Mahadhammarakkhita,  missionary  to 

Maharattha,  64,  69 
Mahakassapa,  the  Elder,  3-8,    13-5, 

33-5,  38.  62 
Maha-Mahinda,  87.  106  ;  see  Mahinda 
Mahamegha  Pleasure-grove  (-van'uy- 

yana).  84,  102  ;   see  Meghavana 
Mahanaga,       Vinaya      teacher      of 

Ceylon,  63 
Mahanaga  Grove  (-vana),  89  ;   see  the 

Mahanaga   Pleasure-grove    (-van'uy- 

yana),  87,  88,  102 
Mahanaradakassapa  Jataka,  69n 
Mahapaccariya,  In 
Mahapunnama  Sutta  3 In 
Maharakkhita,     missionary    to     the 

Yonaka  Kingdoms,  64,  70 
Maharattha,  64,  69 
Mahasahgiti,    see    Convocation,     the 

Great  (General  Index) 
Mahasirisabodhi,  see  Sirisabodhi,  the 

Mahasiva,  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon, 

Mahasumana.    disciple    of    Buddha 

Konagamana.  91 

Index  of  Proper  Names 


Mahavaruna,  the  Arahant,  Nigrodha's 
acariya,  47 

Mahavibhanga,  14 

Mahavedalla  Sutta,  3 In 

Mahavihara,  In,  84 

Mahejavatthu,  89n 

Mahinda.  51.  52,  55,  63.  64,  73-7, 
82,  83,  87,  88.  90,  94,  103,  106; 
see  also  Maha-Mahinda  and  the 
Elder  (General  Index) 

Mahisa,  Mahisaka,  Mahimsaka-  (man- 
dala  and  rattha),  64,  66 

Majjhantika,  Mahinda's  acariya  at 
higher  ordination  and  missionary 
to  Kasmira-Gandhara,  52n,  64.  65 

Majjhima,  missionary  to  the  Hima- 
layan region,  64n,  71 

Majjhimanikaya,  15,  20,  30,  33 

Malla,  3 

Mandadipa,  92n 

Mahgala  Sutta,  3 In 

Mattabhaya,  Devanampiyatissa's 
brother,  106  ;   see  Abhaya  (4) 

Meghavana  Park,  84  ;  Pleasure- 
grove,  94  ;    see  Mahameghavana 

Meghavannabhaya,  the  minister,  105 

Missaka  mountain  (-pabbata),  74.  75. 
77,  83,  84  ;  see  Cetiyapabbata  and 

Moggali,  the  brahmin,  39-41 

Moggaliputta  Tissa,  the  Elder,  35, 
37,  43,  50-2,  55,  58,  62-4,  97 

Mulakadeva,  see  Alakadeva 

Mulapariyaya  Sutta,  20,  30n 

Munda,  king  of  Magadha,  76 

Mutasiva,  king  of  Ceylon,  73n,  75,  76 

Mutiyanganacetiya,  94n 


Paclnamahasala,  see  Sala,  Eastern 

Pakundaka,  Pakundakabhaya,  76n 

Paiicaka  (v.l.,  Pandaka).  65 

Panduvasadeva,  76 

Parajika.  the  Chapter  on  (-kanda),  14 

Parivara,  14,  20,  31 

Patahputta,  39,  50,  59,  65,  87,  95, 

Pathamakacetiya,  83n,  103 

Pathamakattika,  106  ;  see  also  Pub- 

Patisambhidamagga,  20 

Patiyarama,  90 

Patthana,  20 

Pava,  4 

Petavatthu,  20,  83 

Phussa,  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon,  63 

Phussadeva,  Vinaya  teacher  of 
Ceylon,  63 

Pubbakattika,  99 ;  see  Pathama- 

Puppha,  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon,  63 

Rajagaha,  6n,  7-9,  15,  73,  75 
Rakkhita,    missionary  to   Vanavasi, 

Ratana  Sutta,  3 1 
Revata,  the  Elder,  38 
Rohana,  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon,  63 
Rohana,  the  province  of  (-janapada), 

Rohini,    the    asterism    (-nakkhatta), 


Naga,  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon,  63 

Nagadasaka,  king  of  Magadha.  76 

Nalanda.  15n 

Nalaka  Sutta.  3 In 

Nalerupucimanda.  106 

Nandana  Grove  (-vana).  83.  84  ;    see 

the  next 
Nandana     Pleasure-grove     (-van'uy- 

yana).  83,  84  ;   see  Joti  Grove 
Nandas,  Nine,  76 
Niddesa,  20,  31 

Nigrodha,  the  novice,  47,  48,  54 
Nigrodha  Bodhi,  102 

Oghatarana  Sutta,  20,  30 
Ojadipa,  90 

Sabbakami,  the  Elder,  38,  40 

Sabbananda,  disciple  of  Buddha 
Kassapa,  92 

Saccasamyutta,  83 

Sagatha-vagga,  31 

Sahadeva,  see  Mahadeva  (2) 

Sakka,  lord  of  the  deities,  75,  87,  88  ; 
the  king  of  the  d. ,  87,  88 

Sakkapafiha  Sutta,  31 

Sakyan  Clan,  5 

Sakyas,  the  Son  of  the,  78 

Sala,  Eastern,  Great  (Paclnamaha- 
sala) ,99 

Salha,  Ananda's  saddhiviharika,  38 

Samacitta  Suttanta,  82n 

Samaiifiaphala  Sutta,  15 


Inception  of  Discipline 

Sambala,  Mahinda's  companion,  63, 

64,  74 
Sambuddha,   the   Enlightened    One, 

Samiddha,  king  of  Varadipa,  91 
Sammaditthi  Sutta,  3 In 
Samuddasala,  102n 
Samyutta      Collection       (-sarigaha) , 

classification  into  groups  of  kindred 

topics,  33 
Sanasambhuta,    Ananda's    saddhivi- 

harika,  38 
Sangha   1 ,  passim  ;    see  Sangha  fi. , 

Pali    Index,    and   Order,   General 

Sanghamitta,  the  Elder   (-nun),   51, 

52,56,73,95,96,  101.  103 
Sankharabhajaniya  Sutta,  3  In 
Sariputta,  the  Elder,  82 
Sattapanni  Cave.  lOn 
Sattha.  see  the  Teacher 
Savatthi,  8n,  93 
Siggava,    Vinaya   teacher   of    India, 

Moggaliputta's  preceptor,   35,   37, 

Siha.  Vijaya's  father,  76 
Sihala,  the  Island  of  (-dipa),  1 

Sirisa  Bodhi,  the  Great,  102 
Siva,  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon,  63 
Sonaka  (1),  Vinaya  teacher  of  India, 

35-7,  63 
Sonaka    (2),    missionary   to    Suvan- 

nabhumi,  65,  72 
Sona  and   Uttara   (Sonuttara),   mis- 
sionaries to  Suvannabhumi,  72 
Subha,  the  brahmin,  8 
Subhadda  (1),  the  wandering  ascetic, 

Subhadda  (2),  the  Buddhapabbajita, 

3n ;      the    Section    dealing    with 

(Subhaddakanda) ,  4n 
Subhakuta,  92 
Subha  Sutta,  8n 
Sudinna,     son    of     Kalandaka     (K- 

putta),  14 
Sumana  (1),    Anuruddha's  saddhivi- 

harika,  38 
Sumana  (2),  Asoka's  brother,  47 
Sumana  (3),  the  novice,  73,  74,  82, 

87,  88,  96,  97,  99,  102 
Sumana  (4),  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon, 

Sumana  (5),  another  Vinaya  teacher 

of  Ceylon,  63 
Sumana,  wife  of  Sumana  (2),  47 
Suppiya,  the  wandering  ascetic,  15 
Susunaga,  38n,  76 

Suttanipata,  20,  31 
Suttantapitaka,  20  ;    see  the  next 
Suttapitaka,  24-6,  33 
Suvannabhumi,  64,  72 
Suvarinakuta,  91 

Tamalitti,  lOOn 

Tambapanni,  63,   64,   73-8,   82,  83, 

87,  88,  93.  94,  96,   102,   105  ;    see 

Taraccha,  lOOn 
Tathagata,  1,  5,  7,  31,  35,  38,  44,  50  ; 

the  sayings  of  the  T.,  31 
Tavakka,  the  village  of  the  brahmin, 

Teacher,  the  (Sattha),  3,  4,  7-9,  48. 

Theragatha.  20,  31 
Theravada,  1 ,  52 
Therigatha,  20,  31 

Thuparama,  89,  90,  92,  94,  97,  103-6 
Tipitaka,  4  passim  ;    see  Pali  Index, 

S.V.,  and  Baskets,  General  Index 
Tissa  (1),  Asoka's  brother,  44,  51,  56, 

Tissa  (2),  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon, 

Tissa  (3),  another  Vinaya  teacher  of 

Ceylon,  63 
Tissa  (4).  still  another  Vinaya  teacher 

of  Ceylon,  63 
Tissa  (5),  77  ;  see  Devanampiyatissa 
Tissa  (6),  the  Great  Brahma,  39-41 
Tissa  (7) .  see  Moggaliputta  Tissa 
Tissadatta.  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon, 

63, 106 
Tittira  Jataka,  61 
Tuvataka  Sutta,  31 


Udana,  20,  31 

Udayabhadra,  king  of  Magadha,  76 

Udumbara  Bodhi,   102 

Ujjeni,  47,  74n 

Upali  (1),  the  Elder,  2.   13.   14,   18. 

34-6,  63 
Upali  (2),  Vinaya  teacher  of  Ceylon, 

Upatissa,  king  of  Magadha,  76 
Upavattana,  the  Sala  Grove,  3 
Uttara,  missionary  to  Suvannabhumi, 

64,  72 
Uttiya,  companion  of  Mahinda,  63, 


List  of  Untranslated  Pali  Words 


Vaddhamana,  city  of  Samiddha,  91 

Vajji,  38 

Vajjiputtaka,  38 

Valukarama  (in  Vesali) ,  38 

Vanavasi,  64,  67 

Varadipa,  91 

Vasabhagami,   Anuruddha's   saddhi- 

viharika,  38 
Vebhara  mountain  (-pabbata),  lOn 
Vedas,  the  three,  42 
Vedisa,  73,  74 
Vedisagiri,  75  ;   the  Great  Monastery 

of,  74 
Vedisa  mountain  (-pabbata),  75 
Vediya,  see  Vedisa 
Veraiija,  2,  34,  35,  106 
Vesali,  14n,  38 
Vibhajjavada,  62 
Vibhaiiga  (in  Abhidhamma),  20 
Vibhanga  (in  Vinaya),  14,  20,  21,  31 
Videhan  Princess,  the  son  of  (Vedehi- 

putta),  15 
Vijaya,  first  king  of  Ceylon,  76 

Vimanavatthu,  20,  83 

Vinayapitaka,  2,  14,  18,  20,  24-6, 
30,  33-5,  37,  43,  63,  106;  see 
also  vinaya  ff.  in  Pali  Index,  Disci- 
pline, and  Basket  of  Discipline,  in 
General  Index, 

Viiijha  forest  (Viiijhatavi),  lOOn 

Visakha,  the  month,  3n,  79 

Visala,  city  of  Jayanta,  92 

Vissakamma,  lOn,  97 

Vuttiya,  see  Uttiya 

Yamaka.  20 

Yasa,  son  of  Kakandaka,  38,  62 

Yona,  Yonaka,  70 

Yonaka    Kingdom    (Yonakarattha) , 

70n  ;    see  the  next 
Yona  World,  64n,  70 
Yonakadhammarakkhita,  see  Dham- 

marakkhita,  the  Yona 
Yonakamahadhammarakkhita,  56n ; 

see  Dhammarakkhita,  the  Yona 

Index  III 






















































T.  Samantapasadika,  Vol.  I,  edited  by  J.  Takakusu  and 
M.  Nagai,  Pali  Text  Society,  London,  1924. 

P.  Samantapasadika  nama  Vinayatthakatha,  edited  by  Ven. 
Baddegama  Piyaratana  and  Ven.  Valivitiye  Sorata,  Simon 
Hewavitarne  Bequest,  Vol.  XXVII,  Colombo,  1929. 

0.  The  Historical  Introduction  to  Buddhaghosa's  Samanta- 
pasadika, in  the  Vinaya  Pitakarn,  Vol.  Ill,  edited  by 
Herman  Oldenberg,  London,  1881. 

E.       Samantapasadika  nama  Vinayasamvannana,  Vol.  I,  U.  P. 

Ekanayaka,  Colombo,  1915. 
V.      Samantapasadika,  Vol.  I,  Ven.  K.  Siri  Visuddhi,  Kosgoda, 

Ay.    Vinaya    Samantapasadikay'atthayojana,    PaMasekhara 

Maha  Nayaka  Thera,  Colombo,  1924. 

Sp.     Siamese  printed  text  of  Samantapasadika. 
Bp.    Burmese  printed  text  of  Samantapasadika. 

Sum.  Sumangalavilasini,  Vol.  I,  edited  by  T.  W.  Rhys  Davids 
and  J.  E.  Carpenter,  Pali  Text  Society,  London,  1886. 



Namo  tassa  bhagavato  arahato  sammasambuddhassa. 

Samvannanaya  Arambho 

Yo  kappakotihi  pi  appameyyam 

kalam  karonto  atidukkarani/ 

khedam  gato  lokahitaya  natho  : 

namo  mahakarunikassa  tassa.  i 

Asambudham  ^  buddhanisevitam  yam 

bhavabhavam  gacchati  jivaloko, 

namo  avijjadikilesajala-  ^ 

vidhamsino  dhammavarassa  tassa.  2 

Gunehi  yo  silasamadhipaiina- 
vimuttinanappabhutihi  yutto, 
khettam  jananam  kusalatthikanam 
tarn  ariyasangham  sirasa  namami.  3 

Ice'  evam  accantanamassaneyyam  * 
namassamano  ratanattayam  yam, 
punnabhisandam  vipulam  alattham  ; 
tassanubhavena  hat'antarayo.  4 

1  T.  karani ;   all  other  texts  read  dental  n. 

2  T.  -buddham  ;  all  other  texts  agree  on  -budham,  explained  as  abhisam- 
bujjhanto  in  Ay. 

3  Differences  in  orthography  from  T.  and  O.  will  not  be  noted  down  here. 
In  this  text  long  vowels  are  transliterated  as  a,  i,  u,  except  when  they  are 
sandhi-products  when  they  are  represented  as  a,  i,  u.  The  niggahita  alone  is 
represented  as  rn  and  the  nasal  followed  by  a  letter  of  the  guttural  class  as  n. 
The  apostrophe  is  not  used  when  the  initial  i  of  iti  coalesces  with  the  final 
vowel  of  the  preceding  word.  T.  uses  the  macron  for  all  long  vowels  including 
sandhi-products  while  O.  uses  the  circumflex  mark  throughout.  O.  does  not 
use  the  symbol  h  at  all,  while  T.  is  not  uniform.  The  variation  in  the  use  of 
the  cerebral  letters  n,  1,  will  also  not  be  noted  unless  there  is  a  special  reason 
for  noting  it  down. 

*  P.  -niyam. 


136  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

Yasmim  thite  sasanam  atthitassa 
patitthitam  hoti  susanthitassa, 
tarn  vannayissam  vinayam  amissam 
nissaya  piibbacariyanubhavam.  5 

Kamafi  ca  pubbacariyasabhehi 
[2]    visuddha  vi  j  j  apatisambhidehi 

saddhammasamvannanakovidehi,  6 

Sallekhiye  no  sulabhupamehi 
Mahaviharassa  dhajupamehi, 
samvannito  'y^-^  vinayo  nayehi 
cittehi  sambuddhavaranvayehi.  7 

Samvannana  Sihaladipakena  ^ 
vakyena  esa  pana  sankhatatta, 
na  kind  attham  abhisambhunati 
dipantare  bhikkhujanassa  yasma,  8 

Tasma  imam  palinayanumpam 
samvannanam  dani  samarabhissam, 
ajjhesanam  Buddhasirivhayassa 
therassa  samma  samanussaranto.  9 

Samvannam  tan  ca  samarabhanto 
tasma  ^  Maha-atthakatham  sariram 
katva  Mahapaccariyam  tath'eva 
Kurundinamadisu  vissutasu,  10 

Vinicchayo  atthakathasu  vutto 
yo  yuttam  attham  apariccajanto, 
tato  pi  antogadhatheravadam 
samvannanam  samma  ^  samarabhissam.  11 

1  T.  Sihara- ;   all  texts  agree  on  Sihala-. 

2  P.E.V.  tassa. 

3  metri  causa. 

Arambho  137 

Tarn  me  nisamentu  pasannacitta 
thera  ca  bhikkhu  navamajjhima  ca 
dhammappadipassa  Tathagatassa 
sakkacca  dhammam  patimanayanta.^       12 

Buddhena  dhammo  vinayo  ca  vutto 

yo  tassa  puttehi  tatheva  fiato, 

so  yehi  tesam  matim  accajanta 

yasma  pure  atthakatha  akamsu,  13 

[3]    Tasma  hi  yam  atthakathasu  vuttam 
tarn  vajjayitvana  pamadalekham, 
sabbam  pi  sikkhasu  sagaravanam 
yasma  pamanam  idha  panditanam.  14 

Tato  ca  bhasantaram  eva  hitva 
vittharamaggan  ca  samasayitva, 
vinicchayam  sabbam  asesayitva 
tantikkamam  kafici  avokkamitva,  15 

Suttantikanam  vacananam  attham 
suttanurupam  paridipayantT, 
yasma  ayam  hessati  vannana  pi 
sakkacca  tasma  anusikkhitabba  ti.^  16 

2.  Tattha  :  tarn  vannayissam  vinayan  ti  vuttatta  vinayo  tava 
vavatthapetabbo,  ten'etam  vuccati :  vinayo  nama  idha  saka- 
1am  Vinayapitakam  adhippetam.  Samvannanattham  pan'assa 
ayam  matika  : 

Vuttam  yena  yada  yasma  dharitam  yena  cabhatam, 
yatthappatitthitan  c'etam  etam  ^  vatva  vidhim  tato. 

1  T.  pati-. 

2  T.  p.  3,  n.  3,  observes  :  The  Chinese  translation,  a.d.  498,  omits  the  verses 
6-16  chiefly  referring  to  the  Sihala  atthakatha,  while  it  adds  six  other  verses 
which  are  not  found  in  Pali.  The  general  purport  is  something  like  this  : 
(I  expound  the  meaning  of  Vinaya)  "  so  that  the  Good  Law  may  long  remain 
in  the  world  and  all  beings  fully  enjoy  its  benefit.  By  the  merit  of  this  I  desire 
to  dispel  all  evils  (hat'antarayo).  If  one  wishes  to  keep  the  precept  (sila) 
one  should  keep  it  (until  one  is)  freed  from  all  sufferings."  As  to  vv.  4  and  5, 
only  the  first  half  of  4  and  the  second  half  of  5  are  reproduced  in  Chinese, 
though  not  precisely. 

*  T.  Differences  due  to  errors  in  printing  will  not  be  generally  pointed  out. 

138  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhirantddne 

Tenati  adipathassa  attham  nanappakarato 
dassayanto  karissami  vinayass*  atthavannanan  ti. 

Tattha  :  vuttarn  yena  yada  yasma  ti  idam  tava  vacanam 
tena  samayena  Buddho  bhagavd  Veranjdyam  viharatUi  evam 
adivacanam  sandhaya  vuttarn.  Idam  hi  Buddhassa  bhagavato 
attapaccakkhavacanam  na  hoti,  tasma  vattabbam  [4]  ev'^etam, 
idam  vacanam  kena  vuttarn,  kada  vuttarn, ^  kasma  ca  vuttan 
ti.  Ayasmata  Upalittherena  vuttarn,  tarn  ca  pana  pathama- 
mahasangitikale.  Pathamamahasangiti  nama  c'esa  kincapi 
Pancasatikasangitikkhandhake  suvutta,^  nidanakosallattharn 
pana  idhapi  imina  nayena  veditabba. 


3.  Dhammacakkappavattanarn  *  hi  adirn  katva  yava  Subhad- 
daparibbajakavinayana  katabuddhakicce  Kusinarayarn  Upa- 
vattane  ^  Mallanarn  salavane  yamakasalanam  antare  Visakha- 
purinamadivase  paccusasamaye  anupadisesaya  nibbanadhatuya 
parinibbute  bhagavati  lokanathe  bhagavato  parinibbane  ^ 
sannipatitanarii  sattannarn  bhikkhusatasahassanarn  sanghat- 
theroayasma  Mahakassapo,  sattahaparinibbute  bhagavati  Subh- 
addena  buddhapabbajitena :  alarn  avuso  ma  socittha  ma 
paridevittha,  sumutta  mayarn  tena  mahasamanena,  upadduta  ca 
homa,  idarn  vo  kappati  idarn  vo  na  kappatiti,  idani  pana  mayarn 
yarn  icchissama  tarn  karissama,  yarn  na  icchissama  na  tarn  "^ 
karissamati  vuttavacanarii  anussaranto,  thanarn^  kho  pan'etarn 
vijjati  yarn  papabhikkhu :  atltasatthukarn  pavacanan  ti 
mannamana  pakkharn  labhitva  na  cirass'eva  saddhammarn 
antaradhapeyyurn.  Yava  ca  dhammavinayo  titthati  tava 
anatitasatthukam    eva    pavacanarn    hoti.       Vuttarn    h'etarn 

1  P.E.V.  omitev'. 

2  T,  omits. 

3  P.E.V.  vutta. 

*  O.  commences  here  and  proceeds  as  far  as  acariyaparamparaya  abhatan 
ti  at  Smp.  106,  but  omits  the  lengthy  discussion  on  the  division  and  classifica- 
tion of  the  pavacana,  Smp.  19-33. 

^  Sum.  Upavattam, 

^  Sum.  dhatubhajanadivase. 

'  T.  tarn  na  for  na  tam. 

8  Sum.  adds  here  :  edisassa  ca  sanghasannipatassa  puna  dullabhabhavam 

Pathamamahdsangitivannand  139 

bhagavata :  yo  vo  Ananda  maya  dhammo  ca  vinayo  ca 
desito  [6]  pannatto  so  vo  mam'accayena  satthati.  Yannuna- 
ham  dhamman  ca  vinayafi  ca  sahgayeyyam  yatha^-y-idam 
sasanam  addhaniyam  assa  ciratthitikam.  Yan  caham  bhaga- 
vata :  dharessasi  pana  me  tvam  ^  Kassapa  sanani  ^  pam- 
sukulani  nibbasananiti  vatva  civare  sadharanaparibhogena 
c'eva  *  :  aham  bhikkhave  yavad  eva  akankhami  vivicc'  eva 
kamehi  pe  pathamajjhanam  upasampajja  viharami,  Kassapo 
pi  bhikkhave  yavad  eva  akankhati  vivicc'  eva  kamehi  pe 
pathamajjhanam  upasampajja  viharatiti  evam  adina  nayena 
navanupubbaviharachalabhinnadibhede  ^  uttarimanussadham- 
me  attana  samasamatthapanena  ca  anuggahito,  tassa  me  kim 
aiiiiam  ananyam  bhavissati.  Nanu  mam  bhagava  raja  viya 
sakakavaca-issariyanuppadanena  attano  kulavamsapatittha- 
pakam  puttam :  saddhammavamsapatitthapako  me  ayam 
bhavissatiti  mantva  imina  asadharanena  anuggahena  anugga- 
hesiti  cintayanto  dhammavinayasangayanattham  bhikkhiinam 
ussaham  janesi.® 

4.  Yathaha :  atha  kho  ayasma  Mahakassapo  bhikkhu 
amantesi :  ekam  idaham  avuso  samayam  Pavaya  Kusinaram 
addhanamaggapatipanno  mahata  bhikkhusanghena  saddhim 
pancamattehi  bhikkhusatehiti  sabbam  Subhaddakandam  "^ 
vittharato  veditabbam. 

[6]  Tato  param  aha  :  handa  mayam  avuso  dhamman  ca 
vinayafi  ca  sangayeyyama,^  pure  adhammo  dippati  dhammo 
patibahiyati,  avinayo  dippati  vinayo  patibahiyati,  pure  adham- 
mavadino  balavanto  honti  dhammavadino  dubbala  honti, 
avinayavadino  balavanto  honti  vinayavadino  dubbala  hontiti. 
Bhikkhii  aharnsu  :  tena  hi  bhante  thero  bhikkhii  uccinatuti. 

Thero  sakalanavangasatthusasanapariyattidhare  puthuj  jana- 

1  T.O.  yatha. 

2  T.  tvam  me  for  me  tvam. 

3  T,  sanani. 

*  T.  anuggahito  instead  of  c'eva. 
5  P.E.V.  -abhifiiiappabhede. 

*  E.  janesiti. 

'  Sum.  adds  :  attham  pan'assa  mahaparinibbanavasane  agatatthane  eva 

*  T.  sangayama  agrees  with  Yin.  ii,  XI. 

140  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

khu  anekasate  anekasahasse  ca  vajjetva  tipitakasabbapariyat- 
tippabhedadhare  patisambhidappatte  mahanubhave  yebhuy- 
yena  bhagavata  etadaggam  aropite  tevijjadibhede  khinasava- 
bhikkhu  yeva  ek'unapancasate  pariggahesi.  Ye  sandhaya 
idam  vuttam  :  atha  kho  ayasma  Mahakassapo  eken'unapafica- 
arahantasatani  ucciniti. 

5.  Kissa  pana  thero  eken'unam  akasiti.  Ayasmato  Anandat- 
therassa  okasakaranattham.  Tena  h'ayasmata  sahapi  vinapi 
na  sakka  dhammasangiti  katum.  So  h'ayasma  sekho  ^ 
sakaraniyo,  tasma  saha  2  na  sakka.  Yasma  pan'assa  kinci 
dasabaladesitam  suttageyyadikam  ^  bhagavato  *  asammukha 
patiggahitam  nama  n'atthi,  tasma  vinapi  na  sakka.  Yadi 
evam  sekho  ^  pi  samano  dhammasangitiya  bahupakaratta 
therena  uccinitabbo  assa.  Atha  kasma  na  [7]  uccinito  ti. 
Parupa  vada  vi  va  j  j  anat  o . 

Thero  hi  ayasmante  Anande  ativiya  vissattho  ahosi,  tatha  hi 
nam  sirasmim  paHtesu  jatesu  pi :  na  v'ayam  kumarako 
mattam  aniiasiti  kumarakavadena  vadati.^  Sakyakulappasuto 
cayam  ayasma  Tathagatassa  bhata  culapituputto/  tatra  hi 
bhikkhu  chandagamanam  viya  maiiiiamana  bahii  asekhapati- 
sambhidappatte  ^  bhikkhu  thapetva  Anandam  sekhapatisam- 
bhidappattam  ®  thero  ucciniti  upavadeyyurn.  Tarn  parupa- 
vadam  parivajjento  :  Anandam  vina  sangiti  na  sakka  katurn, 
bhikkhunarn  yevanumatiya  gahessamiti  tarn  na  uccini. 

Atha  sayam  eva  bhikkhu  Anandass'atthaya  therarn  yacirnsu. 
Yathaha  :  bhikkhu  ayasmantarn  Mahakassaparn  etad  avocurn  : 
ayarn  bhante  ayasma  Anando  kificapi  sekho  abhabbo  chanda 
dosa  bhaya  moha  agatim  ganturn,  bahu  c'anena  ^  bhagavato 

1  P.Sp.V.  sekkho. 

2  P.E.V.  sahapi. 

3  T.  suttam  geyyadikam. 

*  Sum.  omits  up  to  patiggahitam  and  has  apaccakkham  instead  and  adds 
after  nama  natthi  : 

dvasitim  Buddhato  ganhim  dvesahassani  bhikkhuto, 
caturasiti  sahassani  ye  'me  dhamma  pavattino. 
See  Smp.  32. 
5  T.O.  ovadati. 
8  T.O.  cula-. 
'  P.E.V.  asekkha- 
8  P.E.V.  sekkha-. 
"  T.O.  bahu  vata  tena,  Vin.  ii,  XI,  bahu  ca  tena. 

Pathamamahdsangitivannand  141 

santike  dhammo  ca  vinayo  ca  pariyatto.  Tena  hi  bhante  thero 
ayasmantampi  Anandam  uccinatuti.  Athakho  ayasmaMahakas- 
sapo  ayasmantam  pi  Anandam  uccini.  Evam  bhikkhunam 
anumatiya  uccinitena  tenayasmata  saddhim  panca  therasatani 

6.  Atha  kho  theranam  bhikkhunam  etad  ahosi :  kattha  nu 
kho  mayam  dhammafi  ca  vinayaii  ca  sangayeyyamati.  Atha 
kho  theranam  bhikkhunam  etad  ahosi :  Rajagaham  [8]  kho 
mahagocaram  pahutasenasanam.  Yanniina  mayam  Rajagahe 
vassam  vasanta  dhamman  ca  vinayafi  ca  sangayeyyama,  na 
afifie  bhikkhu  Rajagahe  vassam  upagaccheyyun  ti.  Kasma 
pana  tesam  etad  ahosi.  Idam  amhakam  thavarakammam  koci 
visabhagapuggalo  sanghamaj  jham  pa  visit  va  ukkoteyyati.  Ath^- 
yasma  Mahakassapo  nattidutiyena  kammena  savesi.  Tarn 
Sangitikkhandhake  vuttanayen'  eva  veditabbam. 

7.  Atha  Tathagatassa  parinibbanato  sattasu  sadhukTlanadi- 
vasesu  sattasu  ca  dhatupujadivasesu  vitivattesu  addhamaso 
atikkanto.  Idani  gimhanam  diyaddho  maso  seso,  upakattha 
vassupanayikati  mantva  Mahakassapatthero :  Rajagaham 
avuso  gacchamati  upaddham  bhikkhusangham  gahetva  ekam 
maggam  gato.  Anuruddhatthero  pi  upaddham  gahetva  ekam 
maggam  gato. 

8.  Anandatthero  pana  bhagavato  pattacivaram  gahetva 
bhikkhusanghaparivuto  Savatthim  gantva  Rajagaham  gantu- 
kamo  yena  Savatthi  tena  carikam  pakkami.  Anandattherena 
gatagatatthane  mahaparidevo  ahosi :  bhante  Ananda  kuhim 
sattharam  thapetva  agato  'siti.  Anupubbena  pana  Savatthim 
anuppatte  there/  bhagavato  parinibbanadivase  viya  maha- 
paridevo ahosi.  Tatra  sudarn  ayasma  Anando  aniccatadi- 
patisamyuttaya  ^  dhammiya  kathaya  tarn  mahajanam  saiiiia- 
petva  Jetavanam  pavisitva  dasabalena  vasitagandhakutiya 
dvaram  vivaritva  mancapitharn  niharitva  pappothetva  ^ 
gandhakutirn  sammajjitva  milatamalakaca[9]varam  chad- 
detva  maiicapitham  atiharitva  puna  yathatthane  thapetva 
bhagavato  thitakale  karaniyam  vattam  sabbam  akasi.    Atha 

^  T.O,  add  ca.  2  j  q.  aniccatapati-.  '  P.E.  papphotetva. 

142  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

thero  bhagavato  parinibbanatoppabhuti  thananisajjabahulatta 
ussannadhatukam  kayam  samassasetum  dutiyadivase  khira- 
virecanam  pivitva  vihare  yeva  nisidi.  Yam  sandhaya  Subhena 
manavena  pahitam  manavakam  etad  ^  avoca :  akalo  kho 
manavaka,  atthi  me  ajja  bhesajjamatta  pita,  app'eva  nama 
sve  pi  upasankameyyamati.  Dutiyadivase  Cetakattherena 
pacchasamanena  gantva  Subhena  manavena  puttho  Dighani- 
kaye  Subhasuttam  nama  dasamam  suttam  abhasi.  Atha  kho  ^ 
thero  Jetavanavihare  khandaphullapatisankharanam  kara- 
petva  upakatthaya  vassupanayikaya  Rajagaham  gato.  Tatha 
Mahakassapatthero  Anuruddhatthero  ca  sabbam  bhikkhu- 
sangham  gahetva  Rajagaham  eva  gato. 

9.  Tena  kho  pana  samayena  Rajagahe  attharasa  mahavihara 
honti.  Te  sabbe  pi  chadditapatita-uklapa  ahesum.  Bhagavato 
hi  parinibbane  sabbe  bhikkhu  attano  attano  pattacivaram 
gahetva  vihare  ca  parivene  ca  chaddetva  agamamsu.  Tattha 
thera  bhagavato  vacanapujanattham  titthiyavadaparimocanat- 
than  ca  pathamarn  masam  khandaphullapatisankharanam 
karomati  cintesurn.  Titthiya  hi  evarn  vadeyyurn  :  samanassa 
Gotamassa  savaka  satthari  thite  yeva  vihare  patijaggirnsu, 
parinibbute  chaddesun  ti,  tesarn  vadaparimocanatthafi  ca 
cintesun  ti  vuttarn  hoti. 

[10]  Vuttam  pi  c'etam  :  atha  kho  theranam  bhikkhunam 
etad  ahosi :  bhagavata  kho  avuso  khandaphullapatisankhara- 
narn  vannitarn,  handa  mayarn  avuso  pathamarn  masam 
khandaphullapatisankharanarn  karoma,  majjhimarn  masam 
sannipatitva  dhammaft  ca  vinayail  ca  sangayissamati. 

10.  Te  dutiyadivase  gantva  rajadvare  attharpsu.  Ajatasattu 
raja  agantva  vanditva,  kim  bhante  agata  'tthati  attana 
kattabbakiccarn  patipucchi.  Thera  attharasamahavihara- 
patisankharanatthaya  hatthakammain  pativedesurn.  Sadhu 
bhante  ti  raja  hatthakammakarake  manusse  adasi.  Thera 
pathamarn  masam  ^  sabbavihare  patisankharapetva  *  ranilo 

1  T.O.  etam. 

2  P.E.V.  omit. 

3  T.O.  pathamamasam. 

*  E.  sabbaviharapatisankharanam  karapetva. 

Pathamamahdsangltivannand  143 

arocesum  :  nitthitam  maharaja  viharapatisankharanam,  idani 
dhammavinayasangaham  karomati.  Sadhu  bhante  vissattha 
karotha  ;  mayham  anacakkam,  tumhakam  dhammacakkam 
hotu,  anapetha  me  bhante  kim  karomiti.  Dhammasangaham 
karontanam  bhikkhunam  sannisajjatthanam  maharajati. 
Kattha  karomi  bhante  ti.  Vebharapabbatapasse  Sattapanni- 
guhadvare  katum  yuttam  maharajati. 

Sadhu  bhante  ti  kho  raja  Ajatasattu  Vissakammuna  nim- 
mitasadisam  suvibhattabhittitthambhasopanam  ^  nanavi- 
dhamalakammalatakammavicittam  abhibhavantam  iva  raja- 
bhavanavibhutim  apahasantam  ^  iva  devavimanasirim  siriya 
niketam  iva  ekanipatanatittham  ^  iva  ca  devamanussanayana- 
vihanganam  *  lokaramaneyyakam  iva  sampinditam  datthabba- 
saramandam  mandapam  karapetva,  vividhaku[ll]sumadama- 
olambakaviniggalantacaruvitanam  ^  ratanavicitramanikotti- 
matalam  iva  ca  nam  nanapupphupaharavicitrasuparinitthita- 
bhumikammam  brahmavimanasadisam  alankaritva,  tasmim 
mahamandape  pancasatanam  bhikkhiinam  anagghani  panca 
kappi3^apaccattharanasatani  panilapetva,  dakkhinabhagam  nis- 
saya  uttarabhimukham  therasanam,  mandapamaj  jhe  purattha- 
bhimukham  Buddhassa  bhagavato  asanaraham  dhammasanam 
panilapetva,  dantakhacitam  vijanim  ^  thapetva  bhikkhusah- 
ghassa  arocapesi :   nitthitam  bhante  mama  kiccan  ti. 

II.  Tasmim  '  kho  pana  samaye  ekacce  bhikkhii  ayasmantam 
Anandam  sandhaya  evam  ahamsu  :  imasmim  bhikkhusanghe 
eko  bhikkhu  vissagandham  vayanto  vicaratiti.  Thero  tarn  sutva 
imasmim  bhikkhusanghe  aiino  vissagandham  vayanto  vicarana- 
bhikkhu  nama  n'atthi,  addha  ete  mam  sandhaya  vadantiti 
samvegam  apajji.  Ekacce  "^  bhikkhu  ayasmantam  Anandam 
ahamsu  :  sve  avuso  sannipato  ;  tvaii  ca  sekho  ^  sakaraniyo, 
tena  te  na  yuttam  sannipatam  gantum,  appamatto  hohiti. 

Atha  kho  ayasma  Anando  :  sve  sannipato,  na  kho  pana  ^ 
me  tarn  patiriipam  yv'aham  ^^  sekho  ^  samano  sannipatam 

1  T.O.  -bhittithambha-  ^  x.O.  avahasantam  iva. 

3  P.E.V.  -nipatatittham.  *  T.O.  -vibhanganam. 

5  P.E.V.  -viniggilanta-.  »  P.E.V.  add  c'ettha. 

'-'  P.E.V.  omit  this  passage  and  begin  with  :  Bhikkhu  ayasmantam  Anan- 
dam ahamsu.  ®  P.V.  sekkho. 

»  Yin.  ii,  XI,  omits.  i"  P.E.V.  sv  'aham,  Vin.  ii,  XI,  yo  'ham 

144  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

gaccheyyan  ti  bahud  eva  rattim  kayagataya  satiya  ^  vitina- 
metva  rattiya  paccusamayam  cankama  ^  orohitva  viharam 
pavisitva  ^  nipajjissamiti  kayam  avajjesi,  dve  ^  pada  bhumito 
mutta,  appattan  ca  sisam  bimbohanam,^  etasmim  antare 
anupadaya  asavehi  cittam  vimucci.  Ayam  hi  ayasma  [12] 
cankamena  bahi  vitinametva  visesam  nibbattetum  asakkonto 
cintesi :  nanu  mam  bhagava  etad  avoca  :  katapunno  *  'si 
tvam  Ananda  padhanam  anuyunja,  khippam  hohisi  anasavo 
ti.  Buddhanafi  ca  kathadoso  nama  n'atthi,  mama  accaraddham 
viriyam,  tena  me  cittam  uddhaccaya  samvattati.  Handaham 
viriyasamatam  ^  yojemiti  cankama  orohitva  padadhovanat- 
thane  thatva  pade  dhovitva  viharam  pavisitva,  maficake 
nisiditva  thokam  vissamissamiti  kayarn  mailcake  upanamesi. 
Dve  pada  bhumito  mutta,  sisam  bimbohanam  asampattarn. 
Etasmirn  antare  anupadaya  asavehi  cittam  vimuttam  ;  catu- 
iriyapathavirahitarn  therassa  arahattani  ahosi.®  Tena  imasmirn 
sasane  anipanno  anisinno  atthito  acankamanto  ko  bhikkhu 
arahattam  patto  ti  vutte,  Anandatthero  ti  vattum  vattati. 

12.  Atha  thera  bhikkhu  dutiyadivase  katabhattakicca  patta- 
civaram  patisametva  dhammasabhayam  sannipatita.  Anandat- 
thero pana  attano  arahattappattirn  napetukamo  bhikkhiihi 
saddhirn  na  gato.  Bhikkhu  yathabuddham  attano  attano 
pattasane  '  nisidanta  Anandattherassa  asanam  thapetva  nisin- 
na.  Tattha  kehic'api  ^  etam  asanarn  kassati  vutte,  Anandassati. 
Anando  pana  kuhim  gato  ti.  Tasmim  samaye  thero  cintesi : 
idani  mayharn  gamanakalo  ti.  Tato  attano  [13]  anubhavarn 
dassento  pathaviyarn  nimujjitva  attano  asane  yeva  attanam 
dassesi.  Akasenagantva  ^  nisiditi  pi  eke. 

13.  Evam  nisinne  tasmim  ayasmante  Mahakassapatthero 
bhikkhu  amantesi :  avuso  kirn  pathamarn  sangayama  dham- 
mam  va  vinayam  vati.  Bhikkhu  aharnsu  :  bhante  Mahakas- 
sapa,  vinayo  nama  Buddhasasanassa  ayu,  vinaye  thite  sasanarn 

^  P.E.V.  kayagatasatiya.  2-2  vin.  ii,  XI,  omits. 

2-3  The  two  phrases  are  interchanged  in  Vin.  ii. 
*  T.  -pafiilo  evidently  a  printer's  devil,  all  others  -pufino. 
5  T.O.  -samatham.  «  P.V.  omit. 

'  T.O.  asane.  *  T.O.  kehici  pi. 

"  T.O.  akasena  gantva. 

Pathamamahdsangitivannand  145 

thitam  hoti,  tasma  pathamam  vinayam  sangayamaLti.  Kam 
dhuram  katvati.  Ayasmantam  Upalin  ti.  Kim  Anando 
nappahotiti.  No  nappahoti,  api  ca  kho  pana  Sammasambuddho 
dharamano  yeva  vinayapariyattim  nissaya  ayasmantam  Upa- 
lim  etadagge  thapesi :  etadaggam  bhikkhave  mama  savakanam 
bhikkhunam  vinayadharanam  yad  idam  Upaliti.  Tasma 
Upalittheram  pucchitva  vinayam  sangayamati.  Tato  thero 
vinayam  pucchanatthaya  attana  Va  attanam  sammanni, 
Upalit thero  pi  vissajjanatthaya  sammanni. 

Tatrayam  pali :  atha  kho  ayasma  Mahakassapo  sangham 
iiapesi :  sunatu  me  avuso  sangho.  Yadi  sanghassa  pattakallam, 
aham  UpaHm  vinayam  puccheyyan  ti.  Ayasma  pi  ^  Upah 
sangham  iiapesi :  sunatu  me  bhante  sangho.  Yadi  sanghassa 
pattakallam,  aham  ayasmata  Mahakassapena  vinayam  puttho 
vissajjeyyan  ti.  Evam  ^  attanam  sammannitva  ayasma 
Upali  utthayasana  ekamsam  civaram  katva  there  bhikkhii 
vanditva  dhammasane  nisidi  dantakhacitam  vijanim  gahetva. 

14.  Tato  ayasma  ^  Mahakassapo  therasane  nisiditva  ayasman- 
tam Upalim  vinayam  pucchi  * :  pathamam  avuso  Upali 
parajikam  kattha  ^  [14]  paiinattan  ti.  Vesaliyam  bhante  ti. 
Kam  arabbhati.  Sudinnam  Kalandakaputtam  ®  arabbhati. 
Kismim  vatthusmin  ti.  Methunadhamme  ti. 

Atha  kho  ayasma  Mahakassapo  ayasmantam  Upalim  patha- 
massa  parajikassa  vatthum  pi  pucchi,  nidanam  pi  pucchi, 
puggalam  pi  pucchi,  panfiattim  pi  pucchi,  anupaiinattim  ' 
pi  pucchi,  apattim  pi  pucchi,  anapattim  pi  pucchi.  Yatha  ca 
pathamassa  tatha  dutiyassa  tatha  tatiyassa  tatha  catutthassa 
parajikassa  vatthum  pi  pucchi  pe  anapattim  pi  pucchi.  Puttho 
puttho  Upalitthero  vissajjesi. 

Tato  imani  cattari  parajikani  Parajikakandam  nama  idan  ti 
saiigaham  aropetva  thapesum  ^  terasa  sanghadisesani  terasakan 
ti  thapesum,  dve  sikkhapadani  aniyataniti  thapesum,  timsasik- 
khapadani    nissaggiyapacittiyaniti    thapesum,    dvenavutisik- 

^  Yin.  ii,  XI,  omits.  ^  p.E.V.  add  attana  va  after  evam. 

3  T.  omits.  O.  generally  agrees  with  T.  in  most  readings  and  will  be  referred 
to  when  only  he  differs  from  T, 

*  As  at  Yin.  ii,  286.  The  next  sentence  is  a  summary  of  the  rest  of  Yin.  ii, 
XI,  1,  7. 

^  T.  adds  bhagavata.  '  P.E.Y.  Kalandaputtam. 

'  T.  anuppaiinattim.  *  T.  omits. 

146  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

khapadani  pacittiyaniti  thapesum,  cattari  sikkhapadani  patide- 
saniyaniti  thapesum,  paficasattatisikkhapadani  sekhiyaniti 
thapesum,  satta  dhamme  adhikaranasamathati  thapesum. 

Evam  Mahavibharigam  sangahani  aropetva  Bhikkhunivi- 
bhange  atthasikkhapadani  Parajikakandam  nama  idan  ti 
thapesum.  Sattarasa  sikkhapadani  sattarasakan  ti  thapesum, 
timsasikkhapadani  nissaggiyapacittiyaniti  thapesum,  chasatthi- 
satasikkhapadani  pacittiyaniti  thapesum,  attha  sikkhapadani 
patidesaniyaniti  thapesum,  pancasattati  sikkhapadani  sekhi- 
yaniti thapesum,  satta  dhamme  adhika[15]ranasamatha  ti 
thapesum.  Evam  Bhikkhunivibhangam  sangaham  aropetva 
eten'  eva  upayena  Khandhaka-Parivare  pi  aropesum. 

Evam  etam  sa-ubhatovibhahgakkhandhakaparivarena  Vina- 
yapitakam  sangaham  ariilham.  Sabbam  Mahakassapatthero 
pucchi,  UpaUtthero  vissajjesi.  Pucchavissajjanapariyosane 
paiica  arahantasatani  sangaham  aropitanayen'  eva  ganasajjha- 
yam  akamsu.  Vinayasangahavasane  UpaUtthero  dantakhaci- 
tam  vijanim  nikkhipitva  dhammasana  orohitva  buddhe 
bhikkhii  vanditva  attano  pattasane  nisidi. 

15.  Vinayam  sangayitva  dhammam  sangayitukamo  ayasma 
Mahakassapo  bhikkhii  pucchi :  dhammam  sangayantehi  kam 
puggalam  dhuram  katva  dhammo  sangayitabbo  ti.  Bhikkhii  : 
Anandattheram  dhuram  katvati  ahamsu. 

Atha  kho  ayasma  Mahakassapo  sangham  napesi :  sunatu  me 
avuso  sangho.  Yadi  sanghassa  pattakallam,  ah  am  Anandam 
dhammam  puccheyyan  ti.  Atha  kho  ayasma  Anando  sangham 
napesi :  sunatu  me  bhante  sangho.  Yadi  sanghassa  patta- 
kallam, aham  ayasmata  Mahakassapena  dhammam  puttho 
vissajjeyyan  ti.  Atha  kho  ayasma  Anando  utthayasana 
ekamsam  civaram  katva  there  bhikk?iii  vanditva  dhammasane 
nisidi  dantakhacitarn  vijanirn  gahetva.  Mahakassapatthero 
Anandattheram  dhammam  pucchi :  Brahma jalarn  avuso 
Ananda  kattha  bhasitan  ti.  Antara  ca  bhante  [16]  Rajagaham 
antara  ca  Nalandam  rajagarake  Ambalatthikayan  ti.  Karn 
arabbhati.  Suppiyaii  ca  paribbajakani  Brahmadattaii  ca 
manavakan  ti.   Kismirn  ^  vatthusmim.   Vannavanne  ti.^  Atha 

1-1  P.E.V.  (also  Yin.  ii,  287)  omit  this  question  and  answer. 

Pathamamahdsangltivannand  147 

kho  ayasma  Mahakassapo  ayasmantam  Anandam  Brahma- 
jalassa  nidanam  pi  pucchi,  puggalam  pi  pucchi. 

Samailnaphalam  pan'avuso  Ananda  kattha  bhasitan  ti. 
Rajagahe  bhante  Jivakambavane  ti.  Kena  saddhin  ti.  Ajata- 
sattuna  Vedehiputtena  saddhin  ti.  Atha  kho  ayasma  Maha- 
kassapo ayasmantam  Anandam  Samannaphalassa  nidanam  pi 
pucchi,  puggalam  pi  pucchi.  Eten'  eva  upayena  panca  pi  ^ 
nikaye  pucchi. 

Panca  nikaya  nama  Dighanikayo  Majjhimanikayo  Samyut- 
tanikayo  Anguttaranikayo  Khuddakanikayo  ti.  Tattha 
Khuddakanikayo  nama  cattaro  nikaye  thapetva  avasesam 
Buddha vacanam. 2  Tattha  vinayo  ayasmata  Upahttherena 
vissajjito,  sesa-Khuddakanikayo  cattaro  ca  nikaya  Anandat- 

16.  Tad  etam  sabbam  pi  Buddhavacanam  rasavasena  ekavi- 
dham,  dhammavinayavasena  duvidham,  pathamamaj  jhimapac- 
chimavasena  tividham,  tathapitakavasena,  nikayavasena  panca- 
vidham,  ahgavasena  navavidham,  dhammakkhandhavasena 
caturasitisahassavidhan  ti  veditabbam. 

17.  Katham  rasavasena  ekavidhani.  Yarn  hi  bhagavata 
anuttararn  sammasambodhirn  abhisambujjhitva  yava  anupa- 
disesaya  nibbanadhatuya  parinibbayati,  etthantare  pafica- 
cattalisavassani  devamanussanagayakkhadayo  anusasantena 
paccavekkhantena  va  vuttarn  sabbarn  tarn  ekarasam  vimut- 
tirasam  eva  hoti.    Evam  rasavasena  ekavidham. 

18.  [17]  Katharn  dhammavinayavasena  duvidham.  Sabbam 
ev'  etam  dhammo  ca  vinayo  cati  sankham  gacchati.  Tattha 
Vinayapitakam  vinayo,  avasesam  Buddhavacanara  dhammo. 
Ten'evaha  :  yannuna  mayarn  avuso  dhamman  ca  vinayan 
ca  sangayeyyamati,  aham  Upahrn  vinayarti  puccheyyam 
Anandaru  dhammam  puccheyyan  ti  ca.  Evam  dhammavina- 
yavasena duvidharn. 

19.  Katham  pathamamaj  jhimapacchimavasena  tividhara. 
Sabbam  eva  h'idarn  pathamabuddhavacanarn  majjhimabud- 

1  P.E.V.  Vin.  ii,  XI,  omit.  2  q  omits  from  here. 

148  Samantapdsadikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

dhavacanam  pacchimabuddhavacanan  ti  tippabhedam  hoti. 
Tattha  : 

Anekajati  samsaram  sandhavissam  anibbisam, 
gahakarakam  gavesanto,  dukkha  jati  punappunam. 
Gahakaraka  dittho  'si  puna  geham  na  kahasi, 
sabba  te  phasuka  bhagga  gahakutam  visankhitam, 
visankharagatam  cittam  tanhanam  khayam  aj  jhagati ; 

idam  pathamabuddhavacanam.  Keci :  yada  have  patu- 
bhavanti  dhammati  Khandhake  udanagatham  ahu.  Esa  pana 
patipadadivase  sabbannubhavappattassa  somanassamayana- 
nena  paccayakaram  paccavekkhantassa  uppanna  udanagatha 
ti  veditabba.  Yam  pana  parinibbanakale  abhasi :  handa 
dani  bhikkhave  amantayami  vo  vayadhamma  sankhara, 
appamadena  sampadethati  idam  pacchimabuddhavacanam. 
Ubhinnam  ant  are  yam  vuttam  etam  majjhimabuddhava- 
canam.^  Evam  pathamamajjhimapacchimavasena  tividham. 

20.  [18]  Katham  pitakavasena  tividham.  Sabbam  pi  h'etam 
Vinayapitakam  Suttantapitakam  Abhidhammapitakan  ti  tip- 
pabhedam eva  hoti.  Tattha  pathamasangitiyam  sangitaii  ca 
asangitan  ca  sabbam  pi  samodhanetva,  ubhayani  Patimok- 
khani,  dve  Vibhangani,  dvavisati  Khandhakani,  solasa  Pari- 
varati  idam  Vinayapitakam  nama. 

Brahmajaladicatuttimsasuttasangaho  Dighanikayo,  Mulapa- 
riyayasuttadidiyaddhasatadvesuttasangaho  Majjhimanikayo, 
Oghataranasuttadisattasuttasahassasattasatadvasat  thisutta- 
sangaho  Samyuttanikayo,  Cittapariyadanasuttadinavasuttasa- 
hassapancasatasattapannasasuttasangaho  Anguttaranikayo, 
Khuddakapatha  -  Dhammapada  -  Udana  -  Itivuttaka  -  Suttani- 
pata  -  Vimanavatthu  -  Petavatthu  -  Thera  ^  -  Therigatha  - 
Jataka  -  Niddesa  -  Patisambhida  -  Apadana  -  Buddhavamsa  - 
Cariyapitakavasena  pannarasabhedo  Khuddakanikayo  ti,  idam 
Suttantapitakam  nama. 

Dhammasahgani,  Vibhango,  Dhatukatha,  Puggalapanfiatti, 
Kathavatthu,  Yamakam,  Patthanan  ti  idam  Abhidhammapita- 
kam  nama. 

1  P.E.V.  add  ti.  ^  p.E.V.  Theragatha. 

Pathamamahdsangitivannand  149 

21.  Tattha : 

Vividhavisesanayatta  vinayanato  c'eva  kayavacanam, 
vinayatthaviduhi  ayam  vinayo  vinayo  ti  akkhato. 
Vividhd  hi  ettha  pancavidha-Patimokkh'uddesa-Parajikadi- 
satta  -  apattikkhandha  -  Matika  -  Vibhangadippabhedanaya  ; 
visesahlmidi  ca  dalhikammasithilikaranappayojana  anuppan[19] 
fiattinaya,  kayikavacasika-ajjhacaranisedhanato  c'esa  kayam 
vacan  ca  vineti,  tasma  vividhanayatta  visesanayatta  kayavaca- 
naii  ca  vinayanato  vinayo  ti  akkhato.  Ten'  etam  etassa 
vacanatthakosallattham  vuttam  : 

Vividhavisesanayatta  vinayanato  c'eva  kayavacanam, 
vinayatthavidiihi  ayam  vinayo  vinayo  ti  akkhato  ti. 

22.  Itaram  pana  : 

Atthanam  sucanato  su  vuttato  savanato  ca  sudanato 
suttana  suttasabhagato  ca  suttam  ^  suttan  ti  akkhatam. 
Tarn  hi  attatthaparatthadibhede  atthe  suceti,  suvutta  c'ettha 
attha  veneyyajjhasayanulomena  vuttatta,^  pasavati  c'etam 
atthe  sassam  iva  phalam,  pasavatiti  vuttam  hoti ;  siidati 
c'etam  dhenu  viya  khiram,  paggharatiti  vuttam  hoti ;  sutthu 
ca  ne  tayati,  rakkhatiti  vuttam  hoti ;  suttasabhagan  c'etam,^ 
yatha  hi  tacchakanam  suttam  pamanam  hoti  evam  etam  pi 
viiinunam,  yatha  ca  suttena  sangahltani  pupphani  na  vikiri- 
yanti  na  viddhamsiyanti  *  evam  etena  sangahita  attha.  Ten' 
etam  etassa  vacanatthakosallattham  vuttam  : 

Atthanam  siicanato  suvuttato  savanato  ca  siidanato, 
suttana  suttasabhagato  ca  suttam  ^  suttan  ti  akkhatan  ti. 

23.  [20]  Itaro  pana  : 

Yam  ettha  vuddhimanto  salakkhana  piijita  paricchinna, 
vuttadhika  ca  dhamma  abhidhammo  tena  akkhato. 
Ayam  hi  aft/^^saddo  vuddhisalakkhanapujitaparicchinnadhi- 
kesu  dissati.  Tatha  h'esa  :  balha  me  dukkha  vedana  abhik- 
kamanti  no  patikkamantiti  ^  adisu  vuddhiyam  agato.  Ya  ta 
rattiyo  abhinfiata  abhilakkhitati  adisu  salakkhane.  Rajabhiraja 
manujindo  ti  adisu  pujite.     Patibalo  vinetum  abhidhamme 

^  E.  omits.  2  T.  vuttata. 

*  T.  ca  nam.  *  T.  viddhamsiyanti. 

^  E.  omits.  *  P.E.Y.  omit  no  patikkamanti. 

150  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

abhivinaye  ti  adisu  paricchinne  ;  annamannam  sankaravira- 
hite  1  dhamme  ca  vinaye  cati  vuttani  hoti.  Abhikkantena 
vannenati  adisu  adhike.  Ettha  ca  rupupapattiya  maggam 
bhaveti,  mettasahagatena  cetasa  ekam  disam  pharitva  viharatiti 
adina  nayena  vuddhimanto  pi  dhamma  vutta.  Riip^ramma- 
nam  va  saddarammanam  vati  adina  nayena  arammanadihi 
sallakkhaniyatta  ^  salakkhana  pi.  Sekha  dhamma  asekha 
dhamma  lokuttara  dhammati  adina  nayena  piijita  pi  piijara- 
hati  adhippayo.  Phasso  hoti  vedana  hotiti  adina  nayena 
sabhavaparicchinnatta  paricchinna  pi.  Mahaggata  dhamma 
appamana  dhamma  anuttara  dhammati  adina  nayena  adhika 
pi  dhamma  vutta.  Ten'  etam  etassa  vacanakosallattham 
vuttam  : 

Yam  ettha  vuddhimanto  salakkhana  pujita  paricchinna, 
vuttadhika  ca  dhamma  abhidhammo  tena  akkhato  ti. 

24.     Yam  pan'  ettha  avisittham  ^  tarn 

Pitakam  pitakatthavidu  pariyattibhajanatthato  ahu, 
tena  samodhanetva  tayo  pi  vinayadayo  neyya. 
[21]  Pariyatti  pi  hi :  ma  pitakasampadanenati  adisu  pitakan 
ti  vuccati.    Atha  puriso  agaccheyya  kuddala pitakam  adayati 
adisu  yam  kiiici  bhajanam  pi.  Tasma  : 

Pitakam  pitakatthavidu  pariyattibhajanatthato  ahu, 
tena  samodhanetva  tayo  pi  vinayadayo  neyyati. 
Tena  evarn  duvidhatthena  pitakasaddena  saha  samasarn 
katva  vinayo  ca  so  pitakarn  ca  pariyattibhavato  tassa  tassa 
atthassa  bhajanato  cati  Vinayapitakam.  Yathavutten'  eva 
nayena  suttafi  ca  tarn  pitakarn  cati  Suttapitakam.  Abhidham- 
mo ca  so  pitakarn  cati  Abhidhamma pitakan  ti,  evam  ete  tayo 
pi  vinayadayo  neyya.  Evarn  natva  ca  puna  pi  tesv  eva  pitakesu 
nanappakarakosallattham  : 

Desanasasanakathabhedam  tesu  yatharaham, 
sikkhappahanagambhirabhavail  ca  paridipaye. 

Pariyattibhedam  sampattim  vipattim  capi  yam  yahim, 
papunati  yatha  bhikkhu  tam  pi  sabbam  vibhavaye  ti. 

^  T.  annamanna-. 

2  E.  salakkhaniyatta  ;   T.  lakkhaniyatta. 

^  P.  avasittham. 

Pathamamahdsangltivannand  151 

25.  Tatrayam  paridipana  vibhavana  ca.  Etani  hi  tini  pitakani 
yathakkamam  anavoharaparamatthadesana,  yathaparadha- 
yathanulomayathadhammasasanani,  samvarasamvaraditthivi- 
nivethananamarupaparicchedakatha  ti  ca  ^  vuccanti.  Ettha  hi 
Vinayapitakam  anarahena  bhagavata  anabahullato  desitatta 
anadesana,  Suttapitakam  voharakusalena  bhagavata  voharaba- 
hullato  desitatta  voharadesana,  Abhidhammapitakam  para- 
mat  thakusalena  bhagavata  paramatthabahullato  desitatta 
paramatthadesanati  vuccati. 

[22]  Tatha  pathamam  ye  te  pacuraparadha  satta  te  yatha- 
paradham  ettha  sasitati  yathaparadhasasanam,  dutiyam 
anekajjhasayanusayacaritadhimuttika  satta  yathanulomam 
ettha  sasitati  yathanulomasasanam,  tatiyam  :  dhammapunja- 
matte  aham  mamati  sannino  satta  yathadhammam  ettha 
sasitati  yathadhammasasanan  ti  vuccati. 

Tatha  pathamam  ajjhacarapatipakkhabhiito  samvara-sam- 
varo  ettha  kathito  ti  samvara-samvarakatha,  dutiyam  dvasat- 
thiditthipatipakkhabhuta  ditthivinivethana  ettha  kathitati 
ditthivinivethanakatha,  tatiyam  ragadipatipakkhabhiito  nama- 
rupaparicchedo  ettha  kathito  ti  namaruparicchedakathati 

26.  Tisu  pi  ca  etesu  tisso  sikkha  tini  ^  pahanani  catubbidho 
ca  gambhirabhavo  veditabbo.  Tatha  hi  Vinayapitake  visesena 
adhisilasikkha  vutta,  Suttapitake  adhicittasikkha,  Abhidham- 
mapitake  adhipaMasikkha.  Vinayapitake  ca  vitikkamappa- 
hanam  kilesanam  vitikkamapatipakkhatta  silassa.  Suttapitake 
pariyutthanappahanam  pariyutthanapatipakkhatta  samadhis- 
sa.  Abhidhammapitake  anusayappahanam  anusayapatipak- 
khatta  paniiaya.  Pathame  ca  tadangappahanam  kilesanam 
itaresu  vikkhambhanasamucchedappahanani.  Pathame  ca  ^ 
duccaritasankilesassa  pahanam  itaresu  tanhaditthisahkilesa- 
nam.  Ekam  ekasmim  c' ettha  catubbidho  pi  dhammatthadesa- 
napativedhagambhirabhavo  veditabbo.  Tattha  dhammo  ti 
pali,*  attho  ti  tassa  yeva  attho,  desana  'ti  tassa  manasa 
vavatthapitaya  ^  paliya  *  desana,  pativedho  ti  paliya  *  pali  *- 
atthassa  ca  yathabhutavabodho.      Tisu  pi  c'etesu  ete   [23] 

1  T,  cati.  2  X.  tini.  3  T.  omits. 

*  T.  pali-  5  X.  avatthapitaya. 

152  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

dhammatthadesanapativedha  ^  yasma  sasadihi  viya  maha- 
samuddo,  mandabuddhihi  dukkhogaha  alabbhaneyyapatittha 
ca,  tasma  gambhira.  Evam  ekam  ekasmim  ettha  catubbidho 
pi  gambhirabhavo  veditabbo. 

27.  Aparo  nayo  :  dhammo  ti  hetu  ;  vuttam  h'etam  :  hetumhi  I 
nanam  dhammapatisambhidati.  Attho  ti  hetuphalam ;  vuttam 
h'etam  :  hetuphale  ilanain  atthapatisambhidati.  Desana  'ti 
pafinatti ;  yathadhammam  dhammabhilapo  ti  adhippayo. 
Pativedho  ti  abhisamayo  ;  so  ca  lokiyo  lokuttaro  visayato 
asammohato  ca  atthanurupam  dhammesu  dhammanuriipam 
atthesu  panfiatti,  pathanurupam  pafiiiattisu  avabodho. 

Idani  yasma  etesu  pitakesu  yam  yam  dhammajatam  attha- 
jatam  va  yo  cayam  yatha  yatha  napetabbo  attho  sotunam 
iianassa  abhimukho  hoti  tatha  tatha  tadatthajotika  desana, 
yo  c'ettha  aviparitavabodhasankhato  pativedho  sabbam  p'etam 
anupacitakusalasambharehi  duppafiiiehi  sasadihi  mahasamuddo 
viya  dukkhogaham  alabbhaneyyapatitthan  ca,  tasma  evam 
pi  ekam  ekasmim  ettha  catubbidho  pi  gambhirabhavo 

[24]  Ettavata  ca  : 
Desanasasanakathabhedam  tesu  yatharaham, 
sikkhappahanagambhirabhavail  ^  ca  paridipaye  ; 
iti  ayam  gatha  vuttattha  hoti. 

28.  Pariyattibhedam  sampattim  vipattim  capi  yam  yahim 
papunati  yatha  bhikkhu  tam  pi  sabbam  vibhavaye  ; 

iti  ettha  pana  tisu  pitakesu  tividho  pariyattibhedo  datthabbo. 
Tisso  hi  pariyattiyo  :  alagaddupama  nissaranattha  bhandaga- 
rikapariyattiti.  Tattha  duggahita  uparambhadihetu  pariyaputa 
alagaddupama.  Yam  sandhaya  vuttam  :  seyyathapi  bhikkhave 
puriso  alagaddatthiko  alagaddagavesi  alagaddapariyesanam 
caramano,  so  passeyya  mahantam  alagaddam,  tam  enam  bhoge 
va  nangutthe  va  ganheyya,  tassa  so  alagaddo  patiparivattitva 
hat  the  va  bahaya  va  afinatarasmim  va  angapaccange  daseyya, 
so  tato  nidanam  maranam  va  nigaccheyya  maranamattam  va 
dukkham.  Tam  kissa  hetu.  Duggahitatta  bhikkhave  alagad- 
dassa.      Evam  eva  kho  bhikkave  idh'  ekacce  moghapurisa 

1  T.  -desana  pativedha,  ^  x.  sikkhapahana-. 

Pathamamahdsangltivannand  153 

dhammam  pariyapunanti  suttam  pe  vedallam.  Te  tarn  dham- 
mam  pariyapunitva  tesam  dhammanam  pannaya  attham 
na  upaparikkhanti,  tesam  te  dhamma  pannaya  attham  anupa- 
parikkhatam  na  nijjhanam  khamanti ;  te  uparambhanisamsa 
c'eva  dhammam  pariyapunanti  itivadappamokkhanisamsa  ca  ; 
yassa  c'atthaya  dhammam  pariyapunanti,  tarn  c'assa  attham 
nanubhonti ;  tesam  te  dhamma  duggahita  digharattam  ahitaya 
dukkhaya  samvattanti.  Tarn  kissa  hetu.  Duggahitatta 
bhikkhave  dhammanan  ti. 

[25]  Ya  pana  suggahita  silakkhandhadiparipurim  yeva 
akankhamanena  pariyaputa  na  uparambhadihetu  ayam  nis- 
saranattha.  Yam  sandhaya  vuttam :  tesam  te  dhamma 
suggahita  digharattam  hitaya  sukhaya  samvattanti.  Tarn 
kissa  hetu.    Suggahitatta  bhikkhave  dhammanan  ti. 

Yam  pana  parinnatakkhandho  pahinakileso  bhavitamaggo 
patividdhakuppo  sacchikatanirodho  khmasavo  kevalarn  paveni- 
palanatthaya  vamsanurakkhanatthaya  pariyapunati,  ayam 

29.  Vinaye  pana  suppatipanno  bhikkhu  silasampattim  nissaya 
tisso  vijja  papunati,  tasam  yeva  ca  tattha  pabhedavacanato. 
Sutte  suppatipanno  samadhisampadam  nissaya  cha  abhifiiia 
papunati,  tasarn  yeva  ca  tattha  pabhedavacanato.  Abhidham- 
me  suppatipanno  pannasampadam  nissaya  catasso  patisam- 
bhida  papunati,  tasam  ca  tatth'  eva  pabhedavacanato.  Evam 
etesu  suppatipanno  yathakkamarn  imam  vijjattayam  chala- 
bhiiinacatupatisambhidabhedam  sampattirn  papunati. 

Vinaye  pana  duppatipanno  anuiinatasukhasamphassa-attha- 
ranapapuranadiphassasamafinato  patikkhittesu  upadinnaphas- 
sadisu  anavajjasanfii  hoti.  Vuttam  pi  h'etarn :  tathahani 
bhagavata  dhammam  desitam  ajanami  yatha  ye  'me  antara- 
yika  dhamma  vutta  bhagavata  te  patisevato  nalam  antara- 
yayati.  Tato  dussilabhavam  papunati.  [26]  Sutte  duppatipan- 
no :  cattaro  'me  bhikkhave  puggala  santo  samvijjamanati 
adisu  adhippayam  ajananto  duggahitam  ganhati.  Yam 
sandhaya  vuttam  :  attana  duggahitena  amhe  c'eva  abbhacik- 
khati  attanaii  ca  khanati  bahuii  ca  apunnarn  pasavatiti.  Tato 
micchaditthitam    papunati.  Abhidhamme    duppatipanno 

dhammacittarn    atidhavanto   acinteyyani   pi   cinteti.       Tato 

154  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

cittakkhepam  papunati.  Vuttam  h'etam :  cattar*  imani 
bhikkhave  acinteyyani,  na  cintetabbani,  yani  cintento  um- 
madassa  vighatassa  bhagi  assA.ti.  Evam  etesu  duppatipanno 
yathakkamena  imam  dussilabhavamicchaditthitacittakkhepa- 
bhedam  vipattim  papunatiti.  Ettavata, 

Pariyattibhedam  sampattim  vipattim  capi  yam  yahim 
papunati  yatha  bhikkhu  tam  pi  sabbam  vibhavaye  ; 
iti,  ayam  pi  gatha  vuttattha  hoti.     Evam  pi  nanappakarato 
pitakani  iiatva  tesam  vasen'  etam  Buddhavacanam  tividhan  ti 

30.  Katham  nikayavasena  pancavidham.  Sabbam  eva  c'etam 
Dighanikayo,  Majjhimanikayo,  vSamyuttanikayo,  Anguttara- 
nikayo,  Khuddakanikayo  ti  pancappabhedam  hoti. 

Tattha  katamo  Dighanikayo.  Tivaggasangahitani  ^  Brahma- 
jaladini  catuttimsasuttani. 

Catuttims'  eva  suttanta  tivaggo  yassa  saiigaho 
esa  Dighanikayo  ti  pathamo  anulomiko. 
Kasma  pan'  esa  Dighanikayo  ti  vuccati.  Dighappamananam 
suttanam  samuhato  nivasato  ca,  samuhanivasa  hi  [27]  nikayo 
ti  vuccanti.  Naham  bhikkhave  aiinam  ekanikayam  pi  samanu- 
passami  evam  cittam  yatha-y-idam  bhikkhave  tiracchanagata 
pana,  ponikanikayo,^  cikkhalKkanikayo  ti  evam  adini  c'ettha 
sadhakani  sasanato  ca  ^  lokato  ca.  Evam  sesanam  pi  nika- 
yabhave  vacanattho  veditabbo. 

Katamo  Majjhimanikayo.  Majjhimappamanani  paiicadasa- 
vaggasangahani  Miilapariyayasutt adini  diyaddhasatam  dve  ca 

Diyaddhasatasuttanta  dve  ca  suttani  yattha  so 
nikayo  Majjhimo  pancadasavaggapariggaho. 
Katamo  Samyuttanikayo.    Devatasamyuttadivasena  thitani 
Oghataranasuttadini  satta  suttasahassani  satta  ca  sutta  satani 
dvasatthi  ca  suttani. 

Satta  suttasahassani  satta  suttasatani  ca 
dvasatthi  c'eva  suttanta  eso  Samyuttasangaho. 
Katamo  Anguttaranikayo.   Ek'eka-angatirekavasena  thitani 

^  T.  -sangahani.  2  x.E,  poniki-.  *  T.  omits. 

Pathamamahdsangitivannand  155 

Cittapariyadan^dini   nava   suttasahassani   panca   suttasatani 
sattapannasa  ca  suttani. 

Nava  suttasahassani  panca  suttasatani  ca 
sattapannasasuttani  sankha  Anguttare  ayam. 
Katamo  Khuddakanikayo.    Sakalam  Vinayapitakam,  Abhi- 

dhammapitakam,    Khuddakapath^dayo    ca    pubbe    nidassita 

pancadasabheda  thapetva  cattaro  nikaye  avasesam  Buddha- 

vacanan  ti. 

[28]  Thapetva  caturo  p'ete  nikaye  Dighadike 

tad  anfiam  Buddha vacanam  nikayo  Khuddako  mato  ti. 

Evam  nikayavasena  paiicavidham. 

31.  Katham  angavasena  navavidham.  Sabbam  eva  h'idam 
suttam,  geyyam,  veyyakaranam,  gatha,  udanam,  itivuttakam, 
jatakam,  abbhutadhammaip,  vedallan  ti  navappabhedam  hoti. 
Tattha  ubhato-Vibhanga-Niddesa-Khandhaka-Parivara,  Sut- 
tanipate  Mangalasutta-Ratanasutta-Nalakasutta-Tuvatakasut- 
tani,  anfiam  pi  suttanamakam  tathagatavacanam  suttan  ti 
veditabbam.  Sabbam  pi  sagathakam  suttam  geyyan  ti  veditab- 
bam  ;  visesena  Samyuttake  sakalo  pi  sagathakavaggo.  Saka- 
lam Abhidhammapitakam  niggathakam  suttam  yaii  ca  anfiam 
pi  atthahi  angehi  asangahitam  Buddhavacanam  tarn  veyya- 
karanan  ti  veditabbam,  Dhammapadam,  Theragatha,  Theri- 
gatha/  Suttanipate  nosuttanamika  ^  suddhikagatha  ca  gathati 
veditabba.  Somanassafianamayikagathapatisamyutta  dve  asiti 
suttanta  udanan  ti  veditabbam.  Vuttam  h'etam  bhagavatati 
adinayappavattadvadas'uttarasatasuttantaitivuttakan  ti  vedi- 
tabbam. Apannakajatakadini  pafiiiasadhikani  paiica  jataka- 
satani  jatakan  ti  veditabbam.  Cattaro  'me  bhikkhave  acchariya 
abbhuta  dhamma  Anande  ti  adinayappavatta  sabbe  pi 
acchariya  -  abbhutadhammapatisarnyuttasuttanta  abbhuta- 
dhamman  ti  veditabbam.  Culavedalla-Mahavedalla-Samma- 
ditthi  -  Sakkapaiiha  -  [29]  Sankharabha  j  aniy  a-  Mahapunnamasut- 
tadayo  sabbe  pi  vedarn  ca  tutthirn  ca  laddha  laddha  ^  pucchita- 
suttanta  vedallan  ti  veditabbarn.  Evam  angavasena 

1  T.  Therigatha.  2  j.  no  sutta-.  ^  x.  laddhaladdha. 

156  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

32.  Katham  dhammakkhandhavasena  caturasltisahassavid- 
ham.    Sabbam  eva  c'etam  Buddhavacanam  : 

Dvasitim  Buddhato  ganhim  dve  sahassani  bhikkhuto 
caturasitisahassani  ye  'me  dhamma  pavattino  ti ; 
evam    paridipitadhammakkhandhavasena    caturasitisahassap- 
pabhedam  hoti. 

Tat t ha  ekanusandhikam  suttam  eko  dhammakkhandho. 
Yam  anekanusandhikam  tattha  anusandhivasena  dhammak- 
khandhaganana.  Gathabandhesu  panhapucchanam  eko  dham- 
makkhandho vissajjanam  eko.  Abhidhamme  ekam  ekam 
tikadukabhajanam  ekam  ekan  ca  cittavarabhajanam  ekam  ^ 
eko  dhammakkhandho.  Vinaye  atthi  vatthu,  atthi  matika, 
atthi  padabhajaniyam,  atthi  antarapatti,^  atthi  anapatti, 
atthi  tikaparicchedo.^  Tattha  ekam  eko  kotthaso  ekam  eko 
dhammakkhandho  ti  veditabbo.  Evam  dhammakkhandhava- 
sena caturasitisahassavidham. 

33.  Evam  etam  abhedato  rasavasena  ekavidham,  bhedato 
dhammavinayadivasena  duvidhadibhedam  Buddhavacanam 
sangayantena  Mahakassapapamukhena  vasiganena  ayam 
dhammo,  ayam  vinayo,  idam  pathamabuddhavacanam,  idam 
majjhimabuddhavacanam,  idam  pacchimabuddhavacanam, 
idam  Vinayapitakam,  idam  Suttapitakam,  idam  Abhidhamma- 
pitakam,  ayam  Dighanikayo  pe  ayam  Khuddakanikayo,  imani 
suttadini  navangani,  imani  caturasiti  dhammakkhandhasahas- 
saniti,*  imam  pabhedam  vavatthapetva  'va  sangitam. 

[30]  Na  kevalam  ettakam  eva  aiinam  pi  uddanasangaha- 
vaggasangaha  -  peyyalasangaha  -  ekanipatadukanipatadinipa- 
t  asangaha-samyuttasangaha-pannasakasanga  hadim  anekavi- 
dham  tisu  pitakesu  sandissamanam  ^  sangahappabhedam  vavat- 
thapetva evam  ®  sattahi  masehi  sangitam. 

Sangitipariyosane  c'assa  :  idam  Mahakassapattherena  dasa- 
balassa  sasanam  pancavassasahassaparimanam  kalam  pavat- 
tanasamattham  katan  ti  sanjatappamoda  sadhukaram  viya 
dadamana  ayam  mahapathavi  udakapariyantam  katva  anekap- 
pakaram  kampi  '  sankampi  sampakampi  sampavedhi.  Anekani 

^  T.  omits.  2  Sum.  apatti ;   Bp.  adds  atthi  apatti. 

^  T.  tikacchedo  ;   P.  paricchedo.  *  T.  -sahassaniti.    Imam. 

*  T.  sandhissamanam.  "  O.  resumes  from  here. 
'  P.E.V.  omit. 

Dutiyamahdsangltivannand  157 

ca  acchariyani  patur  ahesun  ti.    Ay  am  pathamamahasangiti 

nama,  ya  loke  : 

Satehi  paiicahi  kata  tena  paiicasatati  ca, 
thereh'  eva  katatta  ca  therikati  pavuccatiti. 
Pathamamahasangiti  nitthita.^ 


34.  Imissa  pana  pathamamahasangitiya  pavattamanaya  vina- 
yam  pucchantena  ayasmata  Mahakassapena :  pathamam 
avuso  UpaH  parajikam  kattha  paiinattan  ti  evam  adivacana- 
pariyosane  vatthum  pi  pucchi,  nidanam  pi  pucchi,  puggalam  pi 
pucchiti  ettha  nidane  pucchite  tarn  nidanam  aditoppabhuti 
vittharetva  yena  ca  pannattam  yasma  ca  paiinattam  sabbam 
etam  kathetukamena  ayasmata  UpaHttherena  vuttam  :  tena 
[31]  samayena  Buddho  bhagava  Veraiijayam  viharatiti 
sabbam  vattabbam.  Evam  idam  ayasmata  UpaHttherena 
vuttam.  Tan  ca  pana  pathamamahasangitikale  vuttan  ti 
veditabbam.  Ettavata  ca  :  idam  vacanam  kena  vuttam  kada 
ca  vuttan  ti  etesam  padanam  attho  pakasito  hoti. 

Idani :  kasma  vuttan  ti  ettha  vuccate.  Yasma  ayam  ayasma 
Mahakassapattherena  nidanam  puttho  tasma  pan'  etam  2 
nidanam  aditoppabhuti  vittharetum  vuttan  ti,  evam  idam 
ayasmata  UpaHttherena  pathamamahasangitikale  vadantenapi 
imina  karanena  vuttan  ti  veditabbarn.  Ettavata  ca  :  vuttam 
yena  yada  yasmati  imesam  matikapadanarn  attho  pakasito 

35.  Idani :  dharitam  ^  yena  cabhatam,  yatthappatitthitarn 
c'etam  etarn  vatva  vidhim  tato  ti  ^  etesam  atthappakasanat- 
tham  idam  vuccati.  Tarn  pan'etam  :  tena  samayena  Buddho 
bhagava  Veraiijayam  viharatiti  evam  adivacanapatimandita- 
nidanam  *  Vinayapitakam  kena  dharitam  kenabhatam  kat- 
thappatitthitan  ^  ti  vuccate.      Adito  tava  idam  bhagavato 

1  T.  omits  this  line. 

2  P.E.V.  tena  tam. 

3-3  This  is  given  by  T.  as  a  stanza  with  a  lacuna  in  pada  a  ;  cp.  st.  at  Smp.  2 
beginning  :  vuttam  yena  yada  yasma.  All  others  have  this  sentence  in  prose. 

*  T.  -patimandita-  ;   O.  -pati-. 

5  T.O.  kattha  'patitthitan  ti. 

158  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

sammukha  ayasmata  Upalittherena  dharitam,  tassa  sam- 
mukhato  aparinibbute  Tathagate  chalabhifinadibhedehi  ane- 
kehi  bhikkhusahassehi,  parinibbute  Tathagate  Mahakassa- 
papamukhehi  dhammasafigahakattherehi . 

Kenabhatan  ti,  Jambudipe  tava  Upalittheram  adim  katva 
acariyaparamparaya  yava  tatiyasangiti  tava  abhatam.  [32] 
Tatrayam  acariyaparampara  : 

Upali  Dasako  c'eva  Sonako  Siggavo  tatha, 
Tisso  Moggaliputto  ca  panc'ete  vijitavino, 
paramparaya  vinayam  dipe  Jambusirivhaye 
acchijjamanam  anesum  tatiyo  yava  sangaho. 

36.  Ayasma  hi  UpaH  imam  vinayavamsam  vinayatantim 
vinayapavenim  bhagavato  sammukha  uggahetva  bahunnam 
bhikkhGnam  hadaye  patitthapesi.  Tassa  h'ayasmato  santike 
vinayam  uggahetva  vinaye  pakatanfiutam  pattesu  puggalesu 
puthuj  j  anasotapannasakadagami-anagamino  gananapatham 
vitivatta,  khinasavanam  sahassam  ekam  ahosi.  Dasakatthero 
pi  tass'eva  saddhivihariko  ahosi.  So  UpaHttherassa  sammukha 
uggahetva  tath'eva  vinayam  vacesi.  Tassapi  ayasmato  santike 
uggahetva  vinaye  pakatanfiutam  patta  puthuj  janadayo  gana- 
napatham vitivatta,  khinasavanam  sahassam  eva  ahosi. 
Sonakatthero  pana  Dasakattherassa  saddhivihariko  ahosi. 
So  pi  attano  upajjhayassa  Dasakattherassa  sammukha  ugga- 
hetva tath'eva  vinayarn  vacesi.  Tassapi  ayasmato  santike 
uggahetva  vinaye  pakatanfiutam  patta  puthuj  janadayo  gana- 
napatharn  vitivatta,  khinasavanam  sahassam  eva  ahosi. 

37.  Siggavatthero  pi  Sonakattherassa  saddhivihariko  ^  ahosi. 
So  pi  attano  upajjhayassa  Sonakat^therassa  santike  vinayarn 
uggahetva  arahantasahassassa  dhuraggaho  ahosi.  Tassa 
panayasmato  santike  uggahetva  vinaye  pakataiifiutam  patta 
puthuj  janasotapannasakadagami-anagamino  pi  khinasavapi 
[33]  ettakani  sataniti  va  ettakani  sahassaniti  va  aparicchinna  ^ 
ahesurn.  Tada  kira  Jambudipe  atimahabhikkhusamudayo  ^ 
ahosi.  Moggahputtatissattherassa  pana  anubhavo  tatiyasan- 
gitiyam    pakato    bhavissati.       Evam    idam    Vinayapitakarn 

^-1  P.E.V.  omit  and  read  :    saddhivihariko  therassa  santike.  .  .  . 
2   Vide  T.,  p.  33.  n.  1.  ^  P.E.V.  -samuho. 

Dutiyamahdsangltivannand  159 

Jambudipe  tava  imaya  acariyaparamparaya  yava  tatiyasangiti 
tava  abhatan  ti  veditabbam. 

38.     Dutiyasangitivijananattham  pana  ayam  anukkamo  vedi- 
tabbo.   Yada  hi : 

Sangayitvana  saddhammam  jotayitva  ca  sabbadhi  ^ 
yavajivitapariyantam  thatva  pancasata  pi  te, 
khinasava  jutimanto  thera  Kassapa-adayo 
khinasneha  padipa  ^  va  nibbayimsu  analaya  ; 
athanukkamena  gacchantesu  rattindivesu  vassasataparinibbute 
bhagavati  Vesalika  Vajjiputtaka  bhikkhu  Vesaliyam  :   kappati 
singilonakappo,  kappati  dvangulakappo,  kappati  gamantara- 
kappo,  kappati  avasakappo,  kappati  anumatikappo,  kappati 
acinnakappo,  kappati  amathitakappo,  kappati  jalogim  ^  patum, 
kappati  adasakam  nisidanam,  kappati  jataruparajatan  ti  imani 
dasa  vatthiini  dipesum.      Tesam  Susunagaputto  Kalasoko  * 
nama  raja  pakkho  ahosi. 

Tena  kho  pana  samayena  ayasma  Yaso  Kakandakaputto 
Vajjisu  carikam  caramano :  Vesalika  kira  Vajjiputtaka 
bhikkhu  Vesahyam  dasavatthiini  dipentiti  sutva  :  na  kho 
pan'etam  patirupam  yv-aham  dasabalassa  sasanavipattim 
sutva  appossukko  bhaveyyam,  handaham  adhammavadino 
niggahetva  [34]  dhammam  dipemiti  cintento  yena  VesaU  ^  tad 
avasari.  Tatra  sudam  ayasma  Yaso  Kakandakaputto  Vesahyam 
viharati  Mahavane  Kiitagarasalayam. 

Tena  kho  pana  samayena  Vesahka  Vajjiputtaka  bhikkhu 
tadah'  uposathe  kamsapatim  udakena  puretva  majjhe  bhik- 
khusanghassa  thapetva  agate  Vesahke  upasake  evam  vadenti  ^ : 
dethavuso  sanghassa  kahapanam  pi  addham  pi  padam  pi 
masakarupam  pi,  bhavissati  sanghassa  parikkharena  karaniyan 
ti,  sabbam  tava  vattabbam  yava  :  imaya  pana  vinayasangltiya 
satta  bhikkhusatani  anunani  anadhikani  ahesum,  tasmayam 
dutiyasangiti  sattasatikati  vuccatiti.  Evam  '  tasmiii '  ca 
sannipate  dvadasabhikkhusatasahassani  sannipatimsu  ayas- 
mata  Yasena  samussahita.   Tesam  majjhe  ayasmata  Revatena 

^  T.  sabbadhi.  2  x.  khinasnehapadipa  va. 

3  T.E.  jalogi ;   vide  T.,  p.  33,  n.  13.  *  P.E.V.  Kalasoka. 

6  T.  Vesali.  «  P.E.V.  vadanti. 
'  P.E.V.  Etasmim. 

i6o  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

putthena  Sabbakamittherena  vinayam  vissajjentena  tani  dasa 
vatthuni  vinicchitani  adhikaranam  vupasamitam. 

Atha  thera  puna  dhammafi  ca  vinayan  ca  sangayissamslti 
tipitakadhare  pattapatisambhide  sattasate  bhikkhu  uccinitva 
Vesaliyam  Valukarame  ^  sannisiditva  Mahakassapattherena 
sangayitasadisam  eva  sabbam  sasanamalam  sodhetva  puna 
pitakavasena  nikayavasena  angavasena  dhammakkhandhava- 
sena  ca  sabbam  dhammafi  ca  vinayan  ca  sangayimsu.  Ayam 
sangiti  atthahi  masehi  nitthita. 
Ya  loke  : 

Satehi  sattahi  kata  tena  sattasatati  ca 
pubbe  katam  upadaya  dutiya  ti  ca  vuccatiti ; 
sa  panayam  : 

Yehi  therehi  sangita  sangiti  tesu  vissuta 
Sabbakami  ca  Salho  ca  Re  vat  o  Khujjasobhito 
[35]  Yaso  ca  Sanasambhuto  etc  saddhiviharika 

thera  Anandattherassa  ^  ditthapubba  Tathagatam. 
Sumano  Vasabhagami  ca  fieyya  saddhiviharika 
dve  ime  Anuruddhassa  ditthapubba  Tathagatam. 
Dutiyo  pana  sangito  yehi  therehi  sangaho 
sabbe  pi  pannabhara  te  katakicca  anasavati ; 
ayarn  dutiyasangiti. 

39.  Evam  imam  ^  dutiyasangitim  sangayitva  te  thera : 
uppajjissati  nu  kho  anagate  pi  sasanassa  evarupam  abbudan  ti 
olokayamana  idarn  addasamsu  :  ito  vassasatassa  upari  atthara- 
same  vasse  PataHputte  Dhammasoko  nama  raja  uppajjitva 
sakala-Jambudipe  rajjarn  karessati.*  So  Buddhasasane  pasi- 
ditva  mahantam  labhasakkaram  pavattayissati.  Tato  titthiya 
labhasakkaram  patthayamana  sasane  pabbajitva  sakam  sakam 
ditthim  paridipessanti.  Evam  sasane  mahantam  abbudarn 

Atha  nesam  etad  ahosi :  kin  nu  kho  mayam  etasmim  abbude 
uppanne  sammukha  bhavissama  na  bhavissamati.  Atha  sabb' 
eva  tada  attano  asammukhabhavam  natva  :  ko  nu  kho  tarn 
adhikaranam  vupasametum  samattho  bhavissatiti  sakala- 
manussalokaii   ca  chakamavacaradevalokan   ca  olokenta  na 

1  T.  Valuka-  2  p.E.V.  Anandatherassa. 

3  E.  idam.  *  T.  adds  iti. 

DutiyamahdsangUivanmnd  i6i 

kanci  ^  disva  Brahmaloke  Tissam  nama  mahabrahmanam 
addasamsu  parittayukam  uparibrahmalokupapattiya  bhavita- 

Disvana  nesam  etad  ahosi :  sace  mayam  etassa  brahmuno 
manussaloke  nibbattanatthaya  ussaham  kareyyama,  addha 
[36]  esa  Moggalibrahmanassa  gehe  patisandhim  gahessati,  tato 
ca  mantehi  palobhito  nikkhamitva  pabbajissati,  so  evam 
pabbajitva  sakalabuddhavacanam  uggahetva  adhigatapati- 
sambhido  hutva  titthiye  madditva  tarn  adhikaranam  vinic- 
chinitva  sasanam  pagganhissatiti. 

Te  Brahmalokam  gantva  Tissam  mahabrahmanam  etad 
avocum  :  ito  vassasatassa  upari  attharasame  vasse  sasane 
mahantam  abbudam  uppajjissati,  mayan  ca  ^  sakalam  manus- 
salokam  chakamavacaradevalokan  ca  olokayamana  kanci 
sasanam  paggahetum  ^  samattham  adisva  Brahmalokam  vici- 
nanta  bhavantam  addasama.  Sadhu  sappurisa  manussaloke 
nibbattitva  dasabalassa  sasanam  pagganhitum  *  patinnam  ^ 
dehiti.  Evam  vutte  mahabrahma  :  aham  kira  sasane  uppan- 
nam  abbudam  sodhetva  sasanam  paggahetum  samattho 
bhavissamiti  hatthapahattho  udagg'udaggo  hutva  sadhuti 
patissunitva  patinnam  adasi.  Thera  Brahmaloke  tarn  karani- 
yam  tiretva  puna  paccagamimsu. 

40.  Tena  kho  pana  samayena  Siggavatthero  ca  Candavajjit- 
thero  ^  ca  dve  pi  navaka  honti  daharabhikkhu  tipitakadhara 
pattapatisambhida  khinasava,  te  tarn  adhikaranam  na  sam- 
papuninisu.''  Thera:  tumhe  avuso  amhakam  imasmirn 
adhikarane  no  sahayaka  ahuvattha,  tena  vo  idarn  dandakam- 
marri  hotu  :  Tisso  nama  brahma  Moggalibrahmanassa  gehe 
patisandhirn  ganhissati,  tarn  tumhakam  eko  niharitva  pabba- 
jetu,  eko  Buddhavacanarn  ugganhapetuti  vatva  sabbe  pi 
yavat  ayukam  thatva  : 

Sabbakamippabhutayo  te  pi  thera  mahiddhika 
aggikkhandha  va  lokamhi  jalitva  parinibbuta. 
Dutiyam  sahgaham  katva  visodhetvana  sasanam 
[37]  anagate  pi  katvana  hetum  saddhammasuddhiya  ; 

1  E.  kind.  *  E.  omits. 

3  T.  pagganhetum.  *'  E.  pagganhitva  dehiti 

«  E.  omits  patifiiiam.  "  T.  Canda-  throughout. 
'  T.  papunimsu. 

i62  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

Khmasava  vasippatta  pabhinnapatisambhida 
aniccatavasam  thera  te  pi  nama  upagata. 
Evam  aniccatam  jammim  natva  durabhisambhavam 
tarn  pattum  vayame  dhiro  yam  niccam  amatam  padan  ti. 
Ettavata  sabbakarena  dutiyasangitivannana  nitthita  hoti.^ 


41.  Tisso  pi  kho  mahabrahma  Brahmaloka  cavita  Moggali- 
brahmanassa  gehe  patisandhim  aggahesi.  Siggavatthero  pi 
tassa  patisandhigahanatoppabhuti  ^  satta  vassani  brahmanassa 
geham  pindaya  pavisi.  Ekadivasam  pi  ulunkamattam  va 
yagum  katacchumattam  va  bhattam  nalattha.  Sattannam 
pana  vassanam  accayena  ekadivasam  :  aticchatha  bhante  ti 
vacanamattam  alattha.  Tarn  divasam  eva  brahmano  pi 
bahiddha  kiilci  karaniyam  katva  agacchanto  patipathe  theram 
disva  :  bho  pabbajita  amhakam  geham  agamitthati  ^  aha. 
Ama  brahmana  agamimhati.*  Api  kind  labhitthati.  Ama 
brahmana  labhimhati.  So  geham  gantva  pucchi :  tassa 
pabbajitassa  kind  adatthati.   Na  kind  adamhati. 

Brahmano  dutiyadivase  gharadvare  yeva  nisidi :  ajja 
pabbajitam  musavadena  niggahessamiti.  Thero  dutiyadivase 
brahmanassa  gharadvararn  sampatto.  Brahmano  therarn 
disva  Va  evam  aha  :  tumhe  hiyyo  amhakam  gehe  kiiid  aladdha 
yeva,  labhimhati  avocuttha.  Vattati  nu  kho  tumhakarn 
musavado  ti.  Thero  aha  :  mayara  brahmana  tumhakarn  gehe 
sattavassani,  aticchathati  vacanamattam  pi  alabhitva  hiyyo, 
aticchathati  vacanamattarn  labhimha.  Ath'  etara  patisantha- 
rarn  upadaya  evam  avocumhati. 

Brahmano  cintesi :  ime  patisantharamattam  pi  labhitva  : 
labhimhati  pasamsanti.  Anilarn  kiiici  khadaniyarn  ^  [38] 
bhojaniyarn  ^  labhitva  kasma  nappasarnsantiti  pasiditva  attano 
atthaya  patiyaditabhattato  katacchubhikkharn  tad  upiyan  ^ 
ca  vyafijanarn  dapetva  :    imarn  bhikkham  sabbakalarn  tumhe 

^  p.  omits.  2  X.  -gahanato  pabhuti. 

3  P.E.V.  geham  agamatthati.  *  T.  agamamhati. 

5  T.  khadaniyarn.  *  T.  bhojaniyarn. 
'  T.  tadupiyan. 

Tatiyamahdsangltivannand  163 

labhissath^ti  aha.  So  punadivasatoppabhuti  ^  upasanka- 
mantassa  therassa  upasamam  disva  bhiyyosomattaya  pasiditva 
theram  niccakalam  attano  ghare  bhattavissaggakaranatthaya 
yaci.  Thero  adhivasetva  divase  divase  bhattakiccam  katva 
gacchanto  thokathokam  Buddha vacanam  kathetva  gacchati. 

42.  So  pi  kho  manavako  solasavass'uddesiko  yeva  tinnam 
vedanam  paragu  2  ahosi.  Brahmalokato  agatasuddhasattassa 
asane  va  sayane  va  anno  ko  ci  nisajjita  va  nipajjita  va  n'atthi. 
So  yada  acariyagharam  gacchati  tadassa  mancapitham  setena 
vatthena  paticchadetva  laggetva  thapenti. 

Thero  cintesi :  samayo  dani  manavakam  pabbajetum,  cirafi 
ca  me  idhagacchantassa  na  ^  kaci  manavakena  saddhim  katha 
uppajjati.  Handa  dani  imina  upayena  pallankam  nissaya 
uppajjissatiti,  geham  gantva  yatha  tasmim  gehe  thapetva 
manavakassa  pallankam  afinam  na  kiiici  asanam  dissati  tatha 
adhitthasi.  Brahmanassa  gehe  jano  theram  disva  aiinam 
kinci  asanam  apassanto  manavakassa  pallankam  attharitva 
adasi.  Nisidi  thero  pallanke.  Manavako  pi  kho  tarn  khanarn  ^ 
yeva  acariyaghara  agamma  theram  attano  pallanke  nisinnam 
disva  kupito  anattamano  :  ko  mama  pallankarn  samanassa 
pafinapesiti  aha.  Thero  bhattakiccarn  katva  vupasante 
manavakassa  candikkabhave  evam  aha :  kirn  pana  tvarn 
manavaka  [39]  kanci  ^  mantarn  janasiti.  Manavo :  bho 
pabbajita  mayi  dani  mante  ajanante  anne  ke  janissantiti 
vatva  therarn  pucchi :  tumhe  pana  mantam  janathati.  Puccha 
manava,  pucchitva  sakka  janitun  ti. 

Atha  kho  manavo  tisu  vedesu  sanighanduketubhesu  sakkha- 
rappabhedesu  ^  itihasapaiicamesu  yani  yani  ganthitthanani 
yesamnayarnn'evaattanapassatinapi'ssa  ^  acariyo  addasa,  tesu 
tesu  ®  therarn  pucchi.  Thero  pakatiya  pi  tinnam  vedanam 
paragu,^  idani  pana  patisambhidappatto,  ten'  assa  n'atthi 
tesam  panhanani  vissajjane  bharo  ti  tavad  eva  te  ^^^  panhe 
vissaj  j  et va  manavarn  aha :   manava  aham  taya  bahurn  pucchito, 

^  T.  -divasato  pabhuti.  ^  T.  paragu. 

^  P.E.V.  na  ca.  *  T.  tamkhanam. 

^  P.  kinci.  «  T.  sa-akkhara. 

'  P.E.  omit.  *  T.E.  tesu  once  only. 

*  T.  paragu.  ^°  P.E.  tesam. 

164  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

aham  pi  dani  tarn  ekam  panham  pucchami,  vyakarissasi  me  ti. 
Ama  bho  pabbajita  puccha,  vyakarissamiti. 

Thero  Cittayamake  imam  panham  pucchi :  yassa  cittam 
uppajjati  na  nirujjhati,  tassa  cittam  na  nirujjhissati  n'uppaj- 
jissati,  yassa  va  pana  cittam  nirujjhissati  n'uppajjissati,  tassa 
cittam  uppajjati  na  nirujjhatiti.  Manavo  uddham  va  adho  va 
saritum  asakkonto  :  kim  nama  bho  pabbajita  idan  ti  aha. 
Buddhamanto  namayam  manavati.  Sakka  panayam  bho 
mayham  pi  datun  ti.  Sakka  manava  amhehi  gahitapabbajjam 
ganhantassa  datun  ti. 

[40]  Tato  manavo  matapitaro  upasankamitva  aha  :  ayam 
pabbajito  Buddhamantam  nama  janati,  na  ca  attano  santike 
apabbajitassa  deti.  Aham  etassa  santike  pabbajitva  mantam 
ugganhissamiti.  Ath'  assa  matapitaro,  pabbajitva  pi  no  putto 
mante  ganhatu,  gahetva  punagamissatiti  maiinamana  :  ganha 
puttati  anujanimsu. 

43.  Thero  darakam  pabbajetva  dvattimsakarakammattha- 
nam  ^  tava  acikkhi.  So  tattha  parikammam  karonto  na  ciras- 
s'eva  sotapattiphale  patitthasi.  Tato  thero  cintesi :  samanero 
sotapattiphale  patitthito,  abhabbo  dani  sasanato  nivattiturn. 
Sace  pan'  assaham  kammatthanarn  vaddhetva  katheyyarn, 
arahattarn  papuneyya,  appossukko  bhaveyya  Buddhavacanarn 
gaheturn.  Samayo  dani  nam  Candavajjittherassa  ^  santikam 
pesetun  ti. 

Tato  nam  aha  :  ehi  tvarn  samanera,  therassa  santikarn 
gantva  Buddhavacanarn  ugganha.  Mama  vacanena  arogyam 
puccha,  evafi  ca  vadehi :  upajjhayo  marn  bhante  tumhakarn 
santikam  pahiniti.  Ko  namo  ^  te  upajjhayo  ti  ca  vutte  Sigga- 
vatthero  nama  bhante  ti  vadeyyasi.  Aham  ko  namo  ^  ti 
vutte  evarn  vadeyyasi :  mama  upajjhayo  bhante  tumhakarn 
namam  janatiti. 

Evam  bhante  ti  kho  Tisso  samanero  theram  abhivadetva 
padakkhinam  katva  anupubbena  Candavajjittherassa  ^  san- 
tikarn gantva  vanditva  ekam  antarn  atthasi.  Thero  *  :  sama- 
nera kuto  *  agato  'siti  aha.  Upajjhayo  mam  bhante  tumhakarn 

*  T.  dvatimsa-.  ^  T.  Canda-. 

^  T.  konamo.  *-*  T.  Thero  samaneram  pucchi  :   kuto.  .  .  . 

Tatiyamahdsangitivannand  165 

santikam  pahiniti.  Ko  namo  ^  te  upajjhayo  ti.  Siggavatthero 
nama  bhante  ti.  Aham  ko  namo  ^  ti.  Mama  upajjhayo  bhante 
tumhakam  namam  janatiti.^  Pattacivaram  dani  patisamehiti. 
Sadhu  bhante  ti  samanero  [41]  pattacivaram  patisametva 
punadivase  parivenam  sammajjitva  udakadantaponam  upat- 

Thero  sammatthatthanam  *  puna  sammajji,  tarn  udakam 
chaddetva  aniiam  udakam  ahari,  tail  ca  dantakattham  apa- 
netva  aiinam  dantakattham  ganhi.  Evam  satta  divasani 
katva  sattame  divase  puna  pucchi.  Samanero  puna  pi  pubbe 
kathitasadisam  eva  kathesi.  Thero  :  so  vatayam  brahmano 
ti  sanjanitva  :  kim  attham  agato  'siti  aha.  Buddhavacanam 
ugganhanatthaya  bhante  ti.  Thero  :  ugganha  dani  samanerati 
vatva  punadivasatoppabhuti  ^  Buddhavacanam  patthapesi. 
Tisso  samanero  'va  hutva  thapetva  Vinayapitakarn  sabbam 
Buddhavacanam  ugganhi  saddhim  atthakathaya.  Upasam- 
pannakale  pana  avassiko  'va  samano  tipitakadharo  ahosi. 

Acariy'upajjhaya  Moggahputtatissattherassa  hatthe  sakala- 
buddhavacanarn  patitthapetva  ®  yavat  ayukam  thatva  parinib- 
bayirnsu.  MoggaHputtatissatthero  pi  aparena  samayena  kam- 
matthanarn  vaddhetva  arahattam  patto  bahunnarn  dham- 
mavinayarn  vacesi. 

44.  Tena  kho  pana  samayena  Bindusarassa  raniio  ekasata- 
putta  ahesurn.  Te  sabbe  Asoko  attana  saddhim  ekamatikara 
Tissakumararn  thapetva  ghatesi.  Ghatento  cattari  vassani 
anabhisitto  Va  raj  jam  karetva  catunnam  vassanarn  accayena 
Tathagatassa  parinibbanato  dvinnam  vassasatanarn  upari 
attharasame  vasse  sakala-Jambudipe  ekarajjabhisekam  [42] 
papuni.  Abhisekanubhavena  c'assa  ima  raj'iddhiyo  agata  : 
mahapathaviya  hettha  yojanappamane  ana  pavattati,  tatha 
upari  akase,  Anotattadahato  atthahi  kajehi  solasa  paniyaghate  ' 
divase  divase  devata  aharanti,  yato  sasane  uppannasaddho 
hutva  atthaghate  bhikkhusanghassa  adasi,  dve  ghate  satthi- 
mattanam  ^  sahassanam  tipitakadharabhikkhunam/  dve  ghate 

1  T.  konamo.  ^  P.E.  omit  ti. 

3  T.  uttMpesi.  *  P.E.V.  sammajjitatthanam. 

6  T.  -divasato  pabhuti.  ^  T.  patitthapetva. 

'  T.  paniya.  *"®  E.  -mattanam  tipitakabhikkhunam. 

i66  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

aggamahesiya  Asandhimittaya,  cattaro  ghate  attana  pari- 
bhunji.  Devata  eva,  Himavante  nagalatadantakattham  nama 
atthi  siniddham  mudukam  rasavantam,  tarn  divase  divase 
aharanti,  yena  ranno  ca  mahesiya  ca  solasannan  ca  nataka- 
sahassanam  satthimattanan  ca  bhikkhusahassanam  devasikam 
dantaponakiccam  nippajjati. 

Devasikam  eva  tassa  devata  agadamalakam  agadaharita- 
kam  ^  suvannavannan  ca  gandharasasampannam  ambapakkan 
ca  aharanti.  Tatha  Chaddantadahato  pancavannam  niva- 
sanapapuranam  pitakavannam  hatthapufichanapattakam  dib- 
baii  ca  panakam  aharanti. ^  Devasikam  eva  pan'assa  anuvi- 
lepanagandham,^  parupanatthaya  asuttamayikam  sumana- 
pupphapatam,  mah^rahail  ca  anjanam  nagabhavanato  nagara- 
jano  aharanti.  [43]  Chaddantadahe  Va  *  utthitassa  sahno  nava 
vahasahassani  divase  divase  suva  aharanti,  musika  nitthusa- 
kam  ^  karonti,  eko  pi  khandatandulo  na  hoti,  ranno  sabbat- 
thanesu  ayam  eva  tandulo  paribhogam  gacchati.  Madhu- 
makkhika  madhum  karonti.  Kammarasaladisu  ^  accha  kutarn.' 
paharanti.  Karavikasakuna  '  agantva  madhurassaram  viku- 
janta  raiiiio  balikammam  karonti. 

45.  Imahi  iddhihi  samannagato  raja  ekadivasam  suvanna- 
sankhalikabandhanarn  pesetva  catunnam  Buddhanarn  adhi- 
gatarupadassanarn  kappayukam  Kalarti  nama  nagarajanarn 
anayitva  setacchattassa  hettha  maharahe  pallanke  nisidapetva 
anekasatavannehi  jalajathalajapupphehi  suvannapupphehi  ca 
pujarn  katva  sabbalankarapatimanditehi  ^  solasahi  nataka- 
sahassehi  samantato  parikkhipitva  :  anantaiianassa  tava  me 
saddhammavaracakkavattissa  sammasambuddhassa  rupam 
imesarn  akkhinarn  apatharn  karohiti  vatva  tena  nimmitam 
sakalasarire  vippakinnapufinappabhavanibbattasiti-anuvyan- 
janapatimanditarn  ^  dvattirnsamahapurisalakkhanasassirika- 
taya  vikasitakamaFuppalapundarikapatimanditam  iva  salilata- 
1am  taraganarasmijalavisadavisphuritasobhasamujjalam  ^^  iva 

*  T.  -haritakam.  2  x.  adds  :   pi  nanagandham. 
^  P.E.  anulepana.  *  T.  ca. 

^  P.E.  nitthusakane.  *  P.E.  -salasu. 

'  T.  karavika-  *  P.E.  add  ca. 

•  P.E.  -manditadvattimsa-.  i"  T.  -rasmim  jala-  ;   P.E.V.  -jalavisara-. 

Tatty  amahdsangUivannand  167 

gaganatalam  nilapitalohitadibhedavicitravannaramsivinaddha- 
byamappabha[44]parikkhepavilasitaya  ^  sandhyappabhanu- 
raga-indadhanuvijjullataparikkhittam  iva  kanakagirisikharam 
nanaviragavimalaketumalasamu  j  j  alitacarumatthakasobham 
nayanarasayanam  iva  brahmadevamanujanagayakkhagana- 
nam  Buddharupam  passant o  sattadivasani  akkhipujam  nama 

46.  Raja  kira  abhisekam  papunitva  tlni  yeva  samvaccharani 
bahirapasandam  pariganhi,  catutthe  samvacchare  Buddha  sa- 
sane  pasidi.  Tassa  kira  pita  Bindusaro  brahmanabhatto  ahosi. 
So  brahmananaii  ca  brahmanajatiyapasandanafi  ca  panda- 
rangaparibbajakadinam  satthisahassamattanam  niccabhattam 

Asoko  pitara  pavattitam  danam  attano  antepure  tath'eva 
dadamano  ekadivasam  sihapanjare  thito  te  upasamaparibahi- 
rena  acarena  bhunjamane  asamyat'indriye  ^  avinita-iriyapathe 
disva  cintesi :  idisam  danam  upaparikkhitva  yuttatthane 
datum  vattatiti.  Evam  cintetva  amacce  aha :  gacchatha 
bhane  attano  attano  sadhusammate  samanabrahmane  ante- 
puram  atiharatha  danam  dassamati.  Amacca  :  sadhu  devati 
ranfio  patissutva  te  te  pandarangaparibbajakajivakanigantha- 
dayo  ^  anetva  :  ime  maharaja  amhakam  arahanto  ti  ahamsu. 

Atha  raja  antepure  uccavacani  asanani  pannapapetva, * 
agacchantuti  vatva  agatagate  aha  :  attano  attano  patirupe 
asane  [45]  nisidathati.  Te  ekacce  bhaddapithakesu  ekacce 
phalakapithakesu  nisidirnsu.  Tarn  disva  raja  :  n'atthi  tesarn 
anto  saro  ^  ti  fiatva  tesarn  anurupam  khadaniyam  bhojaniyam  ® 
datva  uyyojesi. 

47.  Evam  gacchante  kale  ekadivasam  raja^  sihapaiijare  thito 
addasa  Nigrodham  samaneram^  rajanganena  gacchantam  dan- 
tam  guttam  sant'indriyam  iriyapathasampannarn.  Ko  panayam 
Nigrodho  nama.    Bindusararanno  jetthaputtassa  Sumanaraja- 

1   Vide  T.,  p.  44,  n.  1.  ^  T,  asant'indriye. 

3  T.O.  -niganthadayo.  *  T.  paiifiapetva. 

*  T.  antosaro.  *  T.  khadaniya-bhojaniyam. 

'  T.  omits.  •  E.  Nigrodhasamaneram. 

1 68  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

kumarassa  putto.  Tat  ray  am  anupubbikatha  ^ :  Bindusara-^ 
ranno  kira  dubbalakale  yeva  Asokakumaro  attana  laddhai 
Ujjenirajjam  pahaya  agantvana  sabbam  nagaram  attaiK 
hatthagatam  katva  Sumanam  ^  rajakumaram  aggahesi.  Tamj 
divasam  eva  Sumanassa  rajakumarassa  Sumana  nama  rajadevi 
paripunnagabbha  ahosi.  Sa  aniiatakavesena  nikkhamitvi 
avidure  annataram  candalagamam  sandhaya  gacchanti  jettha- 
kacandalassa  gehato  avidure  annatarasmirn  nigrodharukkhe 
adhivatthaya  devataya  :  ito  ehi  Sumane  ti  vadantiya  saddarn 
sutva  tassa  samipam  gata. 

Devata  attano  anubhavena  ekarn  salam  nimminitva  :  ettha 
vasahiti  padasi.  Sa  tarn  salarn  pavisi.  Gatadivase  yeva  ^ 
puttarn  vijayi.  Sa  tassa  nigrodhadevataya  pariggahitatta  * 
Nigrodho  tv-eva  namarn  akasi.  Jetthakacandalo  ditthadiva- 
satoppabhuti  ^  tarn  attano  samidhitararn  viya  mannamano 
nibaddhavattarn  patthapesi.  Rajadhita  tattha  satta  vassani 

[46]  Nigrodhakumaro  pi  sattavassiko  ®  jato.  Tada  Maha- 
varunatthero  nama  eko  araha  darakassa  hetusampadam  disva 
tattha  ^  viharamano  :  sattavassiko  dani  darako,  kalo  nam 
pabbajetun  ti  cintetva  rajadhitaya  arocapetva  Nigrodha- 
kumaram  pabbajesi.  Kumaro  khuragge  yeva  arahattam 
papuni.  So  ekadivasam  pato  'va  sariram  jaggetva  acariy'upaj- 
jhayavattarn  katva  pattacivaram  adaya :  matu-upasikaya 
gehadvararn  gacchamiti  nikkhami.  Matunivesanatthanafi  ^ 
c'assa  dakkhinadvarena  nagaram  ^  pavisitva  nagaramajjhena 
gantva  pacinadvarena  nikkhamitva  gantabbarn  hoti. 

48.  Tena  ca  samayena  Asoko  dhammaraja  pacinadis^bhi- 
mukho  sihapanjare  cankamati.  Tankhanam  yeva  Nigrodho 
rajanganara  sampapuni  sant'indriyo  santamanaso  yugamattarn 
pekkhamano.  Tena  vuttam  :  ekadivasarn  sihapanjare  thito 
addasa  Nigrodharn  samanerarn  rajanganena  gacchantam  dan- 
tam  guttam  sant'indriyam  iriyapathasampannan  ti.  Disva 
pan'assa   etad   ahosi :     ayam   jano   sabbo   pi   vikkhittacitto 

1  T.  anupubbikatha.  ^  p.E.V,  add  nama. 

3  P.E.V.  add  ca.  "  T.  pariggahitatta. 

^  T.  divasato  pabhuti.  ^  T.  satta  vassiko. 

'  P.E.V.  omit.  *  T.  matu  nivesana-. 
•  T.O.  nangaram. 

Tatty  amahdsangUivannand  169 

bhantamigapatibhago,  ayam  pana  darako  avikkhittacitto  ^ 
ativiya  c'assa  ^  alokitavilokitam  sammifijanapasaranan  ca 
sobhati,  addha  etassa  abbhantare  lokuttaradhammo  bhavis- 
satiti,  ranno  saha  dassanen'eva  samanere  cittam  pasidi. 
Pemam  santhahi. 

Kasma.  Pubbe  ^  kira  punnakaranakale  esa  raiino  jetthabhata 
vanijako  ahosi.    Vuttam  pi  c'etam  : 
[47]  Pubbe  va  sannivasena  paccuppannahitena  va 

evam  tarn  jayate  pemam  uppalam  va  yathodake  ti. 

Atha  raja  safijatapemo  sabahumano  etam  samaneram  pak- 
kosathati  amacce  pesesi.  Te  aticirayantiti  puna  dve  tayo 
pesesi,  turitam  agacchatuti. 

Samanero  attano  pakatiya  yeva  agamasi.  Raja  patirupam 
asanam  fiatva  nisidath£Lti  aha.  So  ito  c'ito  ca  viloketva  : 
n'atthi  dani  anfie  bhikkhuti  samussitasetacchattam  rajapal- 
lahkam  upasankamitva  pattagahanatthaya  ranno  akararn 
dassesi.  Raja  tarn  pallankasamiparn  upagacchantam  eva  disva 
cintesi :  ajj'  eva  dani  ayam  samanero  imassa  gehassa  samiko 
bhavissatiti.  Samanero  raiino  hatthe  pattarn  datva  pallankarn 
abhiriihitva  nisidi.  Raja  attano  atthaya  sampaditam  sabbam 
yagukhajjakabhattavikatini  upanamesi.  Samanero  khadani- 
yabhojaniyarn  *  attano  yapaniyamattam  ^  eva  sampaticchi. 
Bhattakiccavasane  raja  aha  :  satthara  tumhakarn  dinnova- 
dam  ^  janathati. 

Janami '  maharaja  ekadesenati.  Tata,  mayham  pi  narn 
kathehiti.  Sadhu  maharajati  raniio  anuriipam  Dhammapade 
Appamadavaggam  anumodanatthaya  abhasi.  Raja  pana : 
appamado  amatapadam  pamado  maccuno  padan  ti  sutva  'va  : 
aiinatarn  tata  pariyosapehiti  aha.  Anumodanavasane  :  attha 
te  tata  dhuvabhattani  ®  dammiti  aha.  Samanero  aha  :  etani 
aharn  upajjhayassa  dammi  maharajati.  Ko  ayarn  tata  upaj- 
jhayo  namati.  Vajja-vajjam  disva  codeta  sareta  maharajati. 
Aiiiiani  pi  te  tata  attha  dammiti  [48].  Etani  acariyassa  dammi 
maharajati.  Ko  ayam  tata  acariyo  namati.  Imasmim  sasane 
sikkhitabbakadhammesu  patitthapeta  maharajati.   Sadhu  tata 

1  P.E.V.  avikkhitto.  2  p.E.V.  omit  c'. 

3  T.  adds  pi.  *  P.E.V.  omit. 

^  P.E.V.  -mattakam  eva.  "  T.  dinna-ovadam. 

'  P.E.V.  ianama.  «  P.E.V.  dhurabhattani. 

170  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

afinani  pi  te  attha  dammiti.    Etani  bhikkhusafighassa  damm 
maharajati.      Ko  ayam  tata  bhikkhusangho  namati.      Yai 
nissaya  maharaja  amhakam  acariy'upajjhayanaii  ca  mamai 
ca  pabbajja  ca  upasampada  cati. 

Raja  bhiyyosomattaya  tutthacitto  aha  :  afinani  pi  te  tata 
attha  dammiti.  Samanero  sadhuti  sampaticchitva  punadivase 
dvattimsa  bhikkhu  gahetva  raj'antepuram  pavisitva  bhat- 
takiccam  akasi.  Raja  :  anfie  pi  dvattimsa  bhikkhu  tumhehi 
saddhim  sve  ^  bhikkham  ganhantuti  eten'eva  upayena  divase 
divase  vaddhapento  satthisahassanam  brahmanaparibbajaka- 
dmam  bhattam  upacchinditva  antonivesane  satthisahassanam 
bhikkhunam  niccabhattam  patthapesi  Nigrodhatthen 
gaten'eva  pasadena. 

Nigrodhatthero  pi  rajanam  saparisam  tisu  saranesu  pancasi 
ca  silesu  patitthapetva  Buddhasasane  pothujjanikena  pasadenj 
acalappasadam  katva  patitthapesi. 

Puna  raja  Asokaramam  nama  mahaviharam  karapetvi 
satthisahassanam  bhikkhunam  niccabhattam  patthapesi, 
Sakala-Jambudipe  caturasitiya  nagarasahassesu  ^  caturasiti 
viharasahassani  karapesi  caturasitisahassacetiyapatimanditani, 
dhammen'eva  no  adhammena. 

49.  Ekadivasam  kira  raja  Asokarame  mahadanam  datva 
satthisahassa-sankhassa  ^  bhikkhusanghassa  majjhe  nisajja 
sangham  catuhi  *  paccayehi  pavaretva  imam  panham  pucchi : 
bhante  bhagavata  desitadhammo  nama  kittako  hotiti.  Angato 
maharaja  navangani/  khandhato  caturasitidhammakkhandha- 
sahassaniti.  Raja  dhamme  pasiditva  ekam  ekarn  dhammak- 
khandham  ek'ekavih arena  piijessamiti,  [49]  ekadivasam  eva 
channavutikotidhanarn  vissajjetva  amacce  anapesi :  etha 
bhane  ekam  ekasmirn  nagare  ekam  ekam  vihararn  karapenta 
caturasitiya  nagarasahassesu  ^  caturasitiviharasahassani  kara- 
pethati,  sayafi  ca  Asokarame  Asokamahaviharatthaya  kam- 
mam  patthapesi. 

Sangho  Indaguttattherarn  nama  mahiddhikarn  mahanubha- 
vam  khin£Lsavam  navakammadhitthayakarn  adasi.  Thero  yam 

1  P.E.V.  yeva.  2  x.O.  nangara. 

'  P.  omits  -saiikhassa.  *  T.O.  catuhi. 

5  P.E.  nava  angani. 

TatiyamahdsangUivannand  171 

yam  kammam  na  nitthati  tarn  tarn  attano  anubhavena  nittha- 
pesi.  Evam  pi  tihi  samvaccharehi  viharakammam  nitthapesi. 

Ekadivasam  eva  sabbanagarehi  pannani  agamimsu.  Amacca 
ranno  arocesum  :   nitthita  deva  caturasiti  viharasahassaniti. 

Raja  nagare  ^  bherim  carapesi :  ito  sattannam  divasanam 
accayena  viharamaho  bhavissati,  sabbe  attha  sirangani 
samadiyitva  antonagare  ^  ca  bahingare  ^  ca  viharamaham 

50.  Tato  sattannam  divasanam  accayena  sabb^lankaravi- 
bhusitaya  ^  anekasatasahassasankhaya  caturanginiya  senaya  ^ 
parivuto  devaloke  Amaravatiya  rajadhaniya  sirito  adhikatara- 
sassirikam  *  viya  nagaram  ^  katukamena  ussahajatena  maha- 
janena  alankatapatiyattam  ®  nagaram  ^  anuvicaranto  viharam 
gantva  bhikkhusanghassa  majjhe  atthasi. 

Tasmifi  ca  khane  sannipatita  asitibhikkhukotiyo  ahesum 
bhikkhuninan  ca  channavutisatasahassani.  Tattha  khin^sa- 
vabhikkhu  yeva  satasahassasankha  ahesum.  Tesam  etad  ahosi : 
sace  raja  attano  adhikaram  anavasesam  passeyya,  ativiya 
Buddhasasane  pasideyyati.  [50]  Tato  lokavivaranam  nama 
patihariyam  akamsu.  Raja  Asokarame  thito  'va  catuddisa 
anuvilokento  samantato  samuddapariyantam  Jambudipam 
passati  caturasitiii  ca  viharasahassani  ^  ularaya  viharama- 
hapujaya  virocamanani. 

So  tarn  vibhutim  passamano  ularena  pitipamojjena  saman- 
nagato  :  atthi  pana  afinassa  pi  kassaci  evarupam  pitipamojjam 
uppannapubban  ti  cintento  bhikkhusangham  pucchi :  bhante 
amhakam  lokanathassa  ^  dasabalassa  sasane  ko  mahaparicca- 
gam  pariccaji,  kassa  pariccago  mahanto  ti  vadantiti.  Bhik- 
khusangho  Moggaliputtatissattherassa  bharam  akasi.  Thero 
aha :  maharaja  dasabalassa  sasane  paccayadayako  nama 
taya  sadiso  dharamane  pi  Tathagate  ^  na  koci  ahosi,  tav'  eva 
pariccago  mahcLti.  Raja  therassa  vacanarn  sutva  ularena 
pitipamojjena  nirantararn  phutasariro  hutva  cintesi :  n'atthi 
kira   maya   sadiso   paccayadayako,   mayharn   kira  pariccago 

^  T.O.  nangare.  ^  P.E.V.  sabbalankarabhusitaya. 

3  T.O.  caturanginisenaya.  *  T.O.  -sirikam. 

*  T.O.  narigaram.  "  T.  -patiyatta-. 

'  T.O.  add  passati.  *  P.E.V.  nathassa. 
»  T.O.  add  pi. 

172  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 


maha,  aham  kira  deyyadhammena  sasanam  pagganhami.* 
Kim  panaham  evam  sati  sasanassa  dayado  homi  na  homiti. 

51.  Tato  bhikkhusangham  pucchi :  bhavami  nu  kho  aham 
bhante  sasanassa  dayado  ti.  Tato  Moggaliputtatissatthero 
ranno  idam  vacanam  sutva  rajaputtassa  Mahindassa  upanis- 
sayasampattim  sampassamano  :  sace  ayam  kumaro  pabbajis- 
sati  sasanassa  ativiya  vuddhi  bhavissatiti  cintetva  rajanam 
etad  avoca  :  na  kho  maharaja  ettavata  sasanassa  ^  dayado 
hoti,  api  ca  kho  paccayadayako  ti  va  upatthako  ^  ti  va  sankham 
gacchati.  Yo  pi  hi  maharaja  pathavito  yava  Brahmalokapari- 
manam  paccayarasim  dadeyya  so  pi  sasane  dayado  ti  sankham 
na  gacchatiti.  Atha  katham  carahi  bhante  sasanassa  dayado 
hotiti.  Yo  hi  koci  maharaja  [51]  addho  va  daliddo  *  va  attano 
orasam  puttam  pabbajeti,  ayam  vuccati  maharaja  dayado 
sasanass^ti.  Evam  vutte  Asoko  raja  :  aham  kira  evaruparn 
pariccagarn  katva  pi  n'eva  sasanassa  dayadabhavam  patto 
'sin  ^  ti  sasane  dayadabhavam  patthayamano  ito  c'ito  ca 
viloketva  addasa  Mahindam  kumararn  ^  avidure  thitarn.  Disva 
pan'assa  etad  ahosi :  kiiicapi  aham  imam  kumararn  Tissa- 
kumarassa  pabbajitakalatoppabhuti  ^  oparajje  patitthapetu- 
kamo,^  atha  kho  oparajjato  pi  pabbajja  va  uttamati. 

Tato  kumararn  aha  :  sakkhissasi  tvam  tata  pabbajitun  ti. 
Kumaro  pana  pakatiya  pi  Tissakumarassa  pabbajitakalatop- 
pabhuti '  pabbajitukamo  va  ranfio  vacanarn  sutva  ativiya 
pamojjajato  ®  hutva  aha  :  pabbajami  deva,  mam  pabbajetva 
tumhe  sasane  dayada  ^^  hothati. 

Tena  ca  samayena  rajadhita  Sanghamitta  pi  tasmim  yeva 
thane  thita  hoti.  Tassa  ca  samiko  Aggibrahma  nama  kumaro 
uparajena  Tissakumarena  saddhim  pabbajito  hoti.  Raja  tarn  ^^ 
disva  aha  :  tvam  pi  amma  pabbajiturn  sakkhissasiti.  Sadhu 
tata  sakkomiti.  Raja  puttanam  manarn  labhitva  pahatthacitto 
bhikkhusangham  etad  avoca  :  bhante  ime  darake  pabbajetva 
mam  sasane  dayadam  karoth§,ti. 

1  T.O.  add  iti. 

2  T.O.  omit. 

3  T.O.  upatthayako. 
5  T.O.  omit. 

*  T.  daliddo. 

•  T.O.  Mahindakumaram 

'  T.O.  kalato  pabhuti. 
•  T.O.  pamujja-. 
1  P.E.V.  nam. 

*  E.  patitthapetukamo. 
1"  T.O.E.  dayado. 

TatiyamahdsangUivannand  173 

52.  Sangho  ranno  vacanam  sampaticchitva  kumaram  Mog- 
galiputtatissattherena  upaj  jhayena  Mahadevattherena  ca  acari- 
yena  pabbajesi.^  Majjhantikattherena  acariyena  upasampa- 
desi.  Tada  kira  kumaro  paripunnavisativasso  va  hoti.  So 
tasmim  yeva  upasampadasimamandale  ^  saha  patisambhidahi 
arahattam  papuni.  Sanghamittaya  pi  rajadhitaya  acariya 
Ayupalittheri  nama,  upaj  j  hay  a  pana  Dhammapalittheri  nama 
ahosi.  [52]  Tada  Sanghamitta  attharasavassa  ^  hoti.  Tarn 
pabbajitamattam  tasmim  yeva  simamandale  sikkhaya  patittha- 
pesum.  Ubhinnam  pabbajitakale  raja  chavassabhiseko  hoti. 

Atha  Mahindatthero  upasampannakalatoppabhuti  *  attano 
upajjhayass'eva  santike  dhamman  ca  vinayaii  ca  pariya- 
punanto  dve  pi  sangitiyo  arulham  tipitakasangahitam  sattha- 
katham  ^  sabbam  theravadam  ®  tinnam  vassanam  abbhantare 
uggahetva  attano  upajjhayassa  antevasikanam  sahassamat- 
tanam  bhikkhunam  pamokkho  ahosi. 

53.  Tada  Asoko  dhammaraja  navavassabhiseko  hoti.  Ranfio 
pana  atthavassabhisekakale  yeva  Kontiputtatissatthero  '  vya- 
dhipatikammattham  bhikkhacaravattena  ahindanto  pasata- 
mattam  sappim  alabhitva  vyadhibalena  parikkhinayusankharo 
bhikkhusangham  appamadena  ovaditva  akase  pallankena 
nisiditva  tejodhatum  samapajjitva  parinibbayi.  Raja  tarn 
pavattim  sutva  therassa  sakkaram  katva  :  mayi  nama  raj  jam 
karente  evam  bhikkhiinam  paccaya  duUabhati  nagarassa  ^ 
catusu  dvaresu  pokkharaniyo  karapetva  bhesajjassa  piirapetva 

54.  Tena  kira  samayena  PataHputtassa  catusu  dvaresu 
cattari  satasahassani,  sabhayam  satasahassan  ti  divase  divase 
pailca  satasahassani  ranfio  uppajjanti ;  tato  raja  Nigro- 
dhattherassa  devasikam  satasahassani  vissajjesi,®  Buddhassa 
cetiye  gandhamaladihi  pujanatthaya  satasahassani,  dham- 
massa  satasahassani,  tarn  dhammadharanam  bahussutanam 
catupaccayatthaya  upaniyati,  sanghassa  satasahassani,  catusu 

1  E.  pabbajjapesi.  ^  P.E.V.  upasampadamandale. 

3  T.O.  attharasa  vassani,  *  T.O.  -kalato  pabhuti. 

5  T.O.  satthakatham.  «  T.O.  sabbattheravadam. 

'  P.  Kuntaputta-  ;   E.  Kontaputta-.  »  x.O.  nafigarassa. 
»  P.E.  vissajeti. 

174  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

dvaresu  bhesajjatthaya  satasahassam.  Evam  sasane  ularo  [53] 
labhasakkaro  nibbatti.  Titthiya  parihinalabhasakkara  anta- 
maso  ghasacchadanam  pi  alabhanta  labhasakkaram  patthaya- 
mana  sasane  pabbajitva  sakani  sakani  ditthigatani :  ayam 
dhammo  ayam  vinayo  ti  dipenti.  Pabbajjam  alabhamana 
pi  sayam  eva  mundetva  kasayani  vatthani  acchadetva  viharesu 
vicaranta  uposatham  pi  pavaranam  pi  sahghakammam  pi 
ganakammam  pi  pavisanti.  Bhikkhu  tehi  saddhim  uposatham 
na  karonti. 

55.  Tada  Moggaliputtatissatthero :  uppannam  dani  idam 
adhikaranam,  tarn  na  cirass'eva  kakkhalam  bhavissati,  na  kho 
pan'etam  sakka  imesam  majjhe  vasantena  vupasametun  ti 
Mahindattherassa  ganam  niyyadetva  ^  attano  ^  phasukaviha- 
rena  viharitukamo  Ahogangapabbatam  ^  agamasi. 

Te  pi  kho  titthiya  bhikkhusanghena  dhammena  vinayena 
satthusasanena  niggayhamana  pi  dhammavinayanulomaya 
patipattiya  asanthahanta  *  anekarupam  sasanassa  abbudan 
ca  malaii  ca  kantakan  ca  samutthapesum.  Keci  aggim  pari- 
caranti,  keci  paficatape  tappanti,^  keci  adiccam  anuparivat- 
tanti,  keci  dhammafi  ca  vinayan  ca  vobhindissamati  paggan- 

Tada  bhikkhusangho  na  tehi  saddhim  uposatham  va  pava- 
ranam va  akasi.  Asokarame  satta  vassani  uposatho  upacchijji. 
Rafino  pi  etam  attham  arocesum.  Raja  ekam  amaccam 
anapesi :  viharam  gantva  adhikaranam  vupasametva  uposa- 
tharn  karapehiti.  Amacco  rajanam  patipucchiturn  avisahanto 
aniie  amacce  upasankamitva  aha  :  raja  marn  vihararn  gantva 
adhikaranam  vupasametva  uposatham  karapehiti  pahini. 
Kathan  nu  kho  adhikaranam  viipasammatiti.^  Te  [54]  aharnsu  : 
mayarn  evam  sallakkhema  :  yatha  nama  paccantam  vupa- 
samenta  core  ghatenti  evam  evam  ye  uposatham  na  karonti  te 
marapetukamo  raja  bhavissatiti.  Atha  so  amacco  viharam 
gantva  bhikkhusangham  sannipatetva  aha :  aharn  ranna, 
uposatham  karapehiti  pesito,  karotha  dani  bhante  uposathan 

1  P.E.V.  niyadetva.  2  p.E.V.  attana. 

3  P.  Ahoganga-.  *  T.O.  asandhahanta. 

^  Bp.  pancatapena  tapenti ;   E.  tapenti.  *  T.O.  vupasamatiti. 

Tatiyamahdsangttivannand  175 

ti.  Bhikkhu :  na  may  am  titthiyehi  saddhim  uposatham 
karomati  ahamsu.  Amacco  therasanato  patthaya  asina  sisani 
patetum  araddho. 

56.  Addasa  kho  Tissatthero  tarn  amaccam  tatha  vippatipan- 
nam.  Tissatthero  nama  na  yo  va  so  va,  ranno  ekamatiko  bhata 
Tissakumaro  nama.  Tarn  kira  raja  pattabhiseko  oparajje 
thapesi.  So  ekadivasarn  vanacararn  gato  addasa  mahantarn 
migasarigharn  cittaya  krlikaya  ^  kllantarn.  Disvan'  assa  etad 
ahosi :  ime  tava  tinabhakkha  miga  evarn  kilanti,  ime  pana 
samaria  rajakule  panitani  bhojanani  bhunjitva  mudukasu 
seyyasu  sayamana  klva  manaparn  kilitarn  ^  na  kilissantiti. 
So  tato  agantva  imarn  attano  vitakkarn  ranno  arocesi. 

Raja :  atthane  kukkuccayitarn  kumarena,  handa  narn 
evarn  sannapessamiti  ekadivasarn  kenaci  karariena  kuddho 
viya  hutva  :  ehi,  satta  divase  rajjarn  sampaticcha,  tato  tarn  ^ 
ghatessamiti  marariabhayena  tajjetva  tam  attharn  saMapesi. 
So  kira  kumaro  :  sattame  marn  divase  maressantiti  na  citta- 
ruparn  nahayi,  na  bhunji,  na  supi,  ativiya  lukhasarlro  ahosi. 
Tato  narn  raja  pucchi :  kissa  tvarn  evarupo  jato  ti.  Marana- 
bhayena  devati.  Are,  tvarn  nama  paricchinnamaranarn  [55] 
sampassamano  vissattho  na  kilasi,  bhikkhu  assasapassasupani- 
baddharn  *  marariarn  pekkhamana  katharn  kilissantiti.  Tatop- 
pabhuti  ^  kumaro  sasane  pasidi. 

So  puna  ekadivasarn  migavarn  nikkhamitva  ararine  anuvi- 
caramano  addasa  Yonakamahadhammarakkhitattherarn  afirla- 
t arena  hatthinagena  salasakharn  gahetva  vijiyamanarn  ®  nisin- 
narn.  Disva  pamujjajato  cintesi :  kada  nu  kho  aham  pi  ayarn 
mahathero  viya  pabbajeyyarn,  siya  nu  kho  so  divaso  ti.  Thero 
tassa  ajjhasayarn  '  viditva  tassa  passant  ass'  eva  akase  uppa- 
titva  Asokarame  pokkharariiya  udakathale  thatva  civarari  ca 
uttarasangaii  ca  akase  laggetva  nahayiturn  araddho.  Kumaro 
therassanubhavarn  disva  ativiya  pasanno  :  ajj'eva  pabbajis- 
samiti  nivattitva  ranno  arocesi :   pabbajissami  aharn  devati. 

Raja  anekappakararn  yacitva  pi  ^  tarn  nivatteturn  asakkonto 

^  P.E.V.  cittakllaya.  ^  T.O.  kiva  nama  kilikam  ;   E.  kinca. 

'  P.E.V.  nam.  *  T.O.  -passasupa-. 

5  T.O.  tato  pabhuti.  *  T.O.  vijayamanam. 

'  P.E.  tassasayam.  «  T.O.  omit. 

176  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

Asokaramagamaniyam  maggam  alankarapetva  kumaram 
chanavesam  gahapetva  alankataya  senaya  parivarapetva 
viharamnesi.  Yuvarajakira  pabbajissatiti  sutva  bahu  bhikkhu  ^ 
pattacivarani  patiyadesum.  Kumaro  padhanagharam  gantva 
Mahadhammarakkhitattherass'  eva  santike  pabbaji  saddhim 
purisasatasahassena.  Kumarassa  pana  anupabbajitanam  ^ 
gananaparicchedo  n'atthi. 

Kumaro  ranno  catuvassabhisekakale  pabbajito.  Ath'afifio  pi 
ranfio  bhagineyyo  Sanghamittaya  samiko  Aggibrahma  nama 
kumaro  atthi.  Sanghamitta  tassa  ekam  eva  puttarn  vijayi. 
[56]  So  pi :  yuvaraja  pabbajito  ti  sutva  rajanarn  upasanka- 
mitva  :  aham  pi  deva  pabbajissamiti  yaci.  Pabbaja  tatati 
ca  rafiiia  anunnato  tarn  divasam  eva  pabbaji. 

Evam  ^  anupabbajito  *  ularavibhavena  khattiyajanena/ 
ranno  kanitthabhata  Tissatthero  ti  viilneyyo. 

57.  So  tarn  amaccarn  tatha  vippatipannarn  disva  cintesi :  na 
raja  there  maretum  ^  pahineyya,  addha  imass'ev'etarn  amac- 
cassa  duggahitam  bhavissatiti  gantva  sayam  tassa  asanne  asane 
nisidi.  So  theram  safijanitva  sattham  nipateturn  avisahanto 
gantva  rafino  arocesi :  aham  deva  uposatharn  katurn  anic- 
chantanam  ettakanam  nama  bhikkhunam  sisani  patesim, 
atha  ayyassa  Tissattherassa  patipati  sampatta,  kin  ti  karomiti. 
Raja  sutva  'va :  are,  kim  pana  tvam  maya  bhikkhii  ghatetum 
pesito  ti  tavad  ev'assa  '  sarire  uppannadaho  hutva  viharam 
gantva  there  bhikkhu  pucchi :  ayarn  bhante  amacco  maya 
ananatto  va  evam  akasi,  kassa  nu  kho  imina  papena  bhavitab- 
ban  ti. 

Ekacce  thera  :  ayam  tava  vacanena  akasi,  tuyh'etarn  papan 
ti  ahamsu.  Ekacce  :  ubhinnam  pi  vo  etam  papan  ti  ahamsu. 
Ekacce  evam  aharnsu  :  kim  pana  te  maharaja  atthi  cittarn, 
ayarn  gantva  bhikkhu  ghatetuti.  N 'atthi  bhante,  kusaladhip- 
payo  aharn  pesesirn,  samaggo  bhikkhusangho  uposatharn 
karotuti.  Sace  tvarn  kusaladhippayo,  n'atthi  tuyham  paparn, 
amaccass'ev'etarn  papan  ti. 

1  T.  bahubhikkhu.      ^  p jg  anupabbajitakanam.     ^  T.O.  give  st.  in  prose. 
*  T.O.  -pabbajita-ulara-.   Most  texts  agree  on  -pabbajito  to  conform  to  the 
Arya  metre. 

5  T.O.  khattiyajatena.  «  P.E.V.  marapetum.  '  P.E.V.  omit  assa. 

Tatty  amahdsangUivannand  177 

58.  Raja  dvelhakajato  aha :  atthi  nu  kho  bhante  koci 
bhikkhu  mam'  etam  dvelhakam  chinditva  sasanam  pagga- 
hetum  samattho  ti.  Atthi  maharaja  MoggaHputtatissatthero 
nama,  [57]  so  te  imam  dvelhakam  chinditva  sasanam  paggan- 
hitum  samattho  ti.  Raja  tadah'eva  cattaro  dhammakathike 
ek'ekam  bhikkhusahassaparivaram  cattaro  ca  amacce  ek'ekam 
purisasahassaparivaram  :  theram  ganhitva  agacchathati  pesesi. 

Te  gantva :  raja  pakkosatiti  ahamsu.  Thero  nagacchi.^ 
Dutiyam  pi  kho  raja  attha  dhammakathike  attha  ca  amacce 
sahassasahassaparivare  yeva  pesesi :  raja  bhante  pakkosatiti 
vatva  ganhitva  'va  agacchathati.  Te  tath'eva  ahamsu.  Duti- 
yam pi  thero  nagacchi.^  Raja  there  pucchi :  aharn  bhante 
dvikkhattum  pahinim,  kasma  thero  nagacchatiti.  Raja 
pakkosatiti  vuttatta  maharaja  nagacchati,^  evarn  pana  vutte 
agaccheyya :  sasanarn  bhante  osidati,  amhakarn  sasanam 
pagganhanatthaya  sahayaka  hothati.  Atha  raja  tatha  vatva 
solasa  dhammakathike  solasa  ca  amacce  sahassasahassapari- 
vare pesesi.  Bhikkhu  ca  patipucchi :  mahallako  nu  kho 
bhante  thero  daharo  nu  kho  ti.  Mahallako  maharajati.  Vay- 
harn  va  sivikani  va  abhiruhissati  ^  bhante  ti.  Nabhiriihissati  ^ 
Kuhim  bhante  thero  vasatiti.  Upari  Gangaya  maharajati. 
Raja  aha  :  tena  hi  bhane  navasanghatam  bandhitva  tattha 
theram  nisidapetva  dvisu  pi  *  tiresu  arakkham  sarnvidhaya 
theram  anethati.  Bhikkhu  ca  amacca  ca  therassa  santikam 
gantva  raniio  sasanam  arocesum.  Thero  sutva  :  yarn  ^  kho 
aharn  mulato  patthaya  sasanam  pagganhissamiti  pabbajito 
'mhi,  ayam  dani  me  so  kalo  anuppatto  ti  cammakhandam 
ganhitva  'va  utthahi. 

59.  Atha  [58]  thero  sve  Pataliputtam  sampapunissatiti 
rattibhage  raja  supinam  addasa.  Evarupo  supino  ahosi : 
sabbaseto  hatthinago  agantva  rajanam  sisato  patthaya  para- 
masitva  dakkhinahatthe  aggahesi.  Punadivase  raja  supinaj- 
jhayake  pucchi :  maya  evarupo  supino  dittho,  kim  me  bhavis- 
satiti.  Eko  tarn  maharaja  samananago  dakkhinahatthe 
ganhissatiti.^     Atha  '  raja  tavad  eva :    thero  agato  ti  sutva 

1  T.O.  nagafichi.  ^  T.O.  add  iti. 

3  RE.V.-ruhissati.  *  T.O.  ca. 

5  T.O.  ayam.  «  P.E.  add  aha.  '  P.E.V.  omit. 

178  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

Gangatiram  gantva  nadim  otaritva  abbhuggacchanto  janu- 
matte  udake  theram  sampapunitva  therassa  navato  otarantassa 
hattham  adasi.  Thero  rajanam  dakkhinahatthe  aggahesi. 
Tarn  disva  asiggahaka  ^  therassa  sisam  patessamati  kosato  ^ 
asim  abbahimsu.  Kasma.  Etam  kira  carittam  rajakulesu,  yo 
rajanam  hatthe  ganhati  tassa  asina  sisam  patetabban  ti. 
Raja  chayam  yeva  disva  aha  :  pubbe  pi  aham  bhikkhusu 
viraddhakarana  ^  assasam  *  na  vindami,  ma  kho  there  viraj- 
jhitthati.  Thero  pana  kasma  rajanam  hatthe  aggahesiti. 
Yasma  rafina  panham  pucchanatthaya  pakkosapito  tasma  : 
antevasiko  me  ay  an  ti  aggahesi. 

60.  Raja  theram  attano  uyyanarn  netva  bahirato  tikkhattura 
parivarapetva  arakkharn  thapetva  sayam  eva  therassa  pade 
dhovitva  telena  makkhetva  therassa  santike  nisTditva  :  patibalo 
nu  kho  thero  mama  kankharn  chinditva  uppannarn  adhikara- 
nam  vupasametva  sasanarn  pagganhitun  ti  vimamsanatthaya  : 
aharn  bhante  ekarn  patihariyam  datthukamo  ti  aha.  Kata- 
marn  ^  patihariyarn  datthukamo  'si  maharajati.  Pathavi- 
kampanarn  bhante  ti.  Sakalapathavikampanarn  datthukamo 
'si  maharajaudahu  ®  padesapathavi[59]kampanan  ti.  Katararn 
pan'ettha  bhante  dukkaran  ti.  Kin  nu  kho  maharaja  karnsa- 
patiya  udakapunnaya  sabbarn  udakarn  kampetum  dukkaram 
udahu  upaddhan  ti.  Upaddham  bhante  ti.  Evam  eva  kho 
maharaja  padesapathavikampanam  dukkaran  ti.  Tena  hi 
bhante  padesapathavikampanam  passissamati.  Tena  hi 
maharaja  samantato  yojane  yojane  puratthimaya  disaya  ekena 
cakkena  simam  akkamitva  ratho  titthatu,  dakkhinaya  disaya 
dvihi  padehi  sTmam  akkamitva  asso  titthatu,  pacchimaya 
disaya  ekena  padena  simarn  akkamitva  puriso  titthatu, 
uttaraya  disaya  upaddhabhagena  simara  akkamitva  eka 
udakapati  '  titthatuti.  Raja  tatha  karapesi.  Thero  abhinna- 
padakam  catutthajjhanam  samapajjitva  ®  vutthaya :  raja 
passatuti  yojanappamanara  pathavicalanarn  adhitthahi.  Purat- 
thimaya disaya  rathassa  antosimaya  thito  'va  pado  ^  caH, 
itaro  na  cah,  evarn  dakkhinapacchimadisasu  assapurisanam 

1  T.O.  asiggaha.  2  x  q.  kosito.  ^  x.O.  viruddhakarana. 

4  P.E.V.  assadam.  ^  t.O.  katararn.  «  T.O.  omit. 

'  T.O.  udakapati.  «  P.E.V.  add  tato.  »  T.O.  cakkapado. 

Tatiyamahdsangitivannand  179 

antosimaya  thitapada  yeva  ^  calimsu  upaddh'upaddham  sariran 
ca,  uttaraya  disaya  udakapatiya  pi  antosimaya  thitam  upad- 
dhabhagagatam  ^  eva  udakam  call,  avasesam  niccalam  ahositi. 

61.  Raja  tarn  patihariyam  disva  :  sakkhissati  dani  thero 
sasanam  pagganhitun  ti  nittham  gantva  attano  kukkuccam 
pucchi :  aham  bhante  ekaccam  ^  amaccam  :  viharam  gantva 
adhikaranam  vupasametva  uposatham  karehiti  *  pahinim,  so 
viharam  gantva  ettake  bhikkhu  jivita  voropesi.  Etam  papam 
kassa  hotiti.  Kim  pana  te  maharaja  atthi  cittam  :  ayam 
viharam  gantva  bhikkhii  ghatetuti.  N'atthi  bhante.  Sace  te 
maharaja  n'atthi  evaruparn  cittarn,  n'atthi  tuyharn  papan  ti. 
Atha  thero  rajanarn  etam  attham  imina  suttena  safinapesi : 
cetanaham  bhikkhave  kammam  vadami,  cetayitva  kammam 
karoti  kayena  vaca  ^  manasati.  Tam  eva  [60]  vatthurn  ^ 
paridipeturn  Tittirajatakam  ahari :  atite  maharaja  dipakatittiro 
tapasam  pucchi : 

Natako  no  nisinno  ti  bahu  agacchati  '  jano, 

paticca  kammarn  ^  phusati,  tasmim  me  sankati  mano  ti. 

Tapaso  aha  :  atthi  pana  te  cittarn  :  mama  saddena  ca 
rupadassanena  ca  agantva  ete  pakkhino  bajjhantu  va  haiifiantu 
vati.  N'atthi  bhante  ti  tittiro  aha.  Tato  narn  tapaso 
safinapesi  ^ :  sace  te  n'atthi  cittarn  n'atthi  paparn,  cetayantam 
eva  hi  kammam  phusati  n^cetayantam. 

Na  paticca  kammam  ®  phusati  mano  ce  nappadussati, 
appossukkassa  bhadrassa  ^^  na  papam  upalippatiti.^^ 

62.  Evarn  thero  rajanarn  sanfiapetva  tatth'eva  raj'uyyane 
satta  divasani  vasanto  rajanarn  samayam  ugganhapesi.  Raja 
sattame  divase  Asokarame  bhikkhusangharn  sannipatapetva 
sanipakararn  parikkhipapetva  sanipakarantare  nisinno  ekalad- 
dhike  ekaladdhike  bhikkhu  ekato  ekato  karetva  ekam  ekarn 

^  T.O.  eva.  2  x.O.  -bhagathitam  eva  ;   E.  -bhagamattam  eva. 

3  P.E.V.  ekam.  *  P.E.V.  karapehiti. 

'  P.E.V.  vacaya.  «  T.O.  attham. 

'  T.O.  agacchati  (-ti  metri  causa). 

*  T.O.  paticcakammam  ;    J.  paticca  kammam  na  phusati. 

^  T.O.  paniiapesi.  1°  P.E.  bhaddassa.  ^^  T.O.E.  upahmpati. 

l8o  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

bhikkhusamuham  pakkosapetva  pucchi :  kimvadi  sammasam- 
buddho  ti.  Tato  sassatavadino :  sassatavaditi  ahamsu ; 
ekaccasassatika  -  pe  ^  -  antanantika  -  pe  -  amaravikkhepika  -  pe  - 
adhiccasamuppanika  -  pe  -  sannivada  -  pe  -  asafinivada  -  pe  - 
[61]n'evasanninasannivada  -  pe  -  ucchedavada  -  pe  -  dittha- 
dhammanibbanavada  :  ditthadhammanibbanavaditi  ^  ahamsu. 
Raja  pathamam  eva  samayassa  uggahitatta  ^ :  na  ime  bhikkhu, 
annatitthiya  ime  ti  ilatva  tesam  setakani  vatthani  datva 
uppabbajesi.*   Te  sabbe  pi  satthisahassa  ahesum. 

Ath' anile  bhikkhii  pakkosapetva  pucchi :  kimvadi  bhante 
sammasambuddho  ti.  Vibhajjavajl  maharajati.  Evam  vutte 
raja  theram  pucchi :  vibhajjavadi  bhante  sammasambuddho 
ti.  Ama  maharajati.  Tato  raja  :  suddharn  dani  bhante  sasa- 
narn,  karotu  bhikkhusangho  uposathan  ti  arakkharn  datva 
nagaram  ^  pavisi.  Samaggo  sangho  sannipatitva  uposatham 
akasi.  Tasmim  sannipate  satthibhikkhusatasahassani  ahesurn. 
Tasmim  samagame  MoggaHputtatissatthero  parappavadarn 
maddamano  Kathavatthuppakaranam  abhasi.  Tato  satthi- 
satasahassasankhasu  ^  bhikkhusu  uccinitva  tipitakapariyatti- 
dharanam  pabhinnapatisambhidanam  tevijjadibhedanarn  bhik- 
khunam  sahassam  ekarn  gahetva  yatha  Mahakassapatthero  ca 
Kakandakaputto  Yasatthero  ca  dhammaii  ca  vinayan  ca 
sangayimsu,  evam  eva  dhamman  ca  vinayaii  ca  sangayanto 
sabbarn  sasanamalam  visodhetva  tatiyasangitim  akasi.  San- 
git  ipariyosane  anekappakaram  pathavi  akampittha.  Ayarn 
sangiti  navahi  masehi  nitthita.   Ya  loke  : 

Kata  bhikkhusahassena  tasma  sahassikati  ^  ca, 
purima  dve  upadaya  tatiyati  ca  vuccatiti ; 
ayarn  tatiyasangiti. 


63.     Ettavata  ca  :  kenabhatan  ti  etassa  pafihassa  vissajjanat- 
tharn  yad  avocumha  :    Jambudipe  tava  UpaHttherara  adim 

1  T.O.  omit  -pe-  throughout.  2  x.O.  omit. 

3  T.O.  uggahitatta.  «  T.O.  upapabbajesi. 

5  T.O.  nangaram.  «  T.O.  -sankheyyesu. 
'  T.O.  sahassika. 

Acariyaparampard  i8i 

katva  [62]  acariyaparamparaya  yava  tatiyasangiti  tava 
abhatam.    Tatrayam  acariyaparampara  : 

Upali  Dasako  c'eva  Sonako  ^  Siggavo  tatha, 
Tisso  Moggaliputto  ca  panc'ete  vijitavino, 
paramparaya  vinayam  dipe  Jambusirivhaye 
acchijjamanam  anesum  tatiyo  yava  sangaho  ti ; 

tass'attho  ettavata  pakasito  ^  hoti.  Tatiyasangahato  pana 
uddham  imam  dipam  Mahindadihi  abhatam.  Mahindato  ugga- 
hetva  kanci  ^  kalam  Aritthattheradihi  abhatam,  tato  yava 
ajjatana  tesam  yeva  antevasikaparamparabhutaya  *  acariya- 
paramparaya abhatan  ti  veditabbam.    Yathahu  porana  : 

Tato  Mahindo  Itthiyo  Uttiyo  Sambalo  pi  ca 

^  Bhaddanamo  ca  pandito  ; 

Ete  naga  mahapaiiila  Jambudipa  idhagata  : 
vinayarn  te  vacayirnsu  pitakarn  Tambapanniya. 
Nikaye  paiica  vacesum  satta  c'eva  pakarane.* 
Tato  Arittho  medhavi  Tissadatto  ca  pandito 
visarado  Kalasumano  thero  ca  Dighanamako 

^  Dighasumano  ca  pandito. 

Punar  eva  '  Kalasumano  Nagatthero  ca  Buddharakkhito, 
Tissatthero  ca  medhavi  Devatthero  ca  pandito. 
Punar  eva  Sumano  medhavi  vinaye  ca  visarado, 
bahussuto  Ciilanago  ^  gajo  Va  duppadharnsiyo. 
[63]  Dhammapahtanamo  ^  ca  Rohano  ^^  sadhupiijito, 
tassa  sisso  mahapailiio  Khemanamo  tipetako. 
Dipe  tarakaraja  'va  paiinaya  atirocatha, 
Upatisso  ca  medhavi  Phussadevo  mahakathi.^^ 
Punar  eva  '  Sumano  medhavi  Phussanamo  ^^  bahussuto, 
mahakathi  Mahasivo  pitake  sabbattha  kovido. 
Punar  eva  '  Upali  medhavi  vinaye  ca  visarado, 
Mahanago  mahapanfio  saddhammavarnsakovido. 
Punar  eva  Abhayo  ^^  medhavi  pitake  sabbattha  kovido, 

1  T.O.  Sonako.  2  p  £_  add  va. 

^  E.  kiiici.  *  T.  -parampara-. 
^  Lacuna  of  a  pada.    E.T.O.  do  not  take  this  into  account  in  the  arrange- 
ment of  the  stanza. 

'  P.  pakarane  (with  no  metrical  lengthening).  '  p.E.V.  punad  eva. 

8  E.  Cula-.  »  T.O.  Dhammapalinamo.        i»  T.O.  Rohane. 

"  P.E.V.  mahakavi.  12  p.E.V.  Puppha.                      "  j.O.  Sahayo. 

i82  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

Tissatthero  ca  medhavi  vinaye  ca  visarado. 
Tassa  sisso  mahapaniio  Pupphanamo  bahussuto, 
sasanam  anurakkhanto  Jambudipe  patitthito. 
Culabhayo  ^  ca  medhavi  vinaye  ca  visarado, 
Tissatthero  ca  medhavi  saddhammavamsakovido. 
Ciiladevo  ^  ca  medhavi  vinaye  ca  visarado 
Sivatthero  ca  medhavi  vinaye  sabbattha  kovido. 
Ete  naga  mahapaiina  vinayanilii  ^  maggakovida, 
vinayam  dipe  pakasesum  pitakam  Tambapanniyati. 

64.  Tatrayam  anupubbikatha  ^ : 
Moggaliputtatissatthero  kira  imam  tatiyadhammasangitim  * 

katva  evam  cintesi :  kattha  nu  kho  anagate  sasanam  suppa- 
titthitam  bhaveyyati.  Ath'assa  upaparikkhato  etad  ahosi : 
paccantimesu  kho  janapadesu  sasanam  suppatitthitam  bhavis- 
satiti.  So  tesam  tesam  bhikkhiinam  bharam  katva  te  te  bhikkhu 
tattha  tattha  pesesi.  Majjhantikattheram  Kasmiragandhara- 
rattham  pesesi :  tvam  etam  rattham  gantva  ettha  sasanam 
patitthapehiti.  Mahadevattheram  tath'eva  vatva  Mahisaka- 
mandalam  ^  pesesi,  Rakkhitattheram  Vanavasim,  [64]  Yonaka- 
dhammarakkhitattheram  Aparantakam,  Mahadhammarakkhi- 
tattheram  Maharattham,  Maharakkhitattheram  Yonakalokam, 
Majjhimattheram  Himavantapadesabhagam,  Sonakattheran  ^ 
ca  Uttarattheran  ca  Suvannabhumim,  attano  saddhiviharikam 
Mahindattheram  Itthiyattherena  '  Uttiyattherena  Sambalat- 
therena  Bhaddasalattherena  ca  saddhim  Tambapannidipam 
pesesi :  tumhe  Tambapannidipam  gantva  ettha  sasanam 
patitthapethati.  Sabbe  pi  tarn  tarn  disabhagarn  gacchanta 
attapancama  agamarnsu  :  paccantimesu  janapadesu  paficavag- 
go  gario  alarn  upasampadakammayati  mafifiamana. 

65.  Tena  kho  pana  samayena  Kasmiragandhararatthe  sas- 
sapakasamaye  Aravalo  ®  nama  nagaraja  karakavassarn  nama 
vassarn  vassapetva  sassarn  harapetva  mahasamuddarn  papeti.  ^ 
Majjhantikatthero  ^°    PataJiputtato    vehasarn    abbhuggantva 

^  E.  Cola-  2  T.  vidayaiinu  (a  misprint  ?). 

3  T.  anupubbi-  ;   O.  anupubbi-.  *  T.O.  tatiyam  dhamma-. 
^  P.E.V.  Mahimsaka-.  «  T.O.  Sonaka-. 

'  T.O.  Iddhiya-  throughout.  *  T.O.  Aravalo. 

»  T.O.  papesi.  "  P.E.  add  pana. 

Acariyaparampard  183 

Himavati  Aravala^dahassa  upari  otaritva  Aravala^dahapitthi- 
yam  cafikamati  pi  titthati  pi  nisidati  pi  seyyam  pi  kappeti. 
Nagamanavaka  ^  tarn  disva  Aravalassa^  nagarajassa  arocesum : 
maharaja  eko  chinnabhinnapatadharo  bhandukasavavasano 
amhakam  udakam  dusetiti.  Nagaraja  ^  tavad  eva  kodh§.bhi- 
bhuto  nikkhamitva  theram  disva  makkham  asahamano  antalik- 
khe  anekani  bhimsanakani  nimmini ;  tato  tato  bhusam  vata 
vayanti,  rukkha  bhijjanti,  pabbatakutani  patanti,  megha 
gajjanti,  vijjullata  niccharanti,  asaniyo  phalanti,  bhinnam 
viya  gaganam  udakam  paggharati,  bhayanakarupa  [65] 
nagakumara  sannipatanti,  sayam  pi  dhumayati  ^  pajjalati 
paharanavutthiyo  vissaj  jeti  :  ko  ay  am  mundako  chinnabhinna- 
patadharo ti  adihi  pharusavacanehi  theram  santajjesi,  etha 
ganhatha  bandhatha  niddhamatha  imarn  samanan  ti  naga- 
balam  anapesi.  Thero  sabban  tarn  bhirnsanakam  *  attano 
iddhibalena  patibahetva  ^  nagarajanam  aha  : 

Sadevako  pi  ce  loko  agantva  tasayeyya  mam 
na  me  ®  patibalo  assa  janeturn  '  bhayabheravarn. 
Sace  pi  tvarn  mahirn  sabbam  sasamuddam  sapabbatam 
ukkhipitva  mahanaga  khipeyyasi  mamupari, 
n'eva  me  sakkuneyyasi  janeturn  bhayabheravarn  ; 
aMadatthu  tav'ev'assa  ^  vighato  uragadhipati. 

Evarn  vutte  nagaraja  vigatanubhavo  ^  nipphalavayamo 
dukkhi  dummano  ahosi.  Tarn  thero  tankhananuriapaya 
dhammiya  kathaya  sandassetva  samadapetva  samuttejetva 
sampaharnsetva  tisu  ca  saranesu^^  pancasu  ca  silesu  patthapesi 
saddhirn  caturasitiya  nagasahassehi.  Anne  pi  bahu  Hima- 
vantavasino  yakkha  ca  gandhabbakumbharida  ca  therassa 
dhammakatharn  sutva  saranesu  ca  silesu  ca  patitthahirnsu. 
Pancako  ^^  pi  yakkho  saddhirn  bhariyaya  ^^  yakkhiniya 
pancahi  ca  puttasatehi  pathame  phale  patitthito.   Athayasma 

1  T.O.  Aravala-.  ^  T.O.  nanga-,  nanga-. 

'  T.O.  dhumayati.  *  P.E.V.  vibhimsanakam. 

s  P.E.V.  patibahitva.  «  E.  ve. 
'  Mhv,  xii,  16,  yam  ettha. 

*  T.  tav'assa  (a  syllable  short  for  the  Anustubh  ^loka  metre). 

»  T.O.  vihata-.  "  T.O.  tisu  saranesu  ca. 

11  Mhv.  xii,  21,  Pandako.  12  See  T.,  p.  65,  n.  16. 

184  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

Majjhantikatthero  sabbe  pi  nagayakkharakkhase  amantetva 
evam  aha : 

Ma  dani  kodham  janayittha  ito  uddham  yatha  pure 

sassaghatan  ca  makattha  ^  sukhakama  hi  panino  ; 

karotha  mettam  sattesu,  vasantu  manuja  sukhan  ti. 

[66]  Te  sabbe  ^ :     sadhu  bhante  ti  therassa  ^  patissutva  * 

yathanusittham  patipajjimsu.  Tarn  divasam  eva  ca  nagarajassa 

pujasamayo  hoti.     Atha  nagaraja  attano  ratanamayam  pal- 

lankam  aharapetva  therassa  pannapesi.   Nisidi  thero  pallanke. 

Nagaraja  pi  theram  vijayamano  samipe  atthasi.      Tasmim 

khane      Kasmiragandhararatthavasino  ^     agantva  ^     theram 

disva :     amhakarn   nagarajato   pi   thero   mah'iddhikataro   ti 

theram  eva  vanditva  nisinna.    Thero  tesam  Asivisopamasut- 

tantam  '  kathesi.      Suttapariyosane  asitiya  panasahassanara 

dhammabhisamayo     ahosi,     kulasatasahassaii    ca  ^    pabbaji. 

Tatoppabhuti  ^  ca   Kasmiragandhara  yava  ajjatana  kasava- 

pajjota  isivataparivata  ^®  eva. 

Gantva  Kasmiragandhararn  isi  Majjhantiko  tada, 
ruttharri  ^^  nagam  pasadetva  mocesi  bandhana  bahuti. 

66.  Mahadevatthero  pi  Mahirnsakamandalam  gantva  Deva- 
dutasuttarn  kathesi.  Suttapariyosane  cattalisapanasahassani 
dhammacakkhurn  patilabhimsu,  cattalisam  yeva  panasahassani 

Gantvana  rattham  Mahisam  ^^  Mahadevo  mah'iddhiko, 
codetva  devadutehi  mocesi  bandhana  bahuti.^^ 

67.  Rakkhitatthero  ^*  Vanavasim  gantva  akase  thatva  Ana- 
mataggapariyayakathaya  Vanavasike  pasadesi.  Kathapari- 
yosane  pana^^  satthisahassanam  dhammabhisamayo  ahosi,  [67] 
sattatirnsasahassamatta  pabbajimsu,  pancaviharasatani  patit- 
thahimsu.   Evarn  so  tattha  sasanam  patitthapesi. 

Gantvana  Rakkhitatthero  Vanavasim  mah'iddhiko 
antaUkkhe  thito  tattha  desesi  Anamataggiyan  ti. 

1  T.O.  ma  kattha.  2  p.E.V.  add  pi.  ^  e.  adds  vacanam. 

*  P.E.  patisunitva.  ^  T.  -gandharattha-.  ®  T.O.  agatam. 

'  P.Sp.E.  -suttam.  «  T.O.  omit.  »  T.O.  tato  pabhuti. 

"  P.E.V.  -pativata.  11  E.  rattham.  12  p.E.V.  Mahimsam. 

13  T.   The  arrangement  of  st.  is  different. 
1*  T.O.  add  ca.  "  P.E.V.  pan'assa. 

Acariyaparampard  185 

68.  Yonakadhammarakkhitatthero  pi  Aparantakam  gantva 
Aggikkhandhupamasuttantakathaya  Aparantake  pasadetva 
sattatimsapanasahassani  dhammamatam  payesi.  Khattiyaku- 
lato  yeva  purisasahassam  pabbaji,  samadhikani  ca  cha  itthisa- 
hassani.  Evam  so  tattha  sasanam  patitthapesi. 

Aparantam  vigahitva  Yonako  Dhammarakkhito, 
Aggikkhandhupamen'ettha  pasadesi  jane  bahuti. 

69.  Mahadhammarakkhitatthero  pana  Maharattham  gantva 
Mahanaradakassapajatakakathaya  Maharatthake  pasadetva 
caturasitipanasahassani  maggaphalesu  patitthapesi,  terasa 
sahassani  pabbajimsu.   Evam  so  tattha  sasanam  patitthapesi. 

Maharattham  isi  ^  gantva  so  Mahadhammarakkhito, 
jatakam  kathayitvana  pasadesi  mahajanan  ti. 

70.  Maharakkhitatthero  pi  Yonakarattham  gantva  Kala- 
karamasuttantakathaya  Yonakalokam  pasadetva  sattatim- 
sasahassadhikassa  panasatasahassassa  maggaphalalankaram 
adasi,  santike  c'assa  dasasahassani  ^  pabbajimsu.  Evam  so  pi 
tattha  sasanam  patitthapesi. 

Yonarattham  ^  tada  gantva  so  Maharakkhito  isi, 
Kalakaramasuttena  te  pasadesi  Yonake  ti. 

71.  [68]  Majjhimatthero  pana  Kassapagottattherena  Alakade- 
vattherena  Dundubhissarattherena  Mahadevattherena  *  ca 
saddhim  Himavantapadesabhagam  gantva  Dhammacakkap- 
pavattanasuttantakathaya  tarn  desam  pasadetva  asitipana- 
kotiyo  maggaphalaratanani  patilabhesi.  Panca  pi  c'ete  ^  thera 
paiicaratthani  pasadesum.  Ekam  ekassa  santike  satasahas- 
samatta  pabbajimsu.  Evam  te  tattha  sasanam  patitthapesum. 

Gantvana  Majjhimatthero  Himavantam  pasadayi, 
yakkhasenam  pakasento  Dhammacakkappavattanan  ti. 

72.  Sonakatthero  ^  pi  saddhim  Uttarattherena  Suvanna- 
bhumim  agamasi.  Tena  ca  samayena  tattha  eka  rakkhasi 
samuddato  nikkhamitva  rajakule  jate  jate   darake   khadati. 

^  E.  isi.  2  x.O.  dasasahassa. 

^  T.O.  Yonaka-.  *  T.O.  Sahadeva-. 

5  P.E.V.  panca  pi  ca  te.  «  T.O.  Sonaka- ;   P.E.  Sonatthero. 

1 86  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

Tarn  divasam  eva  ca  rajakule  eko  darako  jato  hoti.  Manussa 
theram  disva  :  rakkhasanam  sahayako  eso  ti  mannamana 
ayudhani  ^  gahetva  theram  paharitukama  ^  agacchanti.^  Thero  : 
kim  tumhe  ayudhahattha  *  agacchathati  aha.  Te  ahamsu  : 
rajakule  jate  jate  darake  rakkhasa  khadanti,  tesam  tumhe 
sahayakati.  Thero :  na  mayam  rakkhasanam  sahayaka, 
samana  nama  mayam  virata  panatipata  -pe- virata  majjapana 
ekabhattika  silavanto  kalyanadhammati  aha.  Tasmirn  yeva 
ca  khane  sa  rakkhasi  saparivara  samuddato  nikkhami :  raja- 
kule darako  jato,  tarn  khadissamiti.  Manussa  tarn  disva  : 
esa  bhante  rakkhasi  agacchatiti  bhita  viravimsu.  Thero  rak- 
khasehi  dvigune  ^  attabhave  nimminitva  tehi  attabhavehi  tarn 
rakkhasirn  [69]  saparisarn  majjhe  katva  ubhosu  passesu 
parikkhipi.  Tassa  saparisaya  etad  ahosi :  addha  imehi  imarn  ^ 
thanarn  laddharn  bhavissati,  mayarn  pana  imesarn  bhakkha 
bhavissamati,  sabbarakkhasa  bhita  '  vegasa  ®  palayirnsu.  Thero 
pi  te  yava  adassanarn  tava  palapetva  dipassa  samantato 
arakkharn  ^  thapesi.  Tasmifi  ca  samaye  sannipatitarn  maha- 
janakayarn  Brahmajalasuttantakathaya  pasadetva  saranesu 
ca  silesu  ca  patitthapesi.  Satthisahassanarn  pan'ettha  dhamma- 
bhisamayo  ahosi ;  kuladarakanara  addhuddhani  sahassani 
pabbajirnsu,  kuladhitanarn  diyaddhasahassarn.  Evarn  so 
tattha  sasanarn  patitthapesi.  Tatoppabhuti  ^°  rajakule  jata- 
darakanarn  Sonuttaranamam  ^^  eva  karonti. 

Suvanriabhumirn  gantvana  Son'uttara  ^^  mahiddhika, 
pisace  niddhamitvana  Brahmajalarn  adesayun  ti. 

73.  Mahindatthero  pana  :  Tambapannidiparn  gantva  sasanarn 
patitthapehiti  upajjhayena  ca  bhikkhusanghena  ca  ajjhittho 
cintesi :  kalo  nu  kho  me  Tambapannidiparn  ganturn  no  ti. 
Ath'assa  vimarnsato  :  na  tava  kalo  ti  ahosi.  Kirn  pan'assa 
disva  etad  ahosi.  Mutasivaranno  mahallakabhavarn.  Tato 
cintesi :  ayara  raja  mahallako,  na  sakka  imarn  ganhitva 
sasanara  paggaheturn ;  idani  pan'assa  putto  Devanampi- 
yatisso    rajjarn    karessati,    tarn    ganhitva    sakka    bhavissati 

1  T.O.  avudhani.  2  x.O.  pariharitukama.  ^  T.O.  gacchanti. 

4  T.O.  avudha-.  ^  T.O.  digune.  «  P.E.V.  idam. 

'  T.O.  omit.  8  T.O.  vegena.  »  T.O.  rakkham. 

1"  T.O.  tato  pabhuti.  "  T.O.  Sonuttara-. 

Acariyaparampard  187 

sasanam  paggahetum.  Handa  yava  so  samayo  agacchati  tava 
natake  olokema.  Puna  dani  mayam  imam  janapadam  agac- 
cheyyama  va  na  vati.  So  evam  cintetva  upajjhayaii  ca  bhik- 
khusanghafi  ca  vanditva  Asokaramato  nikkhamma  tehi 
Itthiy^dihi  ^  catuhi  ^  therehi  Sanghamittaya  puttena  Sumana- 
samanerena  [70]  Bhandukena  ca  upasakena  saddhim  Rajaga- 
hanagaraparivattakena  Dakkhinagirijanapade  carikam  cara- 
mano  natake  olokento  cha  mase  atikkamesi.  Athanupubbena 
matunivesanatthanam  Vedisanagaram  ^  nama  sampatto. 

74.  Asoko  kira  kumarakale  janapadam  labhitva  Ujjenim 
gacchanto  Vedisanagaram  patva  Devasetthissa  *  dhitaram 
aggahesi.  Sa  tarn  divasam  eva  gabbham  ganhitva  Ujjeniyam 
Mahindakumaram  vijayi. 

Kumarassa  cuddasavassakale  rajjabhisekam  papuni.  Sa 
tassa  mata  tena  samayena  iiatighare  vasati.  Tena  vuttam  : 
anupubbena  ^  matunivesanatthanam  Vedisanagaram  ^  nama 
sampatto  ti.  Sampattaii  ca  pana  theram  disva  theramata 
Devi  padesu  ®  sirasa  vanditva  bhikkham  datva  theram  attana  ^ 
katarn  Vedisagirimahaviharam  ^  nama  aropesi.  Thero  ^ 
tasmirn  vihare  nisinno  cintesi :  amhakarn  idha  kattabbakiccam 
nitthitarn,  samayo  nu  kho  idani  Lankadiparn  gantun  ti.  Tato 
cintesi :  anubhavatu  tava  me  pitara  pesitam  abhisekarn 
Devanampiyatisso,  ratanattayagunafi  ca  sunatu,  chanatthaii 
ca  nagarato  nikkhamitva  Missakapabbatam  abhiruhatu,  tada 
tarn  tattha  dakkhissamati.  Athapararn  ekamasarn  tatth'eva 
vasarn  kappesi.  ^  Masatikkamena  ca  Jetthamiilamasapunna- 
mayam  uposathadivase  sannipatitva  sabbe  pi :  kalo  nu  kho 
amhakarn  Tambapannidipam  gamanaya  udahu  no  ti  manta- 
yimsu.  Tenahu  porana  : 

Mahindo  nama  namena  sahghatthero  tada  ahu, 
Itthiyo  ^®  Uttiyo  ^^  thero  Bhaddasalo  ca  Sambalo  ; 
[71]  Samanero  ca  Sumano  chalabhiiino  mah'iddhiko, 
Bhanduko  sattamo  tesam  ditthasacco  upasako  : 
iti  ete  mahanaga  mantayimsu  rahogatati. 

1  T.O.  Iddhiya-.  2  x.O.  catuhi.  '  E.  Vediya-. 

*  P.V.  Vedisasetthissa  ;  E.  Vediya-.  ^  P.E.V.  athanupubbena. 

«  T.O.  pade.  '  T.O.  attano.  «  E.  adds  pi. 

»  T.O.  sankappesi.  "  T.O.  Iddhiyo.  "  T.O.  Vuttiyo. 

l88  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

75.  Tada  Sakko  devanam  indo  Mahindattheram  upasanka- 
mitva  etad  avoca :  kalakato  bhante  Mutasivaraja,  idani 
Devanampiyatissamaharaja  raj  jam  kareti.  Sammasambud- 
dhena  ca  tumhe  vyakata  :  anagate  Mahindo  nama  bhikkhu 
Tambapannidipam  pasadessatiti.  Tasmat  iha  vo  bhante  kalo 
dipavaram  gamanaya,  aham  pi  vo  sahayo  bhavissamiti. 
Kasma  pana  Sakko  evam  aha.  Bhagava  kir'assa  bodhimule 
yeva  Buddhacakkhuna  lokam  oloketva  anagate  imassa  dipassa 
sampattim  disva  etam  attham  arocesi.  Tada  tvam  pi  sahayo 
bhaveyyasiti  ca  anapesi.  Tasma  evam  aha.  Thero  tassa 
vacanam  sampaticchitva  attasattamo  Vedisapabbata  ^  veha- 
sam  uppatitva  Anuradhapurassa  puratthimadisaya  ^  Missa- 
kapabbate  patitthahi,  yam  pan'etarahi  Cetiyapabbato  ti  pi 
sanjananti.    Tenahu  porana  : 

Vedisagirimhi  ^  Rajagahe  vasitva  timsarattiyo 
kalo  Va  *  gamanassati  gacchama  ^  dipam  uttamam. 
Palina  ^  Jambudipato  hamsaraja  va  ambare 
evam  uppatita  thera  nipatimsu  nag'uttame. 
Purato  purasetthassa  pabbate  meghasannibhe, 
patitthahimsu  '  kutamhi  '^  hamsa  va  nagamuddhaniti. 

76.  [72]  Evam  Itthiyadihi  ^  saddhim  agantva  patitthahanto 
ca  ayasma  Mahindatthero  sammasambuddhassa  parinibbanato 
dvinnam  vassasatanam  upari  chattimsatime  vasse  imasmim 
dipe  patitthahiti  veditabbam.^  Ajatasattussa  hi  atthame 
vasse  sammasambuddho  parinibbayi.  Tasmim  yeva  vasse 
Sihakumarassa  putto  TambapannidTpassa  adiraja  Vijaya- 
kumaro  imam  dipam  agantva  manussavasam  akasi.  Jambudipe 
Udayabhadrassa  ^^  cuddasame  vasse  idha  Vijayo  kalam  akasi. 
Udayabhadrassa  ^^  paficadasame  vasse  Panduvasadevo  ^^  nama 
imasmim  dipe  raj  jam  papuni.  Tattha  Nagadasakaraiino  ^^ 
visatime  vasse  idha  Panduvasadevo  tirnsavassani  rajjarn 
karetva  ^^  kalam  akasi.  Tasmim  yeva  ca  ^*  vasse  Abhayo 
nama  rajakumaro  imasmim  dipe  raj  jam  papuni.  Tattha 
Susunagarafifio  sattarasame  vasse  idha  Abhayarafino  visati  ^^ 

1  E.  Vediyaka-  ;   T.O.  Vedisaka-.     2  p,E.  -disayam.  ^  e.  Vediya-. 

*  T.O.  ca.  ^  T.O.  gacchami.  ^  P.  palita  ;   E.  phalina. 

'  P.E.V.  patimsu  silakutamhi.        8  x.O.  Iddhiya-.         »  P.E.V.  veditabbo. 
1"  P.E.  -bhaddassa.  ^  P.E.V.  -vasudevo.        ^^  x.O.  Nagadassaka. 

13  See  T.,  p.  72,  n.  11.        1*  T.O.  omit  yeva  ca.       i^  x.O.  visam. 

Acariyaparampard  189 

vassani  paripurimsu.  Atha  Abhayassa  visatime  vasse  Pakunda- 
kabhayo  nama  damariko  raj  jam  aggahesi.  Tattha  Kalasokassa 
sojasame  vasse  idha  Pakundakabhayassa  sattarasa  vassani 
paripurimsu.  Tani  hettha  ekena  vassena  saha  attharasa  honti. 
Tattha  Candaguttassa  cuddasame  vasse  idha  Pakundakabhayo 
kalam  akasi ;  Mutasivaraja  raj  jam  papuni.  Tattha  Asoka- 
dhammarajassa  sattarasame  vasse  idha  Mutasivaraja  kalam 
akasi ;   Devanampiyatisso  raj  jam  papuni. 

Parinibbute  ca  pana  ^  sambuddhe  Ajatasattu  catuvisati 
vassani  rajjarn  karesi,  Udayabhadro  ^  [73]  ca  solasa,  Anuruddho 
ca  Mundo  ca  attha,^  Nagadasako  *  catuvisati,  Susunago 
attharasa,  tass'eva  putto  Asoko  ^  atthavisati,  Asokassa  putta  ® 
dasabhatukarajano  dvevisati  vassani  rajjani  karesura.  Tesarn 
pacchato  nava  Nanda  dvevlsatim  eva,  Candagutto  ca  ^  catu- 
visati, Bindusaro  atthavisati.^  Tassavasane  Asoko  raj  jam 
papuni.®  Tassa  pure  abhiseka  cattari,  abhisekato  attharasame 
vasse  imasmim  dipe  Mahindatthero  patitthito.  Evam  etena 
rajavamsanusarena  veditabbam  etam  ^^ :  sammasambud- 
dhassa  parinibbanato  dvinnam  vassasatanam  upari  chattimsa- 
time  vasse  imasmirn  dipe  patitthahiti. 

77.  Tasmin  ca  divase  Tambapannidipe  Jetthamiilanakkhat- 
tam  nama  nakkhattam  ^^  hoti.  Raja  nakkhattam  ghosapetva  : 
chanarn  karothati  amacce  anapetva  cattalisapurisasahassapari- 
varo  nagaramha  nikkhamitva  yena  Missakapabbato  tena  payasi 
migavam  kilitukamo.  Atha  tasmim  pabbate  adhivattha  eka 
devata  :  rafiiio  there  dassessamiti  rohitamigarupam  gahetva 
avidiire  tinapannani  khadamana  viya  carati.  Raja  tarn  ^^ 
disva  :  ayuttam  dani  pamattam  vijjhitun  ti  jiyam  pothesi. 
Migo  Ambatthalamaggam  gahetva  palayitum  arabhi.  Raja 
pitthito  anubandhanto  Ambatthalam  eva  abhiruhi.^^  Migo  pi 
theranam  avidure  antaradhayi.  Mahindatthero  rajanam 
avidure  agacchantara  disva  :  mamam  yeva  raja  passatu,  ma 
itare  ti  adhitthahitva  :   Tissa  Tissa  ito  ehiti  aha.    Raja  sutva 

1  P.E.V.  omit.  2  p.E.V.  -bhaddo. 

3  T.O.  attharasa  ;   Mhv.  iv,  3,  attha,  also  Ch.    (See  T.,  p.  73,  n.  2.). 

*  T.O.  Nagadassako.  ^  P.E.V.  Kalasoko.  «  P.E.  puttaka. 

'  P.E.V.  omit.  8  T.O.  atthavisam.  »  E.  karesi. 

i»  T.O.  eva  tarn.  "  P.E.  omit.  ^^  x.O.  omit. 

"  T.O.  abhirulii. 

IQO  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

cintesi :  imasmim  dipe  jato  mam  Tissati  ^  namam  [74] 
gahetva  alapitum  samattho  nama  n'atthi.  Ayam  pana  chinna- 
bhinnapatadharo  bhandukasavavasano  mam  namena  alapati. 
Ko  nu  kho  ayam  bhavissati  manusso  va  amanusso  vati.  Thero 
aha : 

Samana  mayam  maharaja  dhammarajassa  savaka, 
tav'eva  ^  anukampaya  Jambudipa  idhagatati. 

78.  Tena  ca  samayena  Devanampiyatissamaharaj  a  ^  ca  Asoka- 
dhammaraja  ca  aditthasahayaka  honti.  Devanampiyatissa- 
maharaj assa  ca  puiinanubhavena  Chatakapabbatapade  ekamhi 
venugumbe  *  tisso  venuyatthiyo  *  rathayatthippamana  uppaj- 
jimsu  :  eka  latayatthi  nama,  eka  pupphayatthi  nama,  eka 
sakunayatthi  nama.  Tasu  latayatthi  sayam  ^  rajatavanna 
hoti,  tarn  alankaritva  uppannalata  kancanavanna  khayati. 
Pupphayatthiyam  pana  nilapitalohitavadatakalavannani  ®  pup- 
phani  suvibhattavantapattakiiijakkhani  hutva  khayanti.  Saku- 
nayatthiyam  hamsakukkutajivafijivakadayo  ^  sakuna  nanap- 
pakarani  ca  ^  catuppadani  ^  sajivani  viya  khayanti.  Vuttam 
pi  c'etam  Dipavamse  ^^ : 

Chatapabbatapadamhi  venuyatthi  *  tayo  ahu, 
seta  rajatayatthi  ca  ^^  lata  kancanasannibha. 
Niladi  yadisam  puppham  pupphayatthimhi  tadisam, 
sakuna  sakunayatthimhi  sariipen'  eva  santhitati. 

[75]  Samuddato  pi  'ssa  muttamaniveluriyadi-anekavihita- 
ratanam  ^^  uppajji.  Tambapanniyam  pana  ^^  attha  mutta 
uppajjimsu :  hayamutta,  gajamutta,  rathamutta,  amalaka- 
mutta,  valayamutta,  angulivethakamutta,  kakudhaphala- 
mutta,  pakatikamuttati.  So  ta  ^^  yatthiyo  ta  ca  muttayo^^ 
aiinan  ca  bahum  ratanam  Asokassa  dhammaranno  panna- 
karatthaya  pesesi.  Asoko  pasiditva  tassa  paficarajakakudha- 
bhandani  pahini :  chattam,  camaram,  khaggam,  molim, 
ratanapadukam,^^    aiiiian    ca    abhisekatthaya    bahuvidham 

^  E.  adds  Tissa  again.  2  x.O.  tarn  eva. 

^  T.O.  -tisso  maharaja.  *  P.  velu-. 

5  P.E.V.  omit ;   T.O.  (latayatthi)  yam.  «  P.E.V.  -lohit  'odata. 

'  T.  kamsa-  for  hamsa-  ;   T.O.  -jivajivakddayo.  ^  T.O.E.  omit. 

"  E.  pakkhiganani.            ^°  See  references  in  Trsl.  ^^  E.  va. 

12  P.E.V.  -vihitam  ratanam.          i^  x.O.  omit.  1*  P.E.V.  add  ca. 
1^  P.  mutta.                         ^*  T.O.  ratanam  padukam. 

Acariyaparampard  191 

pannakaram,  seyyathidam  :  sankham,  Gangodakam,  vaddha- 
manam  vatamsakam,  bhinkaram,  nandiyavattam,  sivikam, 
kanfiam,  katacchum/  adhovimam  dussayugam,  hatthapufi- 
chanam,^  haricandanam,  arunavannamattikam,  anjanam, 
haritakam  ^  amalakan  ti.  Vuttam  pi  c'etam  Dipavamse  : 

Valavijanim  *  unhisam  chattam  khaggan  ca  padukam 
vethanam  sarapamangam  bhinkaram  nandivattakam, 
sivikam  sankham  vatamsafi  ca  adhovim  ^  vatthakotikam 
sovannapatim  katacchum  ®  mahaggham  hatthapuii- 

Anotattodakam  kannam  ^  uttamam  haricandanam 
[76]  arunavannamattikail  ^  ca  anjanam  naga-m-ahatam, 
haritakarn  ^  amalakarn  mahaggharn  amatosadham 
satthivahasatarn  sahrn  sugandham  suvakahatarn  ^^ 
punilakammabhinibbattam  pahesi  Asokasavhayo  ^^  ti. 

Na  kevalaii  ca  etam  ^^  amisapannakararn,  imam  kira  dhamma- 
pannakaram  pi  pesesi : 

Aham  Buddhafi  ca  dhammafi  ca  sanghan  ca  saranam  gato 

upasakattam  vedesim  ^^  Sakyaputtassa  sasane. 

Imesu  tisu  vatthusu  uttamesu  naruttama/* 

tvam  pi  cittam  pasadehi  saddha  ^^  saranam  upehisiti.^® 

79.  Sv'ayani  raja  tarn  divasarn  Asokarafina^^  pesitena  abhise- 
kena  ekamasabhisitto^^  hoti.  Visakhapunnamayam^^  hi'ssa 
abhisekarn  akarnsu.  So  acirasutarn  tarn  sasanapavattim 
anussaramano  tarn  therassa :  samana  mayam  maharaja 
dhammarajassa    savakati    vacanarn    sutva :     ayya    nu    kho 

^  p.  E.  katacchukam.  2  e.  punjanam. 

^  T.O.  haritakam.  *  T.O.  valavijani. 

^  P.E.V.  (Dpv.  xii,  2)  adhovimam. 

*  T.  -patikatacchum  ;    O.  -katacchum  ;    Dpv.  suvannapatikatacchum. 
'  T.O.  -punchanim  ;   Dpv.  punchanam. 

8  T.O.Bp.Sp.  Dpv.  kajam. 

*  P.E.  arunavati-. 

1°  P.E.  sugandhan  ca  sukahatam  ;    Dpv.  sugandham  sukam  ahatam. 

11  P.E.  Asokavhajo.  "         12  p.E.V.  idam'. 

^^  Bp.Sp.  Mhv.  Tika,  desesim.  1*  T.O.  Dpv.  uttame  jinasasane. 

15  E.  saddhaya.  '  "  le  P.E.V.  upehiti. 

1'  T.O.Sp.  ranfio.  ^8  x.O.  ekamabhisitto. 

18  T.O.  -punnamaya. 

192  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

agatati  tavad  eva  avudham  nikkhipitva  ekam  antam  nisidi 
sammodaniyam  katham  kathayamano.  Yathaha  : 

Avudham  nikkhipitvana  ekam  antam  upavisi, 
nisajja  raja  sammodi  bahum  atthupasamhitan  ti. 

Sammodaniyam  katham  ca  kurumane  yeva  tasmim  tani  pi 
cattalisapurisasahassani  agantva  tarn  parivaresum.  Tada 
thero  itare  pi  cha  jane  dassesi.  Raja  disva  :  ime  kada  agatati 
[77]  aha.  Maya  saddhim  yeva  maharajati.  Idani  pana  Jam- 
budipe  anfie  pi  evarupa  samana  santiti.  Santi  maharaja, 
etarahi  Jambudipo  kasavapajjoto  isivataparivato.^    Tasmim, 

Tevijja  iddhippatta  ca  cetopariyayakovida 
khinasava  arahanto  ^  bahu  Buddhassa  savakati. 

80.  Bhante  kena  agata'tthati.  N'eva  maharaja  udakena  na 
thalenati.  Raja  akasena  agatati  aiinasi.  Thero  :  atthi  nu 
kho  ranilo  pannaveyyattiyan  ^  ti  vimarnsanatthaya  asannam  * 
ambarukkarn  arabbha  pafiham  pucchi :  Kiinnamo  ayarn 
maharaja  rukkho  ti.  Ambarukkho  nama  bhante  ti.  Imam 
pana  maharaja  ambam  muiicitva  anno  ambo  ^  atthi  n'atthiti. 
Atthi  bhante  anfie  pi  hahu  ambarukkhati.  Imaii  ca  ambam 
te  ca  ambe  muncitva  atthi  nu  kho  maharaja  aiiiie  rukkhati. 
Atthi  bhante,  te  pana  na  ambarukkhati.  Anne  ambe  ca  anambe 
ca  muncitva  atthi  pana  afiiio  rukkho  ti.  Ay  am  eva  bhante 
ambarukkho  ti.    Sadhu  maharaja  pandito'si. 

Atthi  pana  te  maharaja  iiatakati.  Atthi  me  bhante  bahu 
janati.  Te  muncitva  anile  keci  aiiiiataka  pi  atthi  maharajati. 
Anfiataka  bhante  iiatakehi  bahutarati.  Tava  fiatake  ca 
aiinatake  ca  muiicitva  atth'aiiiio  koci  maharajati.  Aham  eva  ^ 
bhante  ti.  Sadhu  maharaja,  atta  nama  attano  n'eva  fiatako 
na  aniiatako  ti. 

81.  Atha  thero  :  pandito  raja  sakkhissati  dhammarn  afifiatun 
ti  Ciilahatthipadopamasuttam  kathesi.  Kathapariyosane  raja 
tisu  saranesu  patitthahi  saddhim  cattalisaya  panasahassehi. 

1  P.E.V.  -pativato.  2  j  q  arahanta. 

8  T.O.  -veyyattikan.  *  T.O.  asanna-amba-. 

^  E.  anfie  amba.  «  T.O.E.  omit. 

Acariyaparampard  193 

Tarn  khanan  neva  ^  ranno  bhattam  [78]  ahariyittha.  Raja  ^ 
suttam  sunanto  yeva  ^  evam  anfiasi :  na  imesam  imasmim 
kale  bhojanam  kappatiti.  Apucchitva  ^  pana  bhunjitum 
ayuttan  ti  cintetva :  bhunjissatha  bhante  ti  pucchi.  Na 
maharaja  amhakam  imasmim  kale  bhojanam  kappatiti. 
Kasmim  kale  bhante  kappatiti.  Arun'uggamanato  patthaya 
yava  majjhantikasamaya  maharajati.  Gacchama  bhante 
nagaran  ti.  Alam  maharaja  idh'eva  vasissamati.  Sace  bhante 
tumhe  vasatha  ayam  darako  agacchatuti.  Maharaja  ayam 
darako  agataphalo  vifiiiatasasano  pabbajjapekho  *  idani  pab- 
bajissatiti.  Raja  :  tena  hi  bhante  sve  ratham  pesissami,  tarn 
abhiruhitva  agaccheyyathati  ^  vatva  vanditva  pakkami. 

82.  Thero  acirapakkantassa  ranno  Sumanasamaneram  aman- 
tesi :  ehi  tvarn  Sumana  dhammasavanassa  kalarn  ghosehiti. 
Bhante  kittakarn  thanarn  savento  ghosemiti.  Sakalarn  Tam- 
bapannidipan  ti.  Sadhu  bhante  ti  samanero  abhiiliiapadakarn 
catutthajjhanam  samapajjitva  vutthaya  adhitthahitva  sama- 
hitena  cittena  sakalarn  Tambapannidlpam  savento  tikkhattum 
dhammasavanassa  kalarn  ghosesi.  Raja  tarn  saddarn  sutva 
theranam  santikarn  pesesi :  kirn  bhante  atthi  koci  upaddavo 
ti.  N'atth'  amhakam  koci  upaddavo  ®  dhammasavanassa 
kalarn  ghosapayimha,  Buddhavacanarn  kathetukama  'mhati. 
Tan  ca  pana  samanerassa  saddarn  sutva  bhumma  devata 
saddam  anussavesum,  eten'  upayena  yava  Brahmaloka  saddo 
abbhuggaiichi.  Tena  saddena  mahadevatasannipato  ahosi. 
Thero  ^  mahantam  devatasannipatarn  disva  Samacittasuttan- 
tarn  kathesi.  Kathapariyosane  asankheyyanarn  devatanarn 
dhammabhisamayo  ahosi,  bahu  [79]  naga  ca  supanna  ca 
saranesu  patitthahimsu.  Yadiso  va  ^  Sariputtattherassa 
imarn  suttantarn  kathayato  devatasannipato  ahosi  tadiso 
Mahindattherassapi  jato. 

^'^.  Atha  tassa  rattiya  accayena  raja  theranam  ratham  pesesi. 
Sarathi  ®    ratham    ekam    ante    thapetva    theranarn    arocesi : 

^  P.E.V.  add  ca.     ^  p.  Raja  suttantarn  sunanto ;  E.  Raja  ca  suttantarn,  etc. 
3  T.O.  apucchitva.  *  P.  -pekkho. 

^  T.O.  agaccheyyathati.  *  T.O.  add  ti. 

'  T.O.  add  ca.  »  T.O.  omit. 

»  P.  sarathi. 

194  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

ahato  bhante  ratho,  abhiruhatha  ^  gacchissamati.  Thera  :  na 
mayam  ratham  abhiruhama/  gaccha  tvam,  paccha  mayam 
agacchissamati  vatva  vehasam  abbhuggantva  Anuradhapurassa 
puratthimadisayam  Pathamakacetiyatthane  ^  otarimsu.  Tarn 
hi  cetiyam  therehi  pathamam  otinnatthane  katatta  yeva 
Pathamakacetiyan  ^  ti  vuccati.  Raja  pi  sarathim  pesetva :  anto- 
nivesane  mandapam  patiyadethati  amacce  anapesi.  Tavad  eva 
sabbe  hatthatuttha  ativiyapasadikam  mandapam  patiyadesum. 
Puna  raja  cintesi :  hiyyo  thero  silakkhandham  kathayamano 
uccasayanamahasayanam  na  kappatiti  aha.  Nisidissanti 
nu  kho  ayya  asanesu  na  nisidissantiti.  Tass'evam  cinta- 
yantass'eva  so  sarathi  nagaradvaram  sampatto.  Tato  addasa  ^ 
there  pathamataram  agantva  kayabandhanam  bandhitva 
civaram  parupante.  Disva  ativiya  pasannacitto  hutva  agantva 
ranno  arocesi :  agata  deva  therati.  Raja  :  ratham  arulhati 
pucchi.  Na  arulha  deva,  api  ca  mama  pacchato  nikkhamitva 
pathamataram  agantva  pacinadvare  thitati.  Raja  :  ratham 
pi  naruhirnsuti  sutva,  na  dani  ayya  uccasayanarn  *  sadiyissan- 
titi  cintetva,  tena  hi  bhane  theranam  bhummattharanasankhe- 
pena  asanani  paMapethati  vatva  patipatharn  agamasi.  Amacca 
pathaviyam  tattikam  ^  paiinapetva  upari  kojavakadini  vicitrat- 
tharanani  ^  pannapesurn. 

Uppadapathaka  ^  disva  :  gahita  dani  imehi  pathavi,  ime 
[80]  TambapannidTpassa  samika  bhavissantiti  vyakarimsu. 
Raja  pi  gantva  there  vanditva  Mahindattherassa  hatthato 
pattarn  gahetva  mahatiya  pujaya  ca  sakkarena  ca  there 
nagararn  pavesetva  antonivesanarn  pavesesi.  Thero  asana- 
pafinattirn  disva  :  amhakarn  sasanarn  sakala-Lankadipe  path- 
avi viya  patthatam  ^  niccalani  ca  hutva  patitthahissatiti 
cintento  nisidi.  Raja  there  panitena  khadaniyena  bhojaniyena  ^ 
sahattha  santappetva  sampavaretva,  Anuladevipamukhani 
paiica  itthisatani  theranarn  abhivadanam  pujasakkaran  ca 
karontuti  ^°  pakkosapetva  ekam  antarn  nisidi.  Thero  bhat- 
takiccavasane     raiino      saparijanassa    dhammaratanavassarri 

1  E.  abhiruh-.  2  x.O.  Pathamacetiya, 

3  P.E.  addassa. 

*  E.  adds  mahasayanam  ;   P.  adds  uccasayanamahasayanam. 

5  T.O.  taddhikam.  '  «  Sp.Bp.  citra-. 

'  P.  uppata-  8  X  o.  patthatam. 

»  T.O.  khadaniyena  bhojaniyena.        i"  T.O.  karontiti. 

Acariyaparampard  195 

vassento  ^  Petavatthum  Vimanavatthum  Saccasamyuttan  ca 
kathesi.  Tarn  therassa  dhammadesanam  sutva  tani  paiica  pi 
itthisatani  sotapattiphalam  sacchikarimsu.^ 

Ye  pi  te  manussa  purimadivase  Missakapabbate  there  adda- 
samsu  te  tesu  tesu  thanesu  theranam  gune  kathenti ;  tesam 
sutva  mahajanakayo  rajangane  sannipatitva  mahasaddam 
akasi.  Raja  :  kim  eso  saddo  ti  pucchi.  Nagara,  deva,  there 
datthum  na  labhamati  viravantiti.^  Raja :  sace  idha  pavisis- 
santi  okaso  na  bhavissatiti  cintetva,  gacchatha  bhane  hatthi- 
salarn  patijaggitva  valukam  *  akiritva  pancavannani  pupphani 
vikiritva  celavitanam  bandhitva  mangalahatthit thane  thera- 
narn  asanani  pafifiapethati  aha.  Rajamacca  ^  tatha  akamsu. 
Thero  tattha  gantva  nisiditva  Devadiitasuttantam  kathesi. 
Kathapariyosane  panasahassarn  sotapattiphale  patitthahi. 
Tato  :  hatthisala  atisambadhati  dakkhinadvare  Nandanavan 
'uyyane  ®  asanam  pannapesum.  Thero  tattha  nisiditva 
Asivisopamasuttam  kathesi.  Tarn  pi  sutva  panasahassarn  [81] 
sotapattiphalam  patilabhi.  Evam  agatadivasato  dutiyadivase 
addhateyyanara  sahassanarn  dhammabhisamayo  ahosi. 

84.  Therassa  Nandanavane  agatagatahi  kul'itthihi  kula- 
sunhahi  kulakumarihi  saddhirn  sammodamanass'  eva  sayanha- 
samayo  jato.  Thero  kalam  sallakkhetva :  gacchama  dani 
Missakapabbatan  ti  utthahi.  Amacca  :  kattha  bhante  gac- 
chathati.  Amhakam  nivesanatthanan  ^  ti.  Te  rafino  samvidi- 
tam  katva  rajanumatena  aharasu  :  akalo  bhante  idani  tattha 
ganturn,  idam  eva  Nandanavanarn  uyyanarn  ®  ayyanarn 
avasatthanam  hotuti.  Alam  gacchamati.  Puna  raniio  vacane- 
nahamsu  :  raja  bhante  aha,  etarn  Meghavanam  nama  uyya- 
narn mama  pitusantakarn  nagarato  natiduram  naccasannam 
gamanagamanasampannam,  ettha  thera  vasarn  kappentuti. 
Vasimsu  thera  Meghavane  uyyane.  Raja  pi  kho  tassa  rattiya 
accayena  therassa  samiparn  gantva  sukhasayitabhavara  puc- 
chitva  :  kappati  bhante  bhikkhusanghassa  aramo  ti  pucchi. 
Thero  :  kappati  maharajati  vatva  imarn  suttarn  ahari :  anuja- 
nami  bhikkhave  araman  ti.    Raja  tuttho  suvannabhinkararn 

^  Sp.  vassanto.  ^  Bp^  sacchakamsu. 

^  T.O.  vilapanti  and  omit  ti.  *  T.O.  valukam. 

^  P.E.  Amacca.  *  T.O.  -vana-uyyane. 

'  Sp.  nivasana.  *  P.  Nandanavan'uyyanam. 

196  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

gahetva  therassa  hatthe  udakam  patetva  Mahameghavan 
'uyyanam^  adasi.  Saha  udakapatena  pathavi  kampi.  Ayam 
Mahavihare  pathamo  pathavikampo  ahosi.  Raja  bhito  theram 
pucchi :  kasma  bhante  pathavi  kampatiti.  Mabhayimaharaja, 
imasmim  dipe  dasabalassa  sasanam  patitthahissati,  idan  ca  ^ 
pathamam  viharatthanam  bhavissati,  tass'  etam  pubbani- 
mittan  ti.  Raja  bhiyyosomattaya  pasidi.  Thero  punadivase  pi 
rajagehe  yeva  bhunjitva  Nandanavane  Anamataggiyani  kathesi. 
Punadivase  Aggikkhandhopamasuttam  kathesi.  Eten'eva 
upayena  satta  divasani  kathesi,  desanapariyosane  ^  addhana- 
vamanam  panasahassanam  dhammabhisamayo  ahosi.  Tato 
[82]  patthaya  *  Nandanavanam  sasanassa  jotipatubhavattha- 
nan  ti  katva  Jotivanan  ti  namam  patilabhi.^ 

85.  Sattame  pana  divase  thera  antepure  raiifio  Maha-appa- 
madasuttam  kathayitva  Cetiyagirim  eva  agamamsu.  Atha 
kho  raja  amacce  pucchi :  thero  amhe  galhena  ovadena  ovadati, 
gaccheyya  nu  kho  ti.  Amacca  :  tumhehi  deva  thero  ayacito 
sayam  eva  agato,  tasma  tassa  anapuccha  ^  gamanam  pi 
bhaveyyati  ahamsu.  Tato  raja  ratham  abhiruhitva  dve  ca 
deviyo  aropetva  Cetiyagirirn  agamasi  mahacca  ^  rajanubha- 
vena.  Gantva  deviyo  ekam  antam  apakkamapetva  sayam 
eva  ^  theranam  samiparn  upasankamanto  ativiya  kilantarupo 
hutva  upasankami.^  Tato  narn  thero  aha :  kasma  tvam 
maharaja  evarn  kilamamano  agato  ti.  Tumhe  mama  galham 
ovadarn  datva  idani  gantukama  nu  kho  ti  jananattham  bhante 
ti.  Na  may  am  maharaja  gantukama,  api  ca  vassupanayikakalo 
namayam  maharaja,  tatra  samanena  ca  ^^  vassupanayikattha- 
nam  iiatuni  vattatiti. 

86.  Tarn  divasam  eva  Arittho  nama  amacco  pancapannasa- 
jetthakanitthabhatukehi ^1  saddhim  ranno  samipe  thito  aha: 
icchama  mayam  deva  theranam  santike  pabbajitun  ti.  Sadhu 
bhane  pabbajassuti  ^^  raja  anujanitva  therarn  sampaticchapesi. 

^  T.O.  -vana-uyyanam.  2  p.E.V.  omit. 

3  T.O.  omit.  '  *  P.E.V.  add  ca. 

5  T.O.  labhi.  «  T.O.  add  va. 

'  E.  mahacca  ;   P.V.  mahanca.  ^  T.O.  omit. 

®  T.O.E.  omit  and  tato  next.  ^"  P.E.  omit. 

^^  P.  pannasaya  jettha-,  ^2  g  pabbajjassuti. 

Acariyaparampard  197 

Thero  tad  ah'eva  pabbajesi.  Sabbe  khuragge  yeva  arahattam 
papunimsu.  Raja  pi  kho  tankhanam  yeva  Kantakacetiyanga- 
nam  parikkhipitva  atthasatthiya  ^  lenesu  kammam  pattha- 
petva  nagaram  eva  agamasi.  Te  pi  [83]  thera  dasabhatika- 
samakulam  rajakulam  pasadetva  mahajanam  ovadamana 
Cetiyagirimhi  vassam  vasimsu.  Tada  Cetiyagirimhi  pathama- 
vassam  upagata  dvasatthi  arahanto  ahesum. 

87.  Ath^yasma  Mahamahindo  vutthavasso  pavaretva  Katti- 
kapunnamayam  uposathadivase  rajanam  etad  avoca  :  maha- 
raja,  amhehi  ciradittho  sammasambuddho,  anathavasam  ^ 
vasimha,  icchama  Jambudipam  gantun  ti.  Raja  aha  ^ :  aham 
bhante  tumhe  catuhi  paccayehi  upatthahami,  ay  an  ca  maha- 
jano  tumhe  nissaya  tisu  saranesu  patitthito,  kasma  tumhe 
ukkanthitati.  Ciradittho  no  maharaja  sammasambuddho, 
abhivadana -  paccutthana  -  ail j  alikamma  -  samicikammakaranat  - 
thanam  n'atthi,  tena'mha  *  ukkanthitati.  Nanu  bhante  tumhe 
avocuttha :  parinibbuto  sammasambuddho  ti.  Kificapi 
maharaja  parinibbuto,  atha  khv  assa  sariradhatuyo  titthantiti. 
Afiiiatarn  bhante  thiipapatitthanarn  tumhe  akankhathati, 
karomi  bhante  thupam,  bhiimibhagarn  dani  vicinatha.  Api 
ca  bhante  dhatuyo  kuto  lacchamati.  Sumanena  saddhirn 
mantehi  maharajati. 

Sadhu  bhante  ti  raja  Sumanam  upasankamitva  pucchi : 
kuto  dani  bhante  dhatuyo  lacchamati.  Sumano  aha  :  appos- 
sukko  tvarn  maharaja  vithiyo  sodhapetva  dhajapatakapun- 
naghatadlhi  alahkarapetva  saparijano  uposatharn  samadiyitva 
sabbatalavacare  upatthapetva  mangalahatthim  sabbalankara- 
patimanditarn  karetva  ^  upari  c'assa  setacchattarn  ussapetva 
sayanhasamaye  Mahanagavan'uyyanabhimukho  yahi.  Addha 
etasmirn  ^  [84]  thane  dhatuyo  lacchasiti.  Raja,'  sadhuti 

Thera  Cetiyagirim  eva  agamarnsu.  Tatrayasma  Mahindat- 
thero  Sumanasamanerarn  aha :  gaccha  tvam  samanera, 
Jambudipe  tava  ayyakarn  Asokarn  ^  dhammarajanam  upasan- 
kamitva mama  vacanena  evam  vadehi :    sahayo  te  maharaja 

^  E.Bp.  dvasatthiya  ;  Mhv.  xvi,  10,  atthasatthi-.        ^  T.O.  anatha vassam. 
3  T.O.  omit.  *  P.E.V.  'mhe. 

^  P.E.V.  karapetva.  ^  P.E.V.  tasmim. 

'  T.O.  Sa  raja.  ^  E.  Asokadhamma-. 

igS  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

Devanampiyatisso  Buddhasasane  pasanno  thupam  patitthape- 
tukamo,  tumhakam  kira  hatthe  dhatuyo  atthi,  tarn  me 
dethati.  Tarn  gahetva  Sakkam  devarajanam  upasankamitva 
evam  vadehi :  tumhakam  kira  maharaja  hatthe  dve  dhatuyo 
atthi,  dakkhinadatha  ^  dakkhin'akkhakan  ca,  tato  tumhe 
dakkhinadatham  pujetha,  dakkhin'akkhakarn  pana  mayharn 
dethati.  Evan  ca  narn  vadehi :  kasma  tvam  maharaja  amhe 
Tambapannidipam  pahinitva  pamajjitthati.  Sadhu  bhante  ti 
kho  Sumano  therassa  vacanarn  sampaticchitva  tavad  eva 
pattacivaram  adaya  vehasarn  abbhuggantva  PataHputtadvare 
oruyha  raiino  santikam  gantva  tam  ^  attharn  arocesi. 

88.  Raja  tuttho  samanerassa  hatthato  pattam  gahetva 
gandhehi  ubbattetva  varamuttasadisanarn  dhatunarn  puretva 
adasi.  So  tarn  gahetva  Sakkain  devarajanam  upasankami. 
Sakko  devaraja  samanerarn  disvaVa  ^ :  kim  bhante  Sumana 
ahindasiti  aha.  Tvain  maharaja  amhe  Tambapannidiparn 
pesetva  kasma  pamajjasiti.  Nappamajjami  bhante,  vadehi 
kim  karomiti.  Tumhakam  kira  hatthe  dve  dhatuyo  atthi 
dakkhinadatha  ca  dakkhin'akkhakan  ca,  tato  tumhe  dak- 
khinadatharn  pUjetha,  dakkhin'akkhakarn  pana  mayharn 
dethati.  Sadhu  bhante  ti  kho  Sakko  devanam  indo  yojanap- 
pamanam  *  manithupam  ugghatetva  ^  dakkhin'akkhakadha- 
tum  niharitva  Sumanassa  adasi.  So  tam  gahetva  Cetiyagirimhi 
yeva  patitthasi.  Atha  kho  Mahindapamukha  sabbe  pi  te 
mahanaga  [85]  Asokadhammarajena  dinnadhatuyo  Cetiya- 
girimhi yeva  ®  patitthapetva  dakkhin'akkhakarn  adaya  vad- 
dhamanakacchayaya  Mahanagavan'uyyanam  agamamsu. 

89.  Raja  pi  kho  samanerena  ^  vuttappakaram  piijasakkaram 
katva  hatthikkhandhavaragato  sayam  mangalahatthimatthake 
setacchattam  dharayamano  Mahanagavanarn  sampapuni.  Ath' 
assa  etad  ahosi :  sace  ayarn  sammasambuddhassa  dhatu, 
chattam  apanamatu,^  mangalahatthi  jannukehi  bhumiyam 
patitthahatu,  dhatucangotakarn  mayharn  matthake  patit- 
thatuti.^    Saha  ranfio  citt'uppadena  chattam  apanami,  hatthi 

1  P.E.V.  add  ca.  2  p.e.V.  etam.  ^  P.  omits,  va. 

*  E.  -pamanamani-.         ^  P.E.V.  ugghatapetva.       «  E.  omits, 

'  T.O.  Sumanena.  «  x.O.  apanetu.  »  P.E.  patitthahatiiti. 

Acariyaparampard  199 

jannukehi  patitthahi,  dhatucangotakam  ranfio  matthake  patit- 
thahi.  Raja  amateneva  abhisittagatto  paramena  pitipamojjena 
samannagato  hutva  pucchi :  dhatum  bhante  kim  karomati. 
Hatthikumbhamhi  yeva  tava  maharaja  thapehiti.  Raja 
dhatucangotakam  gahetva  hatthikumbhe  thapesi.  Pamudito 
nago  kuficanadam  ^  nadi ;  mahamegho  utthahitva  pokkhara- 
vassam  vassi,  udakapariyantam  katva  mahabhumicalo  ahosi : 
paccante  pi  nama  sammasambuddhassa  dhatu  patitthahis- 
satiti.2  Devamanussa  pamudimsu.^  Evam  iddhanubhavasi- 
riya  devamanussanam  pitim  janayanto  : 

Punnamayam  mahaviro  catumasiniya  idha 
agantva  devalokamha  hatthikumbhe  patitthito  ti. 

Atha  ^  so  hatthinago  anekatalavacaraparivarito  ativiya 
ularaya  pujaya  sakkariyamano  *  pacchimadisabhimukho  hutva 
apasakkanto  yava  nagarassa  puratthimadvaram  tava  gantva 
puratthimadvarena  nagaram  pavisitva  [86]  sakalanagarena  ^ 
ularaya  pujaya  kayiramanaya  ^  dakkhinadvarena  nikkhamitva 
Thuparamassa  pacchimadisabhage  Mahejavatthu  '  nama  kira 
atthi,  tattha  gantva  puna  Thuparamabhimukho  eva  pati- 

90.  Tena  ca  samayena  Thiiparame  purimakanam  tinnam 
sammasambuddhanam  paribhogacetiyatthanam  hoti.  Atite 
kira  ayam  dipo  Ojadipo  nama  ahosi,  raja  pana  ^  Abhayo  nama, 
nagaram  Abhayapurarn  nama,  Cetiyapabbato  Devakutapab- 
bato  nama,  Thuparamo  Patiyaramo  nama.  Tena  kho  pana 
samayena  Kakusandho  ^  bhagava  loke  uppanno  hoti.  Tassa 
savako  Mahadevo  nama  thero  ^^  bhikkhusahassena  saddhim 
Devakute  patitthasi,  Mahindatthero  viya  Cetiyapabbate. 
Tena  ca  samayena  Ojadipe  satta  pajjarakena  anayabyasa- 
nam^i  apajjanti.  Addasa  kho  Kakusandho  bhagava  Buddha- 
cakkhuna  lokam  olokento  te  satte  anayabyasanam  ^^  apaj  jante. 

1  T.O.  kofica-. 
2-2  -hissatiti  devamanussa  pamodimsu  ;   E.  sampamodimsu. 
3  T.O.Bp.  ath'assa.  *  P.  sakkariya-. " 

^  P.E.V.  -nagarena.  *  P.  kayiramanaya. 

'  T.O.  Pahecivatthu  ;  E.  Pabhejavatthu  ;  Mhv.  xvii,  30,  Mahejjavatthu. 
8  P.  omits.  *  E.  adds  nama. 

1°  T.O.  omit.  "  T.O.  -vyasanam. 

200  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

Disva  cattallsaya  bhikkhusahassehi  parivuto  agamasi.  Tas- 
sanubhavena  tavad  eva  pajjarako  vupasanto.  Roge  vupasante 
bhagava  dhammam  desesi ;  caturasitipanasahassanam  ^  dham- 
m^bhisamayo  ahosi.  Bhagava  dhammakarakam  ^  datva 
pakkami.  Tarn  ante  pakkhipitva  Patiyarame  cetiyam  akamsu. 
Mahadevo  dipam  anusasanena  ^  palayanto  vihasi.^ 

91.  Konagamanassa  *  pana  bhagavato  kale  ayam  dipo 
Varadipo  nama  ahosi,  raja  Samiddho  ^  nama,  nagaram  Vaddha- 
manam  [87]  nama,  pabbato  Suvannakuto  nama.  Tena  kho 
pana  samayena  Varadipe  dubbutthika  hoti  dubbikkham 
dussassam.  Satta  chatakarogena  anayabyasanam  ^  apajjanti. 
Addasa  kho  Konagamano  *  bhagava  Buddhacakkhuna  lokam 
olokento  te  satte  anayabyasanam  ^apajjante.  Disva  timsabhik- 
khusahassaparivuto  agamasi.  Buddhanubhavena  devo  sam- 
madharam  anuppavecchi.'^  Subhikkham  ahosi.  Bhagava 
dhammam  desesi,  caturasltiya  panasahassanam  dhammabhisa- 
mayo  ahosi.  Bhagava  bhikkhusahassaparivara,m  Mahasuma- 
nam  nama  theram  dipe  thapetva  kayabandhanam  datva 
pakkami.    Tarn  anto  pakkhipitva  cetiyam  akamsu. 

92.  Kassapassa  pana  bhagavato  kale  ayam  dipo  Mandadlpo 
nama  ahosi,  raja  Jayanto  nama,  nagaram  Visalarn  nama, 
pabbato  Subhakuto  nama.  Tena  kho  pana  samayena  Manda- 
dipe  mahavivado  hoti.  Bahu  satta  kalahaviggahajata  anaya- 
byasanam ^  apajjanti.  Addasa  kho  Kassapo  bhagava  Buddha- 
cakkhuna lokarn  olokento  te  satte  anayabyasanam  ^  apajjante. 
Disva  visatibhikkhusahassaparivuto  agantva  vivadarn  vupa- 
sametva  dhammarn  desesi.  Caturasltiya  panasahassanam 
dhammabhisamayo  ahosi.  Bhagava  bhikkhusahassaparivararn 
Sabbanandarn  nama  theram  dipe  patitthapetva  udakasatikam 
datva  pakkami.  Tarn  ®  anto  pakkhipitva  cetiyam  akamsuti. 

Evam  Thuparame  purimakanarn  tinnam  Buddhanarn  ceti- 
yani  patitthahimsu.  Tani  sasanantaradhane  ^  nassanti,  thana- 
mattam  avasissati.  Tasma  vuttarn  :  tena  ca  samayena  Thupa- 

^  P.E.  catur  asitiya  pana-.  ^  Bp_  -karanam. 

2  P.E.V.  anusasanto  vihasi.  *  T.O.E.  Kona-. 

^  Bp.Sp.  Samiddhi.  ^  T.O.  -vyasanam. 

'  T.O.  anupavecchi.  ®  T.O.  add  pi. 
»  P.E.V.  -dhanena. 

Acariyaparampard  201 

rame  purimakanam  tinnam  sammasambuddhanam  paribhoga- 
cetiyatthanam  hotiti.i  Tad  etam  vinatthesu  [88]  cetiyesu 
devatanubhavena  kantakasamakinnasakhehi  nana  gacchehi 
parivutam  titthati :  ma  nam  koci  uccitthasucimalakacavarehi 

93.  Ath'assa  hatthino  purato  purato  gantva  rajapurisa  sabbe 
gacche  chinditva  bhumim  sodhetva  tarn  hatthatalasadisam 
akamsu.  Hatthinago  gantva  tarn  thanam  purato  katva  tassa 
pacchimadisabhage  bodhirukkhatthane  atthasi.  Ath'assa 
matthakato  dhatum  oropetum  arabhimsu.  Nago  oropetum 
na  deti.  Raja  theram  pucchi :  kasma  bhante  nago  dhatum 
oropetum  na  detiti.  Arulham  maharaja  oropetum  na  vattatiti. 

Tasmin  ca  kale  Abhayavapiya  udakam  chinnam  hoti, 
samanta  bhumi  phaHta  hoti,  su-uddhara  mattikapinda.  Tato 
mahajano  sighasigham  ^  mattikam  aharitva  hatthikumbhap- 
pamanam  vatthum  akasi.  Tavad  eva  ca  thupakaranattham 
itthika  katum  arabhimsu.  Yava  itthika  na  parinitthanti 
tava  hatthinago  katipaham  diva  bodhirukkhatthane  hatthi- 
salayarn  titthati,  rattim  thiipapatitthanabhumirQ  pariyayati. 
Atha  vatthurn  cinapetva  raja  therarn  pucchi :  kidiso  bhante 
thupo  katabbo  ti.  Vlhirasisadiso  maharajati.  Sadhu  bhante  ti 
raja  janghappamanarn  thupam  cinapetva  dhatu-oropanatthaya 
mahasakkaram  karesi.  Sakalanagaran  ca  janapado  ca  dhatuma- 
harn  ^  dassanattham  sannipati.  Sannipatite  ca  pana  tasmim 
mahajanakaye  dasabalassa  dhatu  hatthikumbhato  satta- 
talappamanam  vehasarn  abbhuggantva  yamakapatihariyam 
dassesi.  Tehi  tehi  *  dhatuppadesehi  channam  vannanarn 
udakadhara  ca  aggikkhandha  ca  pavattanti.  Savatthiyarn 
Gandambamule  ^  bhagavata  dassitapatihariya[89]sadisam  eva 
patihariyarn  ahosi.  Tan  ca  kho  n'eva  theranubhavena  na 
devatanubhavena,  api  ca  kho  Buddhanubhaven'eva.  Bhagava 
kira  dharamano  'va  adhitthasi :  mayi  parinibbute  Tambapan- 
nidipe  Anuradhapurassa  dakkhinabhage  purimakanarn  tinnarn 
Buddhanam  paribhogacetiyatthane  mama  dakkhin'akkhaka- 
dhatupatitthanadivase  yamakapatihariyam  hotuti. 

1  Bp.  ahositi.  2  Bp.Sp.  sigham  sigham. 

'  P.  -mahadassanattham.  *  E.  tehi  once  only. 

^  E,  Gandambarukkhamule. 


202  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

Evam  acintiya  Buddha  Buddhadhamma  acintiya 
acintiye  ^  pasannanam  vipako  hoti  acintiyo  ti. 

94.  Sammasambuddho  kira  imam  dipam  dharamanakale  pi 
tikkhattum  agamasi.  Pathamam  yakkhadamanattham  ekako 
'va  agantva  yakkhe  dametva  :  mayi  parinibbute  imasmim 
dipe  sasanam  patitthahissatiti  Tambapannidipe  rakkham 
karonto  tikkhattum  dipam  avijjhi.  Dutiyam  matulabhaginey- 
yanam  nagarajiinam  damanatthaya  ekako  'va  agantva  te 
dametva  agamasi.  Tatiyam  paiicasatabhikkhuparivaro  agantva 
Mahacetiyatthane  ca  Thiiparamacetiyatthane  ca  mahabodhi- 
patitthitatthane  ca  ^  Mutiyanganacetiyatthane  ^  ca  Digha- 
vapicetiyatthane  ca  Kalyanicetiyatthane  *  ca  nirodhasama- 
pattim  samapaj jitva  nisidi.  Idam  assa  catuttham  dhatusarirena 
agamanam.  Dhatusarirato  ca  pan'assa  nikkhanta  ^-udaka- 
phusitehi  sakala-Tambapannitale  na  koci  apphutokaso  nama 
ahosi.  Evam  assa  tarn  dhatusariram  udakaphusitehi  Tam- 
bapannitalassa  parilaham  viipasametva  ^  mahajanassa  pati- 
hariyam  dassetva  otaritva  raiiiio  matthake  [90]  patitthasi. 
Raja  saphalam  manussapatilabham  manfiamano  mahantam 
sakkaram  karitva  dhatum  patitthapesi.  Saha  dhatupatit- 
thanena  ^  mahabhiimicalo  ahosi.  Tasmiil  ca  pana  dhatupati- 
hariye  cittam  pasadetva  raniio  bhata  Abhayo  nama  raja- 
kumaro  purisasahassena  saddhim  pabbaji.  CetaUgamato  ® 
pancadarakasatani  pabbajimsu ;  tatha  Dvaramandaladihi 
gamakehi  nikkhamitva  paiica  paiica  ^  darakasatani.  Sabbani 
pi  antonagarato  ca  bahinagarato  ca  pabbajitani  timsabhik- 
khusahassani  ahesum.  Nitthite  pana  thiipasmim  raja  ca 
rajabhatika  ca  deviyo  ca  devanagayakkhanam  pi  vimhaya- 
karam  paccekam  paccekam  pujam  akamsu.  Nitthitaya  pana 
dhatupiijaya  patitthite  dhatuvare  Mahindatthero  Megha- 
van'uyyanam  eva  gantva  vasam  kappesi. 

95.  Tasmim  kho  pana  samaye  Anuladevi  pabbajitukama 
hutva  raniio  arocesi.    Raja  tassa  vacanam  sutva  therarn  etad 

1  T.O.  acintiyesu.  ^  Bp.  adds  Mahiyanganacetiyatthane  ca. 

3  Bp.  Mudangana- ;  Sp.  Mutingana-.        *  P.E.V.  Kalyaniya-. 

^  Misprint  in  T.  «  T.O.  upasametva. 

'  T.O.  patitthane  ;   P.E.V.  thapanena. 

»  P.E.V.  Cetali-  ;   Bp.  Cetaranga-  ;   Mhv.  Cetavi-. 

•  T.O.  pafica  once  only.   Mhv.  too  pafica  panca. 

Acariyaparampard  203 

avoca  :  Anula  bhante  devi  pabbajitukama,  pabbajetha  nan  ti. 
Na  maharaja  amhakam  matugamam  pabbajetum  kappati. 
Pataliputte  pana  mayham  bhagini  Sanghamittattheii  nama 
atthi,  tarn  pakkosapehi.^  Imasmifi  ca  pana  ^  maharaja  dipe 
purimakanam  tinnam  sammasambuddhanam  bodhi  patitthasi ; 
amhakam  pi  bhagavato  sarasararnsijalavissajjanakena  bodhina 
idha  patitthatabbam.  Tasma  tatha  sasanam  pahineyyasi 
yatha  Sanghamitta  pi  ^  bodhirn  gahetva  agaccheyyati.  Sadhu 
bhante  ti  raja  therassa  vacanam  sampaticchitva  amaccehi 
saddhim  mantento  *  Arittham  nama  attano  bhagineyyam 
aha  :  sakkhissasi  tvam  tata  ^  PataHputtarn  gantva  maha- 
bodhina  saddhirn  ayyarn  Sanghamittattherirn  anetun  ti. 
Sakkhissami  deva  sace  ^  pabbajiturn  anujanissasiti.^  Gaccha 
[91]  tata  therim  anetva  pabbajahiti.  So  rafino  ca  therassa  ca 
sasanam  gahetva  therassa  adhitthanavasena  ekadivasena 
Jambukolapattanam  gantva  navarn  abhiruhitva  ^  samuddam 
atikkamitva  PataUputtam  eva  agamasi.  Anula  pi  kho  devi 
paiicahi  ca  kafinasatehi  pancahi  ca  antepurikasatehi  saddhim 
dasasilani  samadiyitva  kasayani  vatthani  acchadetva  nagarassa 
ekadese  upassayam  karapetva  nivasarn  kappesi. 

96.  Arittho  pi  ®  tarn  divasam  eva  gantva  rafino  sasanam 
appesi,  evaii  ca  avoca  :  putto  te  deva  Mahindatthero  evam 
aha  :  sahayassa  kira  te  Devanampiyatissassa  rafino  bhatujaya  ^ 
Anula  nama  devi  pabbajitukama,  tarn  pabbajetum  ayyam 
Sanghamittattherirn  pahinatha,^^  ayyay'eva  ca  saddhim  maha- 
bodhin  ti.^^  Therassa  sasanarn  arocetva  Sanghamittattherirn 
upasankamitva  evam  aha  :  ayye  ^^  tumhakarn  bhata  Mahindat- 
thero mam  tumhakarn  santikam  pesesi :  Devanampiyatissa- 
raiifio  bhatujaya  ^  Anula  nama  devi  paiicahi  ca^^  kaiifiasatehi 
paiicahi  ca  antepurikasatehi  saddhirn  pabbajitukama,  tarn 
kira  agantva  pabbajethati.^*  Sa  tavad  eva  turitaturita  raiino 
santikarn  gantva  evam  aha  :  maharaja  mayharn  bhata  Mahin- 
datthero evam  pahini :    rafiiio  kira  bhatujaya  ^  Anula  nama 

1  T.O.  add  iti.  2  x.O.  omit.  3  p_  omits  pi. 

*  P.  mantetva.  ^  T.O.  omit. 

«-«  P.E.V.  sace  me  pabbajjam  anu-.     '  P.E.V.  -ruhitva. 

*  T.O.  ca.  '  T.O.  bhatu  jaya  (omit  rafiiio). 
i»  T.O.  pahinatha.                                  "  T.O.  ti  therassa. 

^2  E,  ayya.  ^^  P.  omits  ;   E.  ca  after  kafifia-satehi. 

^*  T.O.  add  :  tumhakarn  bhata  Mahindatthero  mam  pesesiti  arocesi. 

204  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

devi  pancahi  ca  kannasatehi  pancahi  ca  antepurikasatehi 
saddhim  pabbajitukama  mayham  agamanam  udikkhati,  gac- 
cham'  aham  maharaja  Tambapannidipan  ti.  Raja  aha  :  amma 
putto  pi  me  Mahindatthero  natta  ca  Sumanasamanero  mam 
chinnahattham  viya  karonta  Tambapannidipam  [92]  gat  a. 
Tassa  mayham  te  pi  apassantassa  uppanno  soko  tava  mukham 
passantassa  vupasammati.  Alam  amma  ma  agamasiti. 
Bhariyam  me  maharaja  bhatuno  vacanam.  Anula  pi  khattiya 
itthisahassaparivuta  pabbajjapurekkhara  mam  patimaneti. 
Gaccham'  aham  maharajati.  Tena  hi  amma  mahabodhim 
gahetva  yahiti.^ 

97.  Kuto  raMo  mahabodhi.  Raja  kira  tato  pubbe  eva 
dhatugahanatthaya  anagate  Sumane,  Lankadipam  maha- 
bodhim pesetukamo :  kathan  nu  kho  asatthaghataraham 
mahabodhim  pesessamiti  upayam  apassanto  Mahadevam  nama 
amaccam  pucchi.  So  aha  :  santi  deva  bahu  pandita  bhikkhuti. 
Tarn  sutva  raja  bhikkhusanghassa  bhattarn  patiyadetva 
bhattakiccavasane  sangharn  pucchi :  gantabbarn  nu  kho 
bhante  bhagavato  bodhina  Lankadipam  no  ti.  Sangho  Moggah- 
puttatissattherassa  bhararn  akasi.  Thero  :  gantabbarn  maha- 
raja mahabodhina  Lankadipan  ti  vatva  bhagavato  paiica 
maha-adhitthanani  kathesi.    Katamani  pafica. 

Bhagava  kira  mahaparinibbanamance  nipanno  :  LankadTpe 
mahabodhipatitthapanatthaya  Asokamaharaja  mahabodhi- 
gahanattharn  ^  gamissati,  tada  mahabodhissa  dakkhinasakha 
sayam  eva  chijjitva  suvannakatahe  patitthatuti  adhitthasi. 
Idam  ekam  ^  adhitthanam.  Tattha  patitthanakale  ca  *  maha- 
bodhi himavalahakagabbharn  pa  visit  va  tit  that  uti  adhitthasi. 
Idarn  dutiyarn  adhitthanarn.  Sattame  divase  himavalahaka- 
gabbhato  oruyha  suvannakatahe  patitthahanto  pattehi  ca 
phalehi  ca  chabbannaramsiyo  muiicatuti  ^  adhitthasi.  Idam 
tatiyarn  adhitthanarn.  Thuparame  dakkhin'akkhakadhatu 
cetiyamhi  pat  itthanadi  vase  yamakapatihariyam  karotuti  adhit- 
thasi.   Idam  ®  catuttham  ^  adhitthanam.    Lankadipamhi  yeva 

*  T.O.  gacchahiti.  ^  T.O.  -ganhanattham. 

3  T.O.  ekam.  *  T.O.  va. 

5  P.E.V.  muficantuti.  «  T.O.  imam. 
'  P.E.V.  catuttham. 

Acariyaparampard  205 

me  donamatta  dhatuyo  Mahacetiyamhi  [93]  patitthanakale 
Buddha vesam  gahetva  vehasam  uppatitva  ^  yamakapatihari- 
yam  karontuti  adhitthasi.   Idam  paficamam  adhitthanam. 

Raja  imani  paiica  maha-adhitthanani  sutva  pasannacitto 
Pataliputtato  yava  mahabodhi  tava  maggam  patijaggapetva 
suvannakatahatthaya  bahum  suvannam  niharapesi.  Tavad 
eva  ca  ranno  cittam  liatva  Vissakammadevaputto  kammara- 
vannam  nimminitva  purato  atthasi.  Raja  nam  ^  disva  :  tata 
imam  suvannam  gahetva  kataham  karohiti  aha.  Pamanam 
deva  janathati.^  Tvam  eva  tata  fiatva  karohiti.*  Sadhu  deva 
karissamiti  suvannam  gahetva  attano  anubhavena  hatthena 
parimadditva  suvani^akataham  nimmini,  navahatthaparik- 
khepam  pancahatth'ubbedham  tihatthavikkhambham  atthan- 
gulabahalam  hatthisondappamanamukhavattim.  ^ 

98.  Atha  raja  satayojanayamaya  ^  tiyojanavittharaya  maha- 
tiya  senaya  PataHputtato  nikkhamitva  ariyasangham  adaya 
mahabodhisamipam  agamasi.  Sena  samussitadhajapatakam  ^ 
nanaratanavicittam  anekalankarapatimanditam  nanavidhaku- 
sumasamakinnam  anekaturiyasanghuttam  ^  mahabodhim 
parikkhipi.  Raja  sahassamatte  ganapamokkhe  mahathere 
gahetva  sakala-Jambudipe  pattabhisekanam  rajiinam  ^  sahas- 
sena  attanafi  ca  mahabodhin  ca  parivarapetva  mahabodhimiile 
thatva  mahabodhim  ullokesi.  Mahabodhissa  khandhafi  ca 
dakkhinamahasakhaya  ^^  catuhatthappamanam  padesan  ca  ^^ 
thapetva  avasesam  adassanam  agamasi.  Raja  tarn  patihariyam 
disva  uppannapitipamojjo  :  aham  bhante  imam  patihariyam 
disva  tuttho  mahabodhim  sakala-Jambudipe  rajjena  ^^  pujemiti 
bhikkhussanghassa  vatva  abhisekam  adasi.  [94]  Tato  pup- 
phagandhadihi  pujetva  tikkhattum  padakkhinam  katva  atthasu 
thanesu  vanditva  utthaya  aiijaHm  paggayha  thatva  sacca- 
vacanakiriyaya  bodhim  ganhitukamo  bhiimito  yava  maha- 
bodhissa dakkhinasakha  tava  uccam  katva  thapitassa 
sabbaratanamayapithassa  upari  suvannakataham  thapapetva 

1  P.E.  abbhuggantva.  2  p.E.V.  tarn. 

3  T.O.  janathati.  *  T.O.  omit  ti. 

5  T.O.  -sondapamana-.  •  T.O.  -ayamani. 

'  P.E.V.  -patakam.  »  P.E.V.  -sanghattam. 

»  T.O.  rajanam.  1°  T.O.  -sakhayam. 

11  T.O.  omit.    *  ^2  p.E.V.  -diparajjena. 

2o6  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

ratanapitham  aruyha  suvannatulikam  gahetva  manosilaya 
lekham  katva  :  yadi  mahabodhina  Lankadipe  patitthatab- 
bam/  yadi  caham  Buddhasasane  nibbematiko  bhaveyyam, 
mahabodhi  sayam  eva  imasmim  suvannakatahe  patitthatuti 
saccavacanakiriyam  akasi.  Saha  saccakiriyaya  bodhisakha 
manosilaya  paricchinnatthane  chijjitva  gandhakalalapurassa 
suvannakatahassa  upari  atthasi. 

Tassa  ^  ubbedhena  dasahattho  khandho  hoti,  catuhattha 
catuhattha  pailca  mahasakha  paficahi  yeva  ^  phalehi  pati- 
mandita,  khuddakasakhanam  pana  sahassam.  Atha  raja 
miilalekhaya  *  upari  tivangule  padese  annam  lekham  paric- 
chindi.^  Tato  tavad  eva  bubbulaka  hutva  dasamahamulani 
nikkhamimsu.  Puna  uparupari  tivangule  tivangule  anna  nava 
lekha  paricchindi ;  tahi  ®  pi  dasabubbulaka  hutva  navuti  mulani 
nikkhamimsu.  Pathamaka  dasa  mahamiila  caturangula- 
mattam  nikkhanta,  itare  pi  gavakkhajalasadisam  anusibbanta 
nikkhanta.  Ettakam  patihiram  raja  ratanapithamatthake 
thito  yeva  disva  anjalim  paggayha  mahanadam  nadi,  anekani 
bhikkhusahassani  sadhukaram  akamsu,  sakalarajasena  un- 
nadini  ahosi,  ceFukkhepasatasahassani  ^  pavattimsu,  bhum- 
matthakadeve  adirn  katva  yava  brahmakayika  [95]  deva 
tava  ^  sadhukaram  pavattayimsu.  Rafiilo  imam  patihariyarn 
passant assa  pitiya  nirantaram  phutasarirassa  anjalim  pagga- 
hetva  thitass'  eva  mahabodhi  mulasatena  suvannakatahe 
patitthasi.  Dasa  mahamiila  suvannakatahatalam  ahacca 
atthanisu,  avasesa  navuti  khuddakamiila  ^  anupubbena  vad- 
dhanaka  ^^  hutva  gandhakalale  oruyha  thita. 

99.  Evam  suvannakatahe  patitthitamatte  mahabodhimhi 
mahaputhuvi  ^^  cali,  akase  devadundubhiyo  phalimsu,  pab- 
batanam  naccehi  devatanam  sadhukarehi  yakkhanara  bhin- 
karehi  ^^  asuranarn  thutijappehi  brahmanam  appothanehi 
meghanam  gajjitehi  catuppadanam  ravehi  pakkhlnarn  virutehi 
sabbatalavacaranam  sakasakapatibhanehi  puthuvitalato  yava 

1  E.  adds  ca.  2  x.O.  tassa. 

3  T.O.  eva.  *  T.O.  mule  lekhaya. 

^  E.  paricchijji ;   T.O.  -chinditva  tato.  «  T.O.  ta. 

'  T.O.  cej'ukkhepa-.  «  P.E.  devata  ca. 

»  T.O.  omit.  10  T.O.  -vaddhana. 

11  P.  -pathavi ;  T.O.  -puthuvi.  12  x.O.  himkarehi. 

Acariyaparampard  207 

Brahmaloka  tava  ekakolahalam  ekaninnadam  ahosi.  Paficasu 
sakhasu  phalato  phalato  chabbannaramsiyo  nikkhamitva 
sakalacakkavalam  ratanagopanasivinaddham  ^  viya  kurumana 
yava  Brahmaloka  abbhuggacchimsu.  Tankhanato  ca  pana 
pabhuti  satta  divasani  mahabodhi  himavalahakagabbham 
pavisitva  atthasi ;  na  koci  mahabodhim  passati.  Raja  ratana- 
pithato  oruyha  satta  divasani  mahabodhipiijam  karesi.  Sattame 
divase  sabbadisahi  himaii  ca  chabbannaramsiyo  ^  ca  avattitva 
mahabodhim  eva  pavisimsu.  Vigatahimavalahake  vippasanne 
cakkavalagabbhe  ^  mahabodhi  [96]  paripunnakhandhasakha- 
pasakho  paficaphalapatimandito  suvannakatahe  patitthito  Va 

Raja  mahabodhim  disva  tehi  patihariyehi  sanjatapitipa- 
mojjo  ;  sakala-Jambudipe  rajjena  *  tarunamahabodhim  pujes- 
samiti  abhisekarn  datva  satta  divasani  mahabodhitthane  yeva 
atthasi.  Mahabodhi  pubbakattikapavaranadivase  ^  sayanha- 
samaye  pathamam  suvannakatahe  patitthahi.  Tato  hima- 
gabbhasattahan  ca  abhisekasattahaii  ca  vitinametva  kalapak- 
khass'  eva  ^  uposathadivase  raja  ekadivasen'eva  Patahputtarn 
pavisitva  kattikajunhapakkhassa  patipadadivase  mahabodhim 
pacinamahasalamule  thapesi.  Suvannakatahe  patitthitadiva- 
sato  ^  sattarasame  divase  mahabodhissa  abhinav'ankura  patur 
ahesum.  Te  disva  pi  pasanno  raja  puna  mahabodhim  rajjena 
pujento  sakala-Jambudipabhisekam  adasi.  Sumanasamanero  ® 
kattikapunnamadivase  dhatugahanattharn  gato  mahabodhissa 
kattikachanapujam  addasa. 

100.  Evam  mahabodhimandato  ®  anetva  PataHputte  thapitani 
mahabodhim  sandhaya  aha :  tena  hi  amma  mahabodhim 
gahetva  yahiti.  Sa,  sadhuti  sampaticchi. 

Raj  a  mahabodhirakkhanatthay a  at tharasa  de vakulani  ^  ^  at tha 
amaccakulani  attha  brahmanakulani  attha  kutumbikakulani 
attha  gopakakulani  attha  Taracchakulani  attha  ca  Kahriga- 
kulani   datva  udakasificanatthaya   ca  ^^  attha  suvannaghate 

^  E.  -gopanasi-.  ^  P.E.  himaramsiyo. 

3  T.O.  cakkavala-.  *  P.E.  -diparajjena. 

^  T.O.  -kattikajunhapavarana-.  *  P.E.V.  omit. 

'  T.O.  -katahapatitthita-  »  P.  Tada  Sumana-. 

»  T.O.  -bodhim  mandate.  ^^  P.E.  devata-. 
11  T.O.  omit. 

2o8  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

attha  ca  rajataghate  datva  imina  parivarena  mahabodhim 
Gangaya  [97]  navam  aropetva  sayam  pi  nagarato  nikkhamitva 
Vinjhatavim  samatikkamma  anupubbena  sattahi  divasehi 
Tamalittim  anuppatto.  Antaramagge  devanagamanussa  ularam 
mahabodhipujam  akamsu.  Raja  pi  samuddatire  satta  divasani 
mahabodhim  thapetva  sakala-Jambudipe  maharajjam  adasi. 
Idam  assa  tatiyam  Jambudipe  rajjasampadanam  ^  hoti. 

1 01.  Evam  maharajjena  pujetva  magasiramasassa  ^  patha- 
mapatipadadivase  Asoko  dhammaraja  mahabodhim  ukkhipitva 
galappamanam  udakam  oruyha  navayam  pat  it  thapetva  San- 
ghamittattherim  pi  saparivaram  navam  aropetva  Arittham 
amaccam  etad  avoca  :  aham  tata  mahabodhim  tikkhattum 
sakala-Jambudipe  rajjena  pujetva  galappamanam  udakam 
oruyha  mama  sahayassa  pesesim,  so  pi  evam  eva  mahabodhirn 
piijetuti.  Evam  sahayassa  sasanam  datva  :  gacchati  vat  a  're 
dasabalassa  sarasararnsijalam  vimuiicamano  mahabodhirukkho 
ti  kanditva  ^  afijahm  paggahetva  assuni  pavattayamano 
atthasi.  Sa  pi  kho  mahabodhisamarulha  nava  passato  * 
maharajassa  mahasamuddatalarn  pakkhanta.  Mahasamudde 
pi  samanta  yojanam  viciyo  vupasanta,  pancavannani  padu- 
mani  pupphitani,  antahkkhe  dibbani  turiyani  vajjirasu,^ 
akase  ^  jalathalarukkhadisannissitahi  devatahi  pavattita  ati- 
viya  ulara  puja  ahosi.  Sanghamittattheri  pi  ^  supannariipena 
mahasamudde  nagakulani  santasesi.  Te  samutrastarupa  naga 
agantva  tarn  vibhutim  passitva  therim  yacitva  mahabodhim 
nagabhavanarn  atiharitva  satta  divasani  [98]  nagarajjena 
pujetva  puna  navayam  patitthapesurn.  Tani  divasam  eva 
nava  Jambukolapattanam  agamasi.  Asokamaharaja  pi  maha- 
bodhiviyogadukkhito  ®  kanditva  roditva  yava  dassanavisayam 
oloketva  patinivatti. 

102.  Devanampiyatisso  maharaja  pi  kho  Sumanasamanerassa 
vacanena  magasiramasassa  ®  pathamapatipadadivasatoppa- 
bhuti  1^   uttaradvarato    patthaya  yava  Jambukolapattanarn 

^  P.  -diparajja-.  ^  P.E.  magasirassa. 

*  P.E.  vanditva.  *  P.E.V.  repeat  passato. 

^  P.E.  pavajjimsu.  *  T.O.  akasato. 

'  T.O.  omit.     *  8  T.O.  add  pi. 

"  P.E.  magasirassa.  i"  T.O.  divasato  pabhuti. 

Acariyaparampard  209 

tava  1  maggam  sodhapetva  alankarapetva  nagarato  nik- 
khamanadivase  uttaradvarasamipe  Samuddasalavatthusmim  ^ 
thito  yeva  taya  vibhutiya  mahasamudde  agacchantam  yeva 
mahabodhim  therassa  anubhavena  disva  tutthamanaso  nik- 
khamitva  sabbam  maggam  pancavannehi  pupphehi  okirapento 
antar'antara  ^  puppha-agghiyani  thapento  ekahen'eva  Jam- 
bukolapattanam  gantva  sabbatalavacaraparivuto  puppha- 
dhupagandhadihi  pujayamano  galappamanam  udakam  oruyha  : 
agato  vat  a  're  dasabalassa  sarasaramsijalavissajjanako  maha- 
bodhirukkho  *  ti  pasannacitto  mahabodhim  ukkhipitva  utta- 
mange  sirasmim  patitthapetva  mahabodhim  parivaretva 
agatehi  solasahi  jatisampannakulehi  saddhim  samuddato 
paccuttaritva  samuddatire  mahabodhim  thapetva  tini 
divasani  sakala-Tambapannidipe  rajjena  pujesi,  solasannam 
jatisampannakulanam  raj  jam  vicaresi. 

Atha  catutthe  divase  mahabodhim  adaya  ulararn  pujam 
kurumano  anupubbena  Anuradhapuram  sampatto.  Anuradha- 
pure  pi  mahasakkararn  katva  catuddasidivase  ^  yeva  vad- 
dhamanakacchayaya  mahabodhim  uttaradvarena  pavesetva 
nagaramajjhena  [99]  atiharanto  dakkhinadvarena  nikkhamitva 
dakkhinadvarato  paiicadhanusatikatthane  yattha  amhakam 
sammasambuddho  ^  nirodhasamapattim  samapajjitva  nisidi, 
purimaka  ca  tayo  sammasambuddha  samapattirn  appetva 
nisidimsu,  yattha  Kakusandhassa  bhagavato  mahasirisa- 
bodhi,''  Konagamanassa  bhagavato  pana  udumbarabodhi, 
Kassapassa  sammasambuddhassa  ^  ca  nigrodhabodhi  patit- 
thasi,  tasmim  Mahameghavan'uyyanassa  tilakabhute  Sumana- 
samanerassa  vacanena  pathamam  eva  katabhumiparikamme 
rajavatthudvarakotthakatthane  mahabodhim  patitthapesi. 
Katharn.  Tani  kira  bodhim  parivaretva  agatani  solasa  jati- 
sampannakulani  rajavesam  ganhimsu,  raja  dovarikavesam 
ganhi.  Solasa  kulani  ca  ^  mahabodhirn  gahetva  oropayimsu. 
Mahabodhi  tesam  hatthato  muttasamanantaram  eva  asitihat- 
thappamanam  vehasam  abbhuggantva  chabbannaramsiyo 
mufici,  sarasararnsiyo  sakaladipam  pattharitva  upari  Brahma- 
lokam  ahacca  atthamsu. 

^  T.O.  omit.  2  E,  -salavatthu-.  ^  T.O.  antar'antare. 

*  T.O.  bodhirukkho.        ^  T.O.E.  catuddasadivase.       *  T.O.  sambuddho. 
'  E.  -sirisa-.  ^  P.E.  Kassapasamma-.  '  P.  omits. 

210  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

103.  Mahabodhipatihariyam  disva  sanjatappasadani  dasa- 
purisasahassani  anupubbavipassanam  patthapetva  arahattam 
patva  pabbajimsu.  Yava  suriyass'  atthangama  mahabodhi 
antalikkhe  atthasi,  atthangamite  ^  pana  suriye  rohininak- 
khattena  ^  pathaviyam  patitthahi.  Saha  bodhipatitthana 
udakapariyantam  katva  mahapathavi  akampi.  Patitthahitva 
ca  pana  mahabodhi  satta  divasani  himagabbhe  sannisidi, 
lokassa  adassanam  agamasi.  Sattame  divase  vigatavalahakam 
nabham  ahosi.  Chabbannaramsiyo  jalanta  vipphuranta 
niccharimsu.  Mahabodhissa  khandho  ca  sakhayo  ca  [100] 
tani  ca  panca  phalani  dissimsu.^ 

Mahindatthero  ca  Sanghamittattheri  ca  raja  ca  saparivara 
mahabodhitthanam  eva  agamimsu  ;  yebhuyyena  ca  sabba- 
dipavasino  sannipatimsu.  Tesam  passantanam  yeva  uttara- 
sakhato  ekam  phalam  paccitva  sakhato  mucci.  Thero  hattham 
upanamesi.  Phalam  therassa  hatthe  patitthasi.  Tarn  thero : 
ropaya  maharajati  raniio  adasi.  Raja  gahetva  suvannakatahe 
madhurapamsum  *  akiritva  gandhakalalam  puretva  ropetva 
mahabodhi-asannatthane  ^  thapesi.  Sabbesam  passantanam 
yeva  catuhatthappamana  attha  tarunabodhirukkha  utthahimsu . 
Raja  tarn  acchariyam  disva  attha  tarunabodhirukkhe  setacchat- 
tena  pujetva  abhisekam  adasi.  Tato  ekam  bodhirukkham 
agamanakale  mahabodhina  pathamapatitthitokase  Jambukola- 
pattane  ropayimsu,  ekam  Tavakkabrahmanassa  ^  gamadvare, 
ekam  Thuparame,  ekam  Issaranimmanavihare,"  ekam  Patha- 
macetiyatthane,  ekam  Cetiyapabbate,  ekam  Rohanajanapa- 
damhi  Kacaragame/  ekam  Rohanajanapadamhi  yeva 
Candanagame.  Itaresam  catunnam  phalanam  bijehi  jate  ^ 
dvattimsabodhitarune  yojaniyayojanlyesu  ^°  aramesu  patit- 

Evam  puttanattuparamparaya^^samanta  dipavaslnam  hitaya 
sukhaya  patitthite  dasabalassa  ^2  dhammadhajabhute^^  [101] 
mahabodhimhi   Anuladevi   paiicahi   kaiinasatehi  pancahi   ca 

1  P.E.  atthamite.  2  T.O.E.  rohini-. 

'  P.E.  dassimsu.  *•  T.O.  -pamsu. 

s  P.E.  -asanatthane  ;  Sp.  maha-asannatthane. 

*  Mhv.  Tivakka-.  '  T.O.  -nimmana-. 

^  T.O.  Kataragame ;   Bp.  Gocaragame.     *  T.O.  omit. 

^"  P.  yojaniyayojanlyesu  ;  Sp.  yojaniyaramesu. 
11  T.O.  -natta-.  "  p.g.  omit. 

Acariyaparampara  211 

antepurikasatehiti  matugamasahassena  saddhim  Sanghamit- 
tattheriya  santike  pabbajitva  na  cirass'  eva  saparivara  arahatte 
patitthasi.  Arittho  pi  kho  ranno  bhagineyyo  paficahi  purisa- 
satehi  saddhim  therassa  santike  pabbajitva  na  cirass'  eva 
saparivaro  arahatte  patitthasi. 

104.  Ath*  ekadivasam  raja  mahabodhim  vanditva  therena 
saddhim  Thiiparamam  gacchati.  Tassa  ^  Lohapasadatthanam 
sampattassa  purisa  pupphani  abhiharimsu.  Raja  therassa 
pupphani  adasi.  Thero  pupphehi  Lohapasadatthanam  piijesi. 
Pupphesu  bhiimiyarn  ^  patitamattesu  mahabhumicalo  ahosi. 
Raja :  kasma  bhante  bhumi  caHtati  ^  pucchi.  Imasmim 
maharaja  okase  sanghassa  anagate  uposathagararn  bhavissati, 
tass'etam  pubbanimittan  ti. 

Raja  puna  therena  saddhim  gacchanto  Ambanganatthanam 
patto,  tatth'  assa  vannagandharasasampannarti  *  atimadhura- 
rasarn  ekam  ambapakkarn  ahariyittha.  Raja  tarn  therassa 
paribhogatthaya  adasi.  Thero  tatth'eva  paribhunjitva  :  idam 
etth'eva  ropapeth^ti  ^  aha.  Raja  tarn  ambatthim  gahetva 
tatth'eva  ropapetva  udakarn  asiiici.  Saha  ambabijaropanena 
pathavi  sankampi.  Raja  :  kasma  bhante  pathavi  kampitthati 
pucchi.  Imasmirn  maharaja  okase  sanghassa  anagate  Ambanga- 
nam  nama  sannipatatthanam  bhavissati,  tass'etam  pub- 
banimittan ti. 

Raja  tattha  attha  pupphamutthiyo  okiritva  vanditva  puna 
therena  saddhim  gacchanto  Mahacetiyatthanam  patto.  Tat- 
th'assa  campakapupphani  abhiharimsu,  tani  raja  therassa 
adasi.  Thero  Mahacetiyatthanam  pupphehi  pujetva  vandi.® 
Tavad  eva  mahapathavi  sankampi.^  Raja  :  kasma  bhante 
pathavi  sankampitthati  ^  pucchi.  Imasmim  maharaja  okase 
anagate  Buddhassa  bhagavato  asadiso  mahathupo  bhavissati, 
[102]  tass'etam  pubbanimittan  ti.  Aham  eva  karomi  bhante 
ti.  Alarn  maharaja  tumhakam  afinam  bahum  kammarn  ^ 
atthi,  tumhakam  pana  natta  Dutthagamani  Abhayo  nama 
raja  1°  karessatiti. 

1  T.O.  Tattha.  «  E.  bhtimim  ;  T.O.  bhumiya. 

^  Sp.  calittha.  *  P.E.  omit  -rasa-. 

^  P.E.V.  ropapehiti.  '  T.O.  vanditva  tavad  eva. 

'  T.O.  kampi.  ^  T.O.  kampitthati. 

»  E.  kiccam.  i»  P.E.  omit. 

212  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

105.  Atha  raja  :  sace  bhante  mayham  natta  karissati  katam 
yeva  mayati  dvadasahattham  pasanatthambham  aharapetva  : 
Devanampiyatissaranno  natta  Dutthagamani  ^  Abhayo  nama 
imasmim  padese  thupam  karotuti  ^  likhapetva  patitthapetva 
vanditva  ^  theram  pucchi :  patitthitam  nu  kho  bhante  Tam- 
bapannidipe  sasanan  ti.  Patitthitam  maharaja  sasanam, 
mulani  pan'assa  na  tava  otarantiti.  Kada  pana  bhante  mulani 
otinnani  nama  bhavissantiti.  Yada  maharaja  Tambapannidi- 
pakanam  matapitunnam  Tambapannidipe  jato  darako  Tam- 
bapannidipe  pabbajitva  Tambapannidipamhi  yeva  vinayam 
uggahetva  Tambapannidipe  vacessati,  tada  sasanassa  miilani 
otinnani  nama  bhavissantiti.  Atthi  pana  bhante  ediso  bhik- 
khuti.  Atthi  maharaja  Maha-arittho  ^  bhikkhu  patibalo 
etasmirn  kamme  ti.^  Kim  ^  maya  ettha  bhante  katabban  ti. 
Mandaparn  maharaja  katum  vattatiti.  Sadhu  bhante  ti  raja 
Meghavannabhayassa  amaccassa  parivenatthane  mahasan- 
gitikale  Ajatasattumaharajena  katam andapappakararn  ^ 
rajanubhavena  mandaparn  karapetva  ^  sabbatalavacare 
sakasakasippe  payojetva :  sasanassa  mulani  otarantani  passis- 
samiti  anekapurisasahassaparivuto  Thiiparamarn  anuppatto. 

106.  Tena  kho  pana  samayena  Thiiparame  atthasatthi 
bhikkhusahassani  sannipatirnsu.  Mahamahindattherassa  asa- 
nam  dakkhinabhimukharn  [103]  pailiiattarn  hoti,  Maha- 
aritthattherassa  dhammasanarn  uttarabhimukharn  panfiattam 
hoti.  Atha  kho  Maha-aritthatthero  Mahindattherena  ajjhittho 
attano  anuriipena  pattanukkamena  dhammasane  nisidi.  Mahin- 
dattherapamukha  atthasatthi  mahathera  dhammasanarn  pari- 
varetva  nisidirnsu.  Railiio  pi  kanitthabhata  Mattabhayatthero 
nama  dhuraggaho  hutva :  vinayarn  ganhissamiti  paiicahi 
bhikkhusatehi  ^  saddhim  Maha-aritthattherassa  dhammasanam 
eva  parivaretva  nisidi.  Avasesa  pi  bhikkhii  sarajika  ca  parisa 
attano  attano  pattasane  nisidirnsu.  Athayasma  Maha-aritthat- 
thero :  tena  samayena  Buddho  bhagavd  Veranjdyam  viharati 
Nalerupucimandamule  ti  vinayanidanarn  abhasi.     Bhasite  ca 

1  T.O.E.  -gamini.  2  p  e  add  akkharani. 

3  T.O.  omit.  *  T.O.  omit  Maha. 

^  T.O.  omit.  «  P.E.V.  Maya  ettha  bhante  kim. 

'  T.O.  -mandapakaram.  ®  P.E.  karetva. 

*  P.E.  paiicabhikkhu-. 

Acariyaparampard  213 

panayasmata  Aritthattherena  vinayanidane  akasam  maha- 
viravam  ^  viravi,  akalavijjullata  niccharimsu,  devata  sadhu- 
karam  adamsu,  mahapathavi  udakapariyantam  katva  san- 
kampi.  Evam  anekesu  patihariyesu  vattamanesu  ayasma 
Aritthatthero  Mahamahindappamukhehi  ^  atthasatthiya  pac- 
cekaganihi  khinasavamahatherehi  tad  anfiehi  ca  atthasatthisa- 
hassehi  bhikkhuhi  parivuto  pathamakattikapavaranadivase 
Thuparamaviharamajjhe  satthu  karunagunaparidipakam  bha- 
gavato  anusitthikaranam  kayakammavacikammavipphandi- 
tavinayanam  Vinayapitakam  pakasesi.  Pakasetva  ca  yavat 
ayukam  titthamano  bahunnam  vacetva  bahunnam  hadaye 
patitthapetva  anupadisesaya  nibbanadhatuya  parinabbayi. 
Te  pi  kho  Mahamahindappamukha  ^  tasmim  samagame  : 

[104]  Atthasatthi  mahathera  dhuraggaha  samagata 
paccekaganino  sabbe  dhammarajassa  savaka. 
Khinasava  vasippatta  tevijja  iddhikovida 
uttamattham  abhinnaya  anusasimsu  rajino. 
Alokam  dassayitvana  obhasetva  mahim  imam 
jalitva  aggikkhandha  va  parinibbimsu  *  mahesayo. 
Tesam  parinibbanato  aparabhage  anne  pi  tesam  theranam 
antevasika       Tissadatta-Kalasumana-Dighasumanadayo       ca 
Maha-aritthattherassa  antevasika  antevasikanam  antevasika 
cati    evam    pubbe    vuttappakara    acariyaparampara    imam 
Vinayapitakam  yava  ajjatana  anesum.   Tena  vuttam  :  tatiya- 
sangahato  pana  uddham  imam  dipam  Mahindadihi  abhatam. 
Mahindato  uggahetva  kailci  kalam  Aritthattheradihi  abhatam, 
tato  yava  ajjatana  tesam  antevasikaparamparabhutaya  acari- 
yaparamparaya  abhatan  ti.^ 

107.  Katthappatitthitan  ti.  Yesam  palito  ®  ca  atthato  ca 
anunam  vattati  manighate  pakkhittatelam  iva  isakam  pi  na 
paggharati,  evanipesu  adhimattasatigatidhitimantesu  lajji- 
kukkuccakesu  '  sikkhakamesu  puggalesu  patitthitan  ti  veditab- 
bam.  Tasma  vinayapatitthapanattham  vinayapariyattiya 
anisamsam    sallakkhetva    sikkhakamena    bhikkhuna    vinayo 

1  T.O.  -viravitam,  ^  T.O.  Mahindattherapamukhehi. 

3  T.O.  Mahamahindattherapamukha. 

*  E.  nibbayimsu  ;  T.O.parinibbayimsu.  ^  O.  ends  here. 

^  T.  palito.  '  P.  lajjisu  kukkuccakesu. 

214  Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddne 

pariyapunitabbo.  Tatrayam  vinayapariyattiya  anisamso  : 
vinayapariyattikusalo  hi  puggalo  sasane  patiladdhasaddhanam 
kulaputtanam  matupitutthaniyo  ^  hoti,  tad  ayatta  hi  nesam 
pabbajja  upasampada  vattanuvattapatipatti  acaragocarakusa- 
lata.  Api  c'assa  vinayapariyattim  nissaya  attano  silakkhandho 
sugutto  hoti  surakkhito,  kukkuccapakatanam  patisaranam 
hoti,  visarado  sanghamajjhe  voharati,  paccatthike  sahadham- 
mena  suniggahitam  nigganhati,  [105]  saddhammatthitiya 
patipanno  hoti.  Tenaha  bhagava :  pane  'ime  bhikkhave 
anisamsa  vinayadhare  puggale  :  attano  silakkhandho  sugutto 
hoti  surakkhito  -pe-  saddhammatthitiya  patipanno  hotiti.  Ye 
capi  samvaramulaka  kusala  dhamma  vutta  bhagavata,  vina- 
yadharo  puggalo  tesam  dayado  vinayamulakatta  tesam 
dhammanam.  Vuttam  pi  h'etam  bhagavata  :  vinayo  sam- 
varatthaya  samvaro  avippatisaratthaya  avippatisaro  pamuj- 
jatthayapamujjampit'atthayapiti  passaddh'atthaya  passaddhi 
sukhatthaya  sukham  samadh'atthaya  samadhi  yathabhiita- 
nanadassanatthaya  yathabhutananadassanam  nibbid'atthaya 
nibbida  viragatthaya  virago  vimutt'atthaya  vimutti  vimut- 
tiiianadassanatthaya  vimuttifianadassanarn  anupada  parinib- 
banatthaya  ;  etad  attha  katha  etad  attha  mantana  ^  etad 
attha  upanisa  etad  attham  sotavadhanam,  yad  idam  anupada 
cittassa  vimokkho  ti.  Tasma  vinayapariyattiya  ayogo 
karaniyo  ti. 

Ettavata  ca  ya  sa  vinayasamvannanattham  matika  thapita, 
tattha  : 

Vuttam  yena  yada  yasma  dharitam  yena  cabhatam, 
yatthappatitthitaii  c'etam  etarn  vatva  vidhim  tato  ti, 

imissa  tava  gathaya  attho  pakasito.  Vinayassa  ca  bahiranidana- 
vannana  yathadhippayam  samvannita  hotiti. 

Bahiranidanavannana  nitthita. 

1  P.E.V.  matapitu-. 

2  T.O.E.  mantana. 


The  numbers  refer  to  paragraphs.     For  proper  names  see  the  Index  of 
Proper  Names. 

akkhaka,  see  dakkhin'akkhaka 

akkharappabheda,  42 

akkhipuja,  45 

aggim  paricarati,  55 

ankura,  99 

anga,  30,  49 

anga  (asinnavarigasatthusasana),  16, 

31,  38,  49 
ajjhacara,  21,  25 
aiinatitthiya,  62 
anjalikamma,  87 

atthakatha.  1,  2,  43  ;  sa-attha-,  52 
atta,  att'attha,  22  ;    -paiicama,  64  ; 

-bhava,  72  ;   -sattama,  75 
attha,  26,  27,   107;    -patisambhida. 

27  ;  -vannana,  2 
adasakanisldana  (kappa),  38 
aditthasahayaka,  78 
adhamma,  4  ;  -vadi,  4, 38 
adhikarana,  38-40,  55,  60,  61 
adhikaranasamatha,  14 
adhikara,  50 

adhiccasamuppannika,  62 
adhitthana,  95,  97  ;  pafica-maha,  97  ; 

adhitthasi,  42,  60,  77,  82 
anayavyasana,  90-2 
anavajjasanfil,  29 
anagami,  36,  37 
anathavasa  (v.l.,  -vassa),  87 
anapatti,  14,  32 
analaya,  38 

anasava,  11,  38  ;   see  khinasava 
aniccata,  8 
aniyata,  14 
anuttara  dhamma,  23 
anupannatti,  14,  21 
anupada,  11,  107 
anupadisesa,  3,  17,  106 
anupubbavipassana,  103 
anupubbavihara,  3 
anumati,  5 
anumatikappa,  38 
anumodana,  48 
anuvyanjana,  45 
anusandhi,  32 
anusaya,  26 
anusasanta,  17 
anusitthikara,  106 
anekanusandhika,  32 
antarapatti,  32 

antaraya,  1,  29 

antarayika  dhamma,  29 

antanantika,  62 

antepura,  46,  48,  85  ;  -purika,  95, 96, 

antevasi,   52 ;     -ika,   59,    106 ;     -ika 

parampara,  63 
appamada,  11,  19,  48,  53 
abbuda,  39,  55 

abbhutadhamma,  the  anga,  28,  31 
abhinna,  3,  29  ;  -padaka,  60,  82 
abhidhamma,   23,   24,    29,   32  ;     see 

Abhidhammapitaka,  Proper  Names 
abhivadana,  87 
abhivinaya,  23 
abhisanda,  1 
abhisamaya,  27  ;    see  also  dhamma- 

abhiseka.  44,  52,  53,  56,  74,  76,  79, 

98,  99,  103  ;  -atthaya  pannakara, 

78  ;    -sattaha,  99  ;    pattabhiseka- 

rajano,     98 ;      rajjabhiseka,     74 ; 

anabhisitta,  44,  89 
amacca,  48,  49,  55-8,  61,  77,  83-6, 

95,  97,  101 
amata,    89 ;     -pada,    40,    48 ;     see 

amathitakappa,  38 
amanussa,  77 
amaravikkhepika,  62 
amba,  -pakka,  104  ;  -rukkha,  80 
arahatta,  11,  12,  43,  47,  52,  86,  103 
arahanta,  4,  37,  46.  47,  79,  86 
ariyasangha,  1,  98 
alagadda,  28  ;    alagaddiipama  pari- 

yatti,  28 
avijja,  1 

avinaya,  4  ;  -vadi,  4 
avippatisara,  107 
asaniiivada,  62 
asatthaghataraha,  97 
asadisa  mahathupa,  104 
asiggahaka,  59 
asura,  99 

asekha  dhamma,  23 
asekhapatisambhida,  5 

agataphala,  81 

acariya,  42,  43,  47,  48,  52 

acariyaparampara,  35,  37,  63,  106 



Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddnam 

acaragocarakusalata,  107 

acinnakappa,  38 

ajlvaka,  46 

ana,  25  ;  anacakka,  10  ;  anadesana, 

adiccam  anuparivattati,  55 

adiraja,  76 

anupubblkatha,  47,  64 

anubhava,  12,  37,  45,  47.  49,  56,  102  ; 
theranubhava,  93,  97  ;  devatanu-, 
92,  93;  punnanu-,  45,  78;  Bud- 
dhanu-,  90,  93 ;  rajanu-,  105 ; 
vigata-,  65 

apatti,  14 

amisapannakara,  78 

ayusankhara,  53 

arakkha,  58,  60,  62,  72 

arammana,  rupa-,  sadda-,  23 

arama,  84 

avasakappa,  38 

avasatthana,  84 

asava,  1,  11  ;  asavakkhaya,  19 

asana,  42,  48,  83  ;  asanapannatti,  83 

upadinnaphassa,  29 

uparambha,  28 

upasaka,  38,  73,  74 

upasika,  47 

uposatha,  38,  54,  55,  57,  61,  62,  74, 

87  ;  -agara,  104  ;  -divasa,  87,  99 
uppadapathaka  (v.l.,  uppata-),  83 
uppabbajeti,  62 
ummada,  29 

ekaccasassatika,  62 
ekabhattika,  72 
ekamatika,  44,  55 
ekanusandhika,  32 
etadagga,  4,  13 


oparajja,  see  uparaja 
ovada,  48,  85 

itivada,  28 

itivuttaka,  the  anga,  28,  31 

itihasa,  42 

iddhi,  44,  49 ;  iddhikovida,  106 ; 
iddhanubhava,  65,  89  ;  iddhip- 
patta,  79  ;  iddhibala,  79  ;  mah'id- 
dhika,  66,  67,  72,  74  ;  -tara,  65 

indriya,  48 

iriyapatha,  11,  46-8 

isi,  69,  70,  106;  isivataparivata,  65, 


uccasayanamahasayana,  83 

ucchedavada,  62 

uttarasanga,  56 

udakapata,  84 

udakasatika,  92 

udana,  the  anga,  28,  31 

udanagatha,  19,  23 

uddana,  23 

uddhacca,  11 

upajjhaya.  36,  37,  43,  47,  48,  52,  73 

upanissayasampatti,  51 

upanisa,  107 

uparaja,  51,  56  ;  oparajja,  51,  56 

upasama,  41,  46 

upasampada,  48,  107  ;   -kamma,  64 

-sima,  52  ;   upasampanna,  52 
upassaya,  95 


kahkha,  60 

kataha,  97  ;   see  suvannakataha 

kantaka,  55 

katha,  67,  69,  81-3  ;  -bheda,  25 

kappa,    1,    45;     kappa    (dasa),    38; 

kappiya,  10 
kammatthana,  43 
karakavassa,  65 
karunaguna,  106 
kalahaviggaha,  92 
kalyanadhamma,  72 
kahapana,  38 
kamavacaradevaloka,  39 
kayakamma,  21,  106 
kayagatasati,  11 
kayabandhana,  83,  91 
kalapakkha,  99 
kasayani  vatthani,  54,  94 
kasavapajjota,  65,  79 
kilesa,  1,  26,  28 
kukkucca,  61  ;    -pakata,  107  ;    kuk- 

kuccayita,  56 
kutumbikakula,  100 
kumbhanda,  65 
kusalatthika,  1 
kusaladhippaya,  57 
kusalasambhara,  27 
ketubha,  42 
ketumala,  45 
kojavaka,  83 

Index  to  Pali  Text 



khandaphullapatisankharana,  8,  9 
khattiya,  -ya,  96  ;   -kula,  68  ;   -jana, 

khandha,  19  ;  see  parinnatakkhandha 

and  silakkhandha 
khaya,  19 
khinasava,  4,  28,  36-8,  40,  49,  50, 

79,  106  ;  -mahathera,  106 
khuragga,  47,  86 

chatakaroga,  91 
chinnabhinnapatadhara,  65,  77 

janapada,  64,  73,  74 

jalogi  (kappa),  38 

jataka,  69 

jataka,  the  anga,  28,  31 

jataruparajata  (kappa),  38 

jati,  19 

jurihapakkha,  99 

gana,  33,  55  ;  -kamma,  54  ;  -pamok- 
kha,  98  ;  -sajjhaya,  14  ;  see  also 
pancavagga  gana  and  paccekagni 

gandhakalala,  98,  103 

gandhakuti,  8 

gandhabba,  65 

gabbha,  74  ;   see  paripunnagabbha 

gambhirabhava,  24,  26,  21 

gahakaraka,  19 

gahakuta,  19 

gatha,  the  anga,  28,  31 

gamantarakappa,  38 

geyya,  the  anga,  28,  31 

gocara,  6 

gopakula,  100 


ghasacchadana,  54 

cakkavala,  99  ;  -gabbha,  99 

cankama,  11 

candala,  jetthaka-,  47  ;  -gama,  47 

cammakhanda,  58 

catumasini  punnama,  89 

citta,  9,  42,  57,  61  ;    -kkhepa,  29  ; 

-varabhajana,  32  ;  cittassa  vimok- 

kha,  107  ;    samahita-,  82 
civara,  43,  56,  83 
cetiya,  48,  54,  83,  90-3  ;    paribhoga 

cetiya,  90,  93 
cetopariyakovida,  79 
cel'ukkhepa,  98 



jhana,  3  ;  catutthaj-,  60,  82  ;  patha- 
maj-,  3 

natti,  6 

nana,  1  ;  -dassana,  107 

iiataka,  61,  73,  80 

tattika,  83 

tanha,  26 

tathagata,  see  Proper  Names 

tantikkama,  1 

tarunabodhirukkha,   103 

tikapariccheda,  32 

tikabhajana,  32 


titthiya,  9,  39,  54,  55,  62  ;  -vada,  9 

tipitaka,  4,  62  ;    -dhara,  38,  40,  43, 

44  ;    -pariyattidhara,  62  ;    -sanga- 

hita,  52  ;  tipetaka,  63 
tejodhatu,  53 
tevijja,  4,  62,  106 


thera,  1-12,  13,  15,  33-5,  37-43,  47- 
87,  90-5,  103-7  ;  see  Elder,  General 
Index  ;  thera  vada,  1 ,  52  ;  thera- 
sana,  10,  14,  55 ;  therika,  33 ; 
theri,51,73,95,96,  101,103 

thupa,  87,  88,  93,  94,  104,  105; 
-patitthana,  87 ;  see  also  mani- 

Ghana,  56,  74,  77 
chanda,  5 
chaiabhifina,  35,  74 

dakkhin'akkhaka,  87,  88,  93,  97 
dakkhinadatha,  87,  88 


Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddnam 

dakkhinasakha,  97,  98 

dandakamma,  40 

dasabala,  5.  8,  33.  38.  39,  50,  84,  93, 

dasabhatika-rajakula,  86 

dasabhatuka-rajano,  76 

damarika.  76 

ditthadhammanibbanavada,  62 

diiihasacca,  74 

ditthi,  25.  26,  39  ;  -gata,  54  ;  -vini- 
vethanakatha,  25 

dipa,  63.  72.  75-7,  84,  90-2.  94.  95. 
102,  103.  106  ;  -'ntara,  1  ;  -vara, 
75  ;  -vasi,  103 

dukabhajana,  32 

dukkha,  19 

duggahita.  57 

duppatipanna.  29 

dubbhikkha.  91 

dubbutthika,  91 

dussassa,  91 

dussilabhava.  29 

deyyadhamma.  50 

deva,  10.  17,  45,  89,  94,  98,  100; 
-kula,  100  ;  -duta,  66  ;  -raja,  87, 
88  ;  -loka,  39,  89  ;  devanaminda, 
75,  87,  88  ;  devata,  44,  47,  82,  92, 
93,  99,  106;  -sannipata,  82; 
sa-devaka,  65 

desana,  24,  26,  27,  84 

dosa,  5 

dvangulakappa.  38 

dvattimsakara.  43 

dve}liakajata,  58 


dhamma  (the  Dhamma),  1,  3-6,  9,  13, 
15,  18,  26.  28.  29.  32.  33.  35.  38.  49, 
52,  55,  62,  78.  81,  90-2,  107; 
-abhisamaya,  65,  67,  72.  82-4. 
90-2 ;  -amata,  68 ;  -asana.  10, 
13-15,  106  ;  -katha,  65  ;  -kathika, 
58  ;  -karaka,  90  ;  -kkhandha,  16, 
32,  33,  38,  49;  -cakka.  10; 
-cakkhu.  66 ;  -citta,  29 ;  -desana, 
83;  -dhaja,  103;  -dhara,  54; 
-patisambhida,  27 ;  -pannakara, 
78 ;  -pufija,  25 ;  -ratana-vassa, 
83;  -raja  (Asoka).  78,  87.  88. 
101  ;  (Buddha).  77,  79.  106 ; 
-vara,  1  ;  -vadi.  4  ;  -vinaya,  3,  16, 
18,  33,  43,  55  ;  -vinaya-sangaha, 
10 ;  -sangaha.  10 ;  -sangahaka. 
35  ;  -sangiti.  5,  64  ;  -sabha,  12  ; 
-savana,  82 

dhamma  (phenomena),  23,  27 

dhamma  (principles),  48 

dhammi  katha,  65 

dhatu,  87-9,  93,  94,  97  ;  -cangotaka, 
89 ;  -patitthana,  93,  94 ;  -pati- 
hariya,  94  ;  puja,  7,  94  ;  -maha, 
93  ;    -sarira,  87,  94 

dhura,  13,  15  ;  -ggaha,  37,  106 


nakkhatta,  77 

navakamma,  49 

navanga,  33,  49  ;  -satthusasana,  4 

naga,  17,  45,  65,  78.  82.  94.  100,  101  ; 

-kula,  101  ;    -bala,  65  ;    bhavana, 

44.    101  ;     -raja,   44,   45,   65,   94 ; 

-rajja,  101 
naga  (elephant),  93 
naga    (sage),    63,    74,    88 ;     see   also 

mahanaga,  samananaga 
nagalata,  44 
natha,  1 

namarupa,  25  ;  -paricchedakatha,  25 
nikaya,  15,  16,  30,  38,  63 
nigantha.  46 
nigrodharukkha,  47 
nighandu,  42 
nijjhana,  28 
nidana,  2,  14,  15,  34 
nipata,  33 
nibbana,  3,  7-9  passim  ;    -dhatu,  3, 

17,  106 
nibbida,  107 

nirodha,  28  ;  -samapatti,  94,  102 
nissaggiyapacittiya,    14 
nissaranattha  (pariyatti),  28 
n'evasafininasannivada,  62 

pakatannuta,  36,  37 

pakarana,  63 

paccanta.  55.  89  ;  -imajanapada.  64 

paccaya.  28,  51,  53,  87  ;  -dayaka,  50, 

51  ;  catupaccaya,  49,  54 
paccayakara.  19 
paccutthana.  87 
paccekagani,  106 
pacchasamana,  8 
pajjaraka,  90 
pancatapa,  55 
pancavagga  gana,  64 
paiicavannani  pupphani,  83,  102 
pancasata,  33 
pancasila,  48 
pannatti,  14,  27 
paiina,  1,  26  ;    -sampada,  29 

Index  to  Pali  Text 


patipatti,  55 

pativedha,  26,  27 

patividdhakuppa,  28 

patisanthara,  41 

patisambhida,  1,  4,  27,  29,  38-40,  42, 

52  ;    -ppatta,  42  ;    pabhinna-pati- 

sambhida,  40,  62 
pathavi,  51,  52,  83,  84  ;  -kampa,  84  ; 

-kampana,     60 ;      padesapathavi- 

kampana,  60 
pandaranga,  46 
pandita,  63 
panna,  49  ;  -akara,  78 
pannasaka,  33 
patta,  48,  83,  88  ;    -civara,  8,  9,  12, 

43,  47,  56,  87 
padakkhina,  43,  98 
padabhajaniya,  32 
padhana,  1 1  ;  -ghara,  56 
pabbajati,  39,  51,  54,  56,  65-72,  81. 

86,  94-6,  103,  105 
pabbajja,   42,   43,  48,   51,   54,    107  ; 

-apekkha,  81  ;   -purekkhara,  96 
pabbajita,  41 

pabbajeti,  42,  43,  51,  52,  86,  95,  96 
pamadalekha,  1 
par'attha,  22 
parappavada,  62 
paramatthadesana,  25 
parikamma,  43 
parikkhara,  38 
pariccaga,  50,  51 
parinfiatakkhandha,  28 
parinibbana,  3,  7,  8,  9,  19,  44,  76,  97, 

107 ;     -nibbayati,    53,    76,     106 ; 

nibbuta,  3,  9,  35,  38,  40,  76,  87,  93, 

paripunnagabbha,  47 
paribbajaka,  46,  48 
pariyatti,  4,  13,  24,  28,  29  ;    -bheda, 

pariyutthana,  26 
parivena,  9,  43,  105 
pallanka,  42,  45,  48,  53,  65  ;    raja- 

pallanka,  48 
pavarana,  54,  55  ;  -divasa,  99,  106 
pavareti,  87 
pasannacitta,  83 
pasada,  pothujjanika,  48 
pasarana,  48 
passaddhi,  107 
paharanavutthi,  65 
pahana,  24,  26,  27 
pahinakilesa,  28 
pacittiya,  14 
patidesaniya,  14 
patipadadivasa,  19,  99,  101,  102 

patihariya,   50,   60,   61,   93,   94,   98, 

99,    103,    106;     see    yamakapati- 

patihira,  98 
panatipata,  72 
papa,  57,  61 
pamokkha,  52 

pamujja,  56,  107  ;  pamojja,  51 
parajika,  14,  21,  34 
pali,  13,  26,  107  ;   -nayanurupa,  1 
pavacana, 3 
pasanda,    46 ;     bahira-,    46 ;     brah- 

manajatiya-,  46 
pasanathambha,  105 
pitaka,  16,  20-9,  33,  38,  63 
pisaca,  72 
piti,  48,  89,  98,  107  ;  -pamojja,  50, 89, 

puggala,  14,  15,  34 
punna,  1 1 ;  -anubhava ;  see  anubhava  ; 

katapunfia,  48. 
puthujjana,  4,  36,  37 
pupphagghiya,  102 
pubbacariya,  1 
pujasamaya,  65 
pema,  48 

peyyalasangaha,  33 
pokkharani,  53,  56 
pokkharavassa,  89 
porana,  63,  74,  75 


phassa,  23 

phasuka,  19 

phasuvihara,  55 

phala,  pathama-,  65  ;    magga-,   69, 

70,  71  ;  sotapatti-,  43,  83  ;   (maha- 

bodhissa),  99,  103 


bandhana,  65,  QQ 

bahussuta,  54,  63 

Buddha,  see  Proper  Names  ;  -anu- 
bhava, 91  ;  -kicca,  3  ;  -cakkhu, 
75,  90-2  ;  -dhamma,  93  ;  -manta, 
42  ;  -vacana,  15,  16,  18,  19,  29-33, 
39-41,43,82;  -vesa,  97  ;  -sasana, 
13,  39,  46,  48,  50,  87,  98;  see 
sambuddha  and  sammasambuddha 

Buddha,  purimaka  tayo,  93  ;  see 

bubbulaka,  98 

Bodhi,  see  Proper  Names 


Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddnam 

Brahma,  see  Proper  Names  ;  -kayika 
deva.  98  ;  -loka,  39.  41,  42.  51,  82. 
99,  102  ;  -vimana,  10 

brahmana,  41-3,  46,  48  ;  -kula,  100  ; 
-bhatta,  46 

Bhagava.   see   Proper   Names ;     s.v. 

Exalted  One 
bhndagarikapariyatti,  28 
bhandukasavavasana.  65,  77 
bhatta,  81,  97;    -kicca,  41,  48,  83, 

97  ;    -vissagga,  41  ;    dhuvabhatta, 

bhadra,  61 
bhaya  (agati),  5 
bhayabherava,  61 
bhavabhava,  1 
bhavitamagga,  28 
bhasantara,  1 
bhimsanaka,  65 
bhikkha,  74 
bhikkhacaravatta,  53 
bhikkhu,  1,  4-10,  13-15,  38.  40.  48. 

50.  54.  56,  57,  59,  61,  62,  64,  65, 

72,    75,    78,    79,    90-2,    94,    97; 

-sangha,  7,  8,   10,   11.   15.  38.  44. 

48.  49-51,  53,  55,  62,  73,  84,  90. 

97.  98 
bhummatthaka  deva,  98 
bhumicala,  see  mahabhumicala 


magga,  -kovida,  63  ;    -phala,  69-72  ; 

see  also  bhavitamagga 
mangalahatthi.  83.  87-9 
maccu,  48 
majjapana.  72 
mianithupa,  88 
mandapa,  10,  83,  105 
mandala,  Mahisaka-,  64,  66 
madhurapamsu,  103 
manussavasa,  76 
manta,  39,  42 
mantana.  107 
marana.  paricchinna-,  56  ;  assasapas- 

sasupanibaddha-,  56 
mala,  1,  55 
mahakathi,  63 
mahathera.  atthasatthi.  106 
mahanaga.  74,  88 
mahapafina.  63 
mahapathavi.  103.  104,  106  ;    maha- 

puthuvi,  99 
mahaparinibbanamafica,  97 
mahapurisalakkhana,  45 

Mahabodhi,  see  Proper  Names,  s.v. 
Bodhi  ff.  ;  -gahana,  97  ;  -tthana, 
99,  103  ;  -patitthapana,  97  ;  -patit- 
thitatthana,  94  ;  -patihariya,  103  ; 
-pQja,  99 ;  -manda.  100 ;  -rak- 
khana.  100  ;  -rukkhatthana.  93  ; 
tarunamahabodhi,  99 

mahabhumicala.  89.  94,  104 

mahavivada.  92 

mahavira  (dhatu).  89 

mahasamana.  3 

matika.  2,  21,32,  34,  107 

matugama,  95.  103 

matulabhagineyya  (nagarajano),  94 

manavaka,  15,  42 

masaka,  38 

migava,  56,  77 

micchaditthita,  29 

mundaka,  65 

mundeti,  54 

mutta  (attha),  78 

metta,  23,  65 

methunadhamma,  14 

medhavi.  63 

moha  (agati).  5 

yakkha.  17.  45.  65.  94,  99  ;  -damana, 

94  ;  -sena.  71  ;  yakkhini,  65 
yathadhammanusasana,  25 
yathanulomasasana,  25 
yathaparadhasasana,  25 
yathabuddham,  12 
yathabhutananadassana,  107 
yamakapatihariya.  93.  97 
yava  ajjatana.  63.  65.  106 
yuvaraja.  56 
yojana.  44,  60,  88,  98,  101 


ramsi,  chabbanna-,  97,  99,  102,  103 

sarasa-,  101,  i02 
rakkhasa,  65,  72  ;  rakkhasl.  72 
rakkha.  94 
rajjasampadana.  100 
ratanattaya.  1,  74 
rasa,  16,  17.  33 
rajakakudhabhnda.  78 
rajavamsa,  76 
rajavatthu,  102 
rupa,  61  ;  -uppatti,  23 
rohitamiga,  77 

lajjikukkuccaka,  107 
laddhi,  62  ;  -ika,  62 

Index  to  Pali  Text 


labhasakkara,  39,  54 
lena,  86 

loka,    -natha,    50 ;     -vivarana,    50 
lokuttara  dhamma,  23,  48 

vagga,  30,  33 
vacikamma,  21,  106 
vajja-vajja,  48 

vaddhamanakacchaya,  88,  102 
vatta,   8  ;     -anuvattapatipatti,    107  ; 

see  also  bhikkhacaravatta 
vatthu  (Vinaya),  14,  15,  32,  34,  38 
vatthu  (general),  61,  78 
vatthu  (site),  93,  102 
vanacara,  56 
vayadhamma,  19 
vassa,    6,    86,    87 ;     -upanayika,    8 ; 

-upanayikakala,  85  ;    -upanayikat- 

thana,  85  ;  avassika,  43 
vaha,  44 

vikkhittacitta,  48 
vighata,  29 

vijitavi,  63 

vijja,  1,29 

vifinatasasana,  81 

vitakka,  56 

vittharamagga,  1 

vinaya,  1-6,  9.  13-15,  18,  20,  23,  24, 
29,  32-8,  52,  54,  55,  62,  63.  105-7  ; 
-iifiu,  63  ;  -tanti,  36  ;  -dhara,  13, 
107  ;  -dhare  anisamsa,  107  ;  -ni- 
dana,  106  ;  -patitihapana,  107  ; 
pariyatti,  13,  107  ;  -pariyattiya 
anisamso,  107  ;  -paveni,  36  ;  -vam- 
sa,  36  ;  -vadi,  4  ;  -sangaha,  14  ; 
-sangiti,  38  ;  vinaye  visarada,  63  ; 
avinaya,  avinayavadi,  4  ;  see  also 
Vinayapitaka,  Proper  Names. 

vinicchaya,  1 

vipatti,  24,  28,  29 

vippatipanna,  56,  57 

vipphandita,  106 

vibhajjavada,  62 

vimutti,  1,  107;  -rasa,  17;  -nanadas- 
sana,  107 

viraga,  107 

viriya,  11 

vivada,  92 

visankharagata,  19 

visarada,  63 

visesa,  11 

vihara,  8-11,  48-51,  54-7,  61,  67,  74  ; 
-tthana,  84  ;  -maha,  49,  50 

vijani,  10,  13-15 
vihirasisadisa,  93 
venuyatthi,  78 
Veda,  42 
vedalla,  the  anga,  28,  31 
veyyakarana,  the  anga,  23,  31 
vohara,  49  ;  -desana,  49 

samvannana,  1,  2 

samvara,    25,    107 ;     -mulaka,    107 ; 

samvara-samvarakatha,  25 
samsara,  19 
sakadagami,  4,  36,  37 
sakaraniya,  5,  11 
sankaravirahita,  23 
sankhara,  19 
sangaha,  14,  20.  30,  33,  35,  38,  40, 

63  ;    tatiya-,  63,  106 
sangayana,  3 
sangiti,  5,  33,  38,  52,  62;    tatiya-, 

35,    37,    62-4  ;     dutiya-,    38,    39 ; 

pathama-,  20 
sahgha,  1-6,  13,  15,  38,  49,  52,  54, 

62,  78,  97,  98,  104  ;    -kamma,  54  ; 

-tthera,  3,  74  ;    -majjha,  107  ;    see 

also    ariyasangha     and    bhikkhu- 

sanghadisesa,  14 
saccakiriya,  98  ;    saccavacanakiriya, 

sacchikatanirodha,  28 
safinivada,  62 
sattha,  3,  4,  7-9,  48,  106 
satthusasana,  55  ;    see  also  navanga- 

satthusasana,  sasana  and  Buddha- 

saddhamma,     1,    3,    38,    40,     107; 

vamsakovida,     63 ;      -varacakka- 

vatti,  45 
saddha,  78 

saddhiviharika,  36-8,  64 
sannipata,  11  ;  -tthana,  104 
sannivasa,  48 
sabbaniiubhava,  19 
sabha,  adhikarana,  54 
samana,  42,  56,  72,  77,  78  ;    -naga, 

59  ;   -brahmana,  46 
samaya,  62 
samadhi,  1,  26,  29,  107  ;    -sampada, 

samapatti,  102 
sambuddha,  1,  76 
sampatti,  24,  28,  29 


Samantapdsddikdya  Bdhiraniddnam 

sammasambuddha,  13,  45,  62,  75, 
76,  87,  89,  94,  102  ;  purimaka  tayo 
sammasambuddha,  90,  92,  95,  102 

sammasambodhi,  17 

sammifijana,  48 

sarana,  48,  65,  72,  78,  81,  82,  87 

sassa,  -ghata,  -paka,  65 

sassatavada,  62 

sanipakara,  62 

sadhukilana,  7 

samanera,  43,  47,  48,  73,  74,  82,  87-9 

samicikamma,  87 

sariradhatu,  87,  94 

savaka,  13,  77-9,  90,  106 

sasana  (the  Dispensation),  1,  3,  11, 
13,  25,  30,  33,  38-40,  43,  48,  50,  51. 
54,  56,  58,  60-4,  67-73,  78,  81, 
84,  94,  105,  107;  -pavatti,  79; 
-mala,  62  ;  sasanassa  dayada,  50, 
51  ;  sasanassa  mulani,  105  ;  see 
also  Buddhasasana  and  Satthu- 

sasana  (admonition),  24,  27 

sasana  (message),  58,  83,  95,  96,  101 

sikkha,  1,  24,  26,  27;  kama,  107; 
adhicitta-,  adhipanfia-,  adhisila-, 

sihgilonakappa,  38 

sivika,  58,  78 

sima,  38,  52 

sila,  1,  48,  65,  72,  95;  -anga,  49; 
-kkhandha,  28,  83,  107  ;  -vanta, 
72  ;  -sampatti,  29 

sQiapafijara,  46-8 

sukkhavipassaka,  4 

sukha,  107 

sutta,  the  anga,  5,  28,  31 

sutta,  1,  20,  22,  24,  28-33,  65,  66,  81  ; 
-nta,  30,  31,  82  ;  -ntika,  1  ;  see  also 
Suttapitaka,  Proper  Names. 

supanna,  82,  101 

supina,  59  ;   -ajjhayaka,  59 

suppatipanna,  29 

subhikkha,  91 

suvannakataha,  97-9,  103 

suvannabhinkara,  84 

sekha,  5,  11;  -patisambhida,  5; 
sekha  dhamma,  23 

sekhiya,  14 

setakani  vatthani,  62 

setacchatta,  45,  48,  87-9,  103 

senasana,  6 

sotapattiphala,  43,  83 

sotapanna,  4,  36,  37 

solasaj  atisampannakula ,  1 02 


hatthikumbha,  89,  93 
hatthinaga,  56,  59,  89,  93 
hatthisala,  83,  93 
himagabbha,  103  ;   -sattaha,  99 
himavalahaka,  99  ;   -gabbha,  97,  99 
hetu,  27  ;  -phala,  27 


Sacred  books  of  the  Buddhists